Iwakitaira Domain (磐城平藩 Iwakitaira-han?) was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan., based at Iwakitaira Castle in southern Mutsu Province in what is now part of modern-day Iwaki, Fukushima. Its southern neighbor was the Mito Domain which was ruled by the Mito Tokugawa clan, it played the same role of the Iwakitaira Domain is guarding against the powerful Date clan of Sendai Domain. Its northern neighbor was the Nakamura Domain which was ruled by the Sōma clan. The han school was the Shiseidō (施政堂), founded by the Andō clan. The most famous culture created in the Iwakitaira Domain is the Jangara Nembutsu dance.
The southern Hamadōri region of ancient Iwaki Province was ruled by the Iwaki clan from the Heian period through the end of the Sengoku period. However, the clan sided with the western alliance loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori during the Battle of Sekigahara and was dispossessed by Tokugawa Ieyasu, who banished the clan to the minor Kameda Domain in what is now Yurihonjō, Akita. The four districts forming the former territory of the Iwaki clan was given in 1600 as a 100,000 koku domain to Torii Tadamasa, a childhood friend of Ieyasu. Tadamasa changed the kanji of "Iwa" from "岩" to "磐", as he did not feel it was appropriate to continue using the same kanji as the clan which had opposed Ieyasu. Tadamasa constructed a new castle, and laid out a new castle town before being transferred to Yamagata Domain in 1622.
Iwakitaira Domain was assigned to Naito Masanaga. However, Masanaga transferred 20,000 koku domain to his eldest son, Naitō Tadaoki and another 10,000 koku to Hijikata Katsushige who respectively Izumi Domain and Kubota Domain, leaving Iwakitaira with 70,000 koku. Under early Naitō rule, the domain implemented numerous fiscal reforms, developed large amounts of new rice lands, and constructed massive irrigation works. However, this prosperity did not last long, as later Naitō rulers were very young and often dissolute, preferring to leave government matters in the hands of subordinates, who often formed rival cliques, leading to oiesodo. A series of crop failures caused by implement weather led to a peasant revolt in 1738, at which point the Tokugawa shogunate stepped in, and transferred the Naitō to Nobeoka Domain in distant Kyushu. Iwakitaira Domain was then assigned to Inoue Masatsune, with much reduced revenues of 37,000 koku. This was a significant demotion for Inoue, and history has little to stay of his ten-year tenure at Iwakitaira.
In 1756, Andō Nobunari, formerly of Kanō Domain in Mino Province was assigned to Iwakitaira. The revenues of the domain were set at 50,000 koku, which was a significant demotion from the 65,000 koku he enjoyed at Kanō Domain. However, after serving as Jisha-bugyō wakadoshiyori and from 1783 as rōjū, his revenues were supplemented with an additional 17,000 koku from his former holdings in Mino. The Andō clan continued to rule Iwakitaira domain through the remainder of the Edo period.
The 5th Andō daimyo, Andō Nobumasa was active as rōjū in the wake of Ii Naosuke's assassination. Andō himself was also the target of an assassination attempt in 1862, which is remembered as the Sakashitamon Incident. Although forced to retire with a reduction to 40,000 koku (and subsequently to 30,000 koku) because of this incident, in 1868, during the Boshin War, Nobumasa took charge of the governance of Iwakidaira, and led its forces as part of the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei. During the Battle of Iwaki, Iwakitaira Castle was destroyed by the pro-imperial Satchō Alliance forces.
The final daimyo of Iwakitaira, Andō Nobutake, surrendered to the Meiji government in March 1868, even before the Battle of Iwaki, and had been confirmed in his titles in April. However, in December he was told that he would not be allowed to return to Iwakitaira, but would be given a new 34,000 koku domain in Iwai District, Rikuchu Province. Nobutake protested the decision, and after paying a 70,000 Ryō fine on August 3, 1869, was permitted to return to Iwakitaira. He remained a domain governor until the abolition of the han system in July 1871.
Holdings at the end of the Edo period
As with most domains in the han system, Iwakitaira Domain consisted of several discontinuous territories calculated to provide the assigned kokudaka, based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields.
- Mutsu Province (Iwaki)
- 9 villages in Kikuta District
- 12 villages in Iwaki District
- 42 villages in Iwasaki District
- Mino Province
- 11 villages in Atsumi District
- 2 villages in Haguri District
- 6 villages in Motosu District
- 11 villages in Katagata District
List of daimyo
# Name Tenure Courtesy title Court Rank revenues 1 Torii Tadamasa ( 鳥居忠政?) 1602–1622 Sakyo-no-suke (左京亮) Lower 4th (従四位下) 120,000 koku
# Name Tenure Courtesy title Court Rank revenues 1 Naitō Masanaga ( 内藤政長?) 1622–1634 Sama-no-suke (左馬助) Lower 4th (従四位下) 70,000 koku 2 Naitō Tadaoki ( 内藤忠興?) 1634–1670 Tatewaki (帯刀) Lower 4th (従四位下) 70,000 koku 3 Naitō Yoshimune ( 内藤義概?) 1670–1685 Sakyo-daiyu (左京大夫) Lower 4th (従四位下) 70,000 koku 4 Naitō Yoshitaka ( 内藤義孝?) 1685–1712 Noto-no-kami Lower 5th (従五位下) 70,000 koku 5 Naitō Yoshishige ( 内藤義稠?) 1712–1718 Sakyo-no-suke (左京亮) Lower 5th (従五位下) 70,000 koku 6 Naitō Masagi ( 内藤政樹?) 1718–1747 Bungo-no-kami Lower 5th (従五位下) 70,000 koku
- Inoue clan, 1747-1758 (fudai)
# Name Tenure Courtesy title Court Rank revenues 1 Inoue Masatsune ( 井上正経?) 1747–1758 Kawachi-no-kami; Jiju Lower 4th (従四位下) 37,000 koku
# Name Tenure Courtesy title Court Rank revenues 1 Andō Nobunari ( 安藤信成?) 1756–1810 Tsushima-no-kami; Jiju Lower 4th (従四位下) 50,000 --> 67,000 koku 2 Andō Nobukiyo (安藤信馨?) 1810–1812 Tsushima-no-kami Lower 4th (従四位下) 67,000 koku 3 Andō Nobuyoshi (安藤信義?) 1812–1829 Tsushima-no-kami Lower 4th (従四位下) 67,000 koku 4 Andō Nobuyori (安藤信由?) 1829–1847 Tsushima-no-kami Lower 4th (従四位下) 67,000 koku 5 Andō Nobumasa (安藤信正?) 1847–1862 Tsushima-no-kami Lower 4th (従四位下) 67,000 -->30,000 koku 6 Andō Nobutami ( 安藤信民?) 1862–1863 -none- -none- 30,000 koku 7 Andō Nobutake ( 安藤信勇?) 1863–1871 Tsushima-no-kami Lower 5th (従五位下) 30,000 koku
- Harootunian, Harry D. (1970). Toward Restoration: The Growth of Political Consciousness in Tokugawa Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520015661, ISBN 9780520074033. OCLC 76627.
- "Izumi" at Edo 300 (Japanese)
- Jansen, Marius B. (1994). Sakamoto Ryōma and the Meiji Restoration, p. 401.
- Harootunian, Toward Restoration, p. 276.
- Mass, Jeffrey P. and William B. Hauser. (1987). The Bakufu in Japanese History, p. 150.
- Elison, George and Bardwell L. Smith (1987). Warlords, Artists, & Commoners: Japan in the Sixteenth Century, p. 18.
- Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph. (1906). Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie du Japon; Papinot, (2003).