Ivo Andrić

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ivo Andrić
S. Kragujevic, Ivo Andric, 1961.jpg
Ivo Andrić, 1961
Born Ivo Andrić
(1892-10-09)9 October 1892
Travnik, Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary
Died 13 March 1975(1975-03-13) (aged 82)
Belgrade, SR Serbia, SFR Yugoslavia
Resting place New Cemetery
Residence Belgrade (since 1919)
Nationality Yugoslavia
Occupation Novelist, short story writer, diplomat
Awards Nobel Prize in Literature (1961)

Ivan "Ivo" Andrić (Serbian Cyrillic: Иван "Иво" Андрић, pronounced [ǐʋan ǐːʋɔ ǎːndritɕ]) (9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, short story writer, and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1961). His writings dealt mainly with life in his native Bosnia during the Ottoman rule.

Born in Travnik in central Bosnia, Andrić attended gymnasium in Sarajevo. He was politically active in the pro-Yugoslav youth organizations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, for which he was arrested and held prisoner by Austro-Hungarian authorities during World War I. After the war, he studied philosophy and history at universities in Zagreb, Vienna, Kraków and Graz. After education, he moved to Belgrade and entered a career of a civil servant and a diplomat of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, serving in embassies and consulates across Europe. In 1939 he was appointed an ambassador in Germany, and his tenure ended in 1941 with the German invasion of Yugoslavia. During World War II, he lived quietly in Belgrade writing some of his most important works. Andrić held a number of ceremonial posts in the new Communist government of Yugoslavia. In 1961, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country". He died in Belgrade in 1975.


Early life[edit]

Ivan Andrić was born on 9 October 1892, to a Bosnian Croat family[dubious ] in Dolac, a small town near Travnik, in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina of Austria-Hungary. He was born as Ivan, but became known by the diminutive Ivo. When Andrić was two years old, his father Antun died. Because his mother Katarina was too poor to support him, he was raised by his mother's family in the town of Višegrad on the river Drina in eastern Bosnia, where he saw the 16th-century Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge, later made famous in his novel The Bridge on the Drina (Na Drini ćuprija).[1]

Education years[edit]

Andrić attended the Jesuit gymnasium in Travnik, followed by Sarajevo's gymnasium and later he studied philosophy and history at the Universities of Zagreb (1912 and 1918), Vienna (1913), Kraków (1914), and Graz (PhD, 1924).[2] While at Sarajevo, in 1911, he joined the Serb and Progressive Croat Youth (Српска и напредна хрватска средњошколска омладина у Сарајеву)[3] of the Young Bosnia movement.[4] He was arrested in Dalmatia during that period of Austro-Hungarian government's arrests of Serb and Croat Yugoslavists.[5] Because of his political activities, Andrić was imprisoned by the Austrian government during World War I (first in Maribor and later in the Doboj detention camp) alongside other pro-Yugoslav civilians.

Andrić started his literary career as a poet. In 1914 he was one of the contributors to Young Croatian Lyrics (Hrvatska mlada lirika).[6]

After his education, he moved to Belgrade, the capital of the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

Diplomat years[edit]

Under the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia) Andrić became a civil servant, first in the Ministry of Faiths and then the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where he pursued a successful diplomatic career reaching as high as Deputy Foreign Minister.

During his diplomatic service, he worked in embassy at Holy See (1920), consulates in Bucharest, Trieste and Graz (1924), consulates in Paris and Marseilles (1927), and embassy in Madrid (1928). In 1939 he was appointed ambassador in Germany. He was also a delegate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia at the 19th, 21st, 23rd and 24th sessions of the League of Nations in Geneva in the period 1930–1934.[7] Andrić greatly opposed the movement of Stjepan Radić, the president of the Croatian Peasant Party. His ambassadorship ended in 1941 after the German invasion of Yugoslavia. During World War II, Andrić lived quietly in Belgrade, completing three of his most famous novels which were published in 1945 after the war, Bosnian Chronicle, The Woman from Sarajevo, and hist most acclaimed work The Bridge on the Drina.

Especially Bosnian Chronicle and The Bridge on the Drina made a literary sensation in Yugoslavia. Both historical novels are some of the best Yugoslav literary works.[8] The Bridge on the Drina was the first publication of Prosveta.[8]

Socialist Yugoslavia, Nobel Prize and last years[edit]

After the war, Andrić spent most of his time in his home in Belgrade and held a number of ceremonial posts in the new Communist government of Yugoslavia, and was also a member of the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1961, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country". He donated all of the prize money for the improvement of libraries in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He was member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.[9]

Following the death of his second wife, Milica Babić, in 1968, he began reducing his public activities. In 1969 he was elected an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina[10] and in 1972 the University of Belgrade awarded him an honorary doctorate.[11] As time went by, he grew increasingly ill and eventually died on 13 March 1975, in Belgrade, SR Serbia, SFR Yugoslavia.

He was buried in the Belgrade New Cemetery, in the Alley of Distinguished Citizens.[12]

Works[edit]

Ivo Andrić monument in Belgrade, Serbia

The material of Andrić's works was mainly drawn from the history, folklore, and culture of his native Bosnia.

Three of his most important works were written during World War II while Andrić was living quietly in Belgrade and all released in 1945. They are often referred to as the "Bosnian trilogy" as they had been written in the same period were and released simultaneously. However, they are connected only thematically—they are indeed three completely different works.

  • The Bridge on the Drina (Na Drini ćuprija) is a chronicle of Bosnian town of Višegrad spanning four centuries (from the 16th to 20th), revolving around the famous Višegrad bridge.[13]
  • Bosnian Chronicle: The Days of the Consuls (Travnička hronika) portrays the events from 1807 to 1814, when the ethnically and religiously divided local community of Travnik unites in contempt against the joint rule of French and Austrian Consuls and Turkish Visiers in the remote Ottoman outpost of Travnik (Andrić's birthtown). [14]
  • The Woman from Sarajevo (Gospođica) [15]

Some of his other major works include:

  • Ex Ponto[16] (1918)
  • Unrest[16] (Nemiri, 1920)
  • The Journey of Alija Đerzelez[17] (Put Alije Đerzeleza, 1920)
  • The Vizier's Elephant[18] (Priča o vezirovom slonu, 1948; trans. 1962)
  • The Damned Yard[19] (Prokleta avlija, 1954)
  • Omer-Pasha Latas[20] (Omerpaša Latas, released posthumously in 1976)

His manuscripts and literary legacy are in the custody of the foundation he founded (Fondacija Ive Andrića) and Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.[21] Some of his manuscripts and literary legacy are in custody of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Institute for the History of Croatian Literature, Theater and Music in Zagreb.[22]

Some claim that the works of Andrić, particularly his thesis The Development of Spiritual Life in Bosnia under the Influence of Turkish Rule have resurfaced as a source of anti-Muslim prejudice in Serbian cultural discourse.[23]

It has been noted that the English translations of his works have had flaws.[24]

Legacy[edit]

Records of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, show that Andrić enrolled there as a Croat in 1914.
In his Yugoslav identity card issued in June 1951, Andrić declared himself a Serb.

Because of Andrić's circumstances, being an ethnic Croat born in Bosnia and Herzegovina, later living and working in Serbia, and espousing a Serb identity,[25] he is claimed as part of Serbian literature,[26][27] Croatian literature and Bosnian literature. Throughout his life, he worked in all three countries and contributed material to their various publications. In terms of what language or dialect he wrote in, he wrote in Serbo-Croatian, which was officially considered one language in Yugoslavia; he had been a believer in Yugoslav unity and Pan-Slavism. However, it must be mentioned that Serbo-Croatian used to have two different subtypes – the Eastern standardization spread in Montenegro, Serbia and partly in Bosnia and Herzegovina), and Western standardization that is common in Croatia and partly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Andrić first used its Bosnian-Croatian form (Ijekavian accent of the Shtokavian dialect) and later its Serbian form (Ekavian accent of Shtokavian dialect).[28] Andrić wrote in the Ijekavian form only in his youth, and as a mature writer wrote and published exclusively in Ekavian, even when depicting[clarification needed] characters who live in Bosnia and who are quoted as speaking Ijekavian accent in the dialogues, that stand out in otherwise Ekavian text.[citation needed]

Ivo Andrić's grave in Belgrade, Serbia.

He is considered a representative of Bosnian literature,[29] however, Bosniak nationalists view him as a slanderer, whose work is "racist" and "Great Serbian historiography".[30] His doctoral thesis was on the cultural history of Ottoman Bosnia titled The Development of Spiritual Life in Bosnia under the Influence of Turkish Rule, critical of Ottoman rule, an example of one of his many writings dealing with Bosnia.[citation needed]

In 1969, he was described in Croatia as a "Yugoslav writer of the Serb group" (or "line").[31] Although adopted into the Serbian literary canon (as opposing Croatian Miroslav Krleža), he was an ethnic Croat.[32] Bosnian Croat novelist Ivan Lovrenović noted that Andrić was abandoned by Croatian literary history and politics.[32]

For the Serbs, he was "one of the greatest non-Serb-born Serbs".[33] Andrić self-declared as a Serb in his identity papers,[34] and when he married Milica Babić in 1958 in Belgrade.[35] He was a member of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts,[36] and was included in its The 100 most prominent Serbs.

A house in Travnik, which resembles his original house in Dolac, has been transformed into a museum, and his Belgrade flat on Andrićev Venac ("Andrić's Wreath") hosts the Museum of Ivo Andrić, and Ivo Andrić Foundation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ivo Andric The Bridge on the Drina The University of Chicago Press, 1977, Introduction by William H. McNeil, p 3
  2. ^ Hawkesworth 2000, p. 14.
  3. ^ Dragoslav Ljubibratić (1959). Gavrilo Princip. Nolit. p. 130. 
  4. ^ Parežanin 1974, p. 35.
  5. ^ Dragoslav Srejović; Slavko Gavrilović; Sima M. Ćirković (1983). Istorija srpskog naroda: knj. Od Berlinskog kongresa do ujedinjenja, 1878-1918 (2 v.). Srpska književna zadruga. p. 43. 
  6. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961". Nobel Prize. 
  7. ^ List of Assembly Delegates and Substitutes –(A) from League of Nations Photo Archive at the University of Indiana
  8. ^ a b William Thomas Hobdell Jackson; George Stade (1983). European Writers 1–2. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 1759. ISBN 978-0-684-16594-3. 
  9. ^ "Adresar". SANU. 
  10. ^ "Honorary members". Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine. 
  11. ^ "počasni doktori". Univerzitet u Beogradu. 
  12. ^ Ivo Andrić, Novo Groblje
  13. ^ "The Bridge on the Drinae". Belgrade: The Ivo Andrić Foundation. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  14. ^ "Bosnian Chronicle". Belgrade: The Ivo Andrić Foundation. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  15. ^ "The Woman from Sarajevo". Belgrade: The Ivo Andrić Foundation. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b "Lyricists". Ivoandric.org.rs. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  17. ^ "The Journey of Ali Djerzelez". Ivoandric.org.rs. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Andric's Treasury II". Ivoandric.org.rs. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  19. ^ "The Damned Yard". Ivoandric.org.rs. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Omer Pasha Latas". Ivoandric.org.rs. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  21. ^ Ivo Andrić Foundation,Work
  22. ^ Sapunar, Andrea (2001). "Popis rukopisnih ostavština u Arhivu Odsjeka". In Sabljak, Tomislav; Hećimović, Branko; Katalinić, Vjera; Matičević, Ivica. Vodič Zavoda za povijest hrvatske književnosti, kazališta i glazbe Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. pp. 111.–120. 
  23. ^ Ammiel Alcalay, Memories of Our Future: Selected Essays 1982–1999 (City Lights Books, 1999: ISBN 0-87286-360-3), p. 233.
  24. ^ O. Classe (January 2000). Encyclopedia of Literary Translation Into English: A-L. Taylor & Francis. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-1-884964-36-7. 
  25. ^ "Ivo Andrić potvrdio da je Srbin". Novosti. 
  26. ^ Enes Cengic, Krleža post mortem I-III. Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1990. 2. part, pages 171–172 – here Andrić refuses to be listed as a Croat
  27. ^ Borislav Mihajlović-Mihiz (2003) [1995]. Autobiografija - o drugima, Druga knjiga. Solaris. p. 137. ISBN 978-86-7560-015-2. 
  28. ^ Radovan Popović (1989). Ivo Andrić: a writer's life. Zadužbina Ive Andrića. p. 36. 
  29. ^ Wayne S. Vucinich (1995). Ivo Andrić revisited: the bridge still stands. International and Area Studies. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-87725-192-7. 
  30. ^ Cornis-Pope & Neubauer 2004, p. 210.
  31. ^ 100 Djela književnosti jugoslavenskih naroda. Zagreb: Stvarnost. 1969. pp. 281. »Ivo Andrić je Jugoslavenski književnik iz reda srpskog naroda.«
  32. ^ a b Ammiel Alcalay (1 December 1999). Memories of Our Future: Selected Essays 1982-1999. City Lights Books. pp. 233–. ISBN 978-0-87286-360-6. 
  33. ^ Cornis-Pope & Neubauer 2004, p. 209.
  34. ^ "Ivo Andrić je bio Srbin!". Telegraf. 
  35. ^ Popović 2009, p. 240.
  36. ^ Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti (1966). Glasnik. p. 60. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]