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Temporal range: Cenomanian–present
Ixodes ricinus, engorged
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Ixodida
Family: Ixodidae
Genus: Ixodes
Latreille, 1795 [1]
Type species
Acarus ricinus
Ixodes hexagonus
Ixodes pacificus
Ixodes ricinus
Ixodes scapularis
Ixodes uriae

Ixodes is a genus of hard-bodied ticks (family Ixodidae). It includes important disease vectors of animals and humans (tick-borne disease), and some species (notably Ixodes holocyclus) inject toxins that can cause paralysis. Some ticks in this genus may transmit the pathogenic bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi[3] responsible for causing Lyme disease. Additional organisms that may be transmitted by Ixodes are parasites from the genus Babesia, which cause babesiosis, and bacteria from the related genus Anaplasma, which cause anaplasmosis.



These species are recognised within the genus Ixodes:[4]


  1. ^ Valeria Castilho Onofrio; Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti; Marcelo Bahia Labruna; João Luiz Horácio Faccini (2009). "Diagnoses of and illustrated key to the species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) from Brazil". Systematic Parasitology. 72 (2): 143–157. doi:10.1007/s11230-008-9169-z. PMID 19115087. S2CID 19483827.
  2. ^ Deane Philip Furman; Edmond C. Loomis (1984). "Genus Ixodes Latreille". The Ticks of California (Acari: Ixodida). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey. Vol. 25. University of California Press. pp. 47–77. ISBN 978-0-520-09685-1.
  3. ^ Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. (2007). Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 334. ISBN 978-0-7817-8215-9.
  4. ^ Jim Amrine. "Ixodidae C.L.Koch, 1844". Catalog of the Acari. Texas A&M University. Archived from the original on 2004-03-14. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d e Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Schenk, John J. (2020). "Description of five new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) and redescription of I. luxuriosus Schulze, 1935, I. steini Schulze, 1935 and I. zaglossi Kohls, 1960, parasites of marsupials, rodents and echidnas in New Guinea Island". Systematic Parasitology. 97 (3): 223–266. doi:10.1007/s11230-020-09909-5. PMID 32328810. S2CID 216085891.
  6. ^ "Ixodes affinis Neumann, 1899". www.gbif.org.
  7. ^ Kohls, GM (April 1966). "A new sea bird tick, Ixodes amersoni, from Phoenix Island (Acarina: Ixodidae)". Journal of Medical Entomology. 3 (1): 38–40. doi:10.1093/jmedent/3.1.38. PMID 5941563.
  8. ^ "Ixodes arboricola Schulze & Schlottke, 1930". www.gbif.org.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Arthur, Don Ramsay (1958). "New species of Ixodes ticks from eastern Africa, with a description of the male and nymph of Ixodes oldi Nuttall, 1913". Parasitology. 48 (1–2): 38–69. doi:10.1017/S0031182000021053.
  10. ^ Barker, Dayana (2019). "Ixodes barkeri n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) from the short-beaked echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus, with a revised key to the male Ixodes of Australia, and list of the subgenera and species of Ixodes known to occur in Australia". Zootaxa. 4658 (2): 331–342. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4658.2.7. PMID 31716747. S2CID 202031409.
  11. ^ a b c d Keirans, James E.; Lacombe, Eleanor H. (1998). "First Records of Amblyomma americanum, Ixodes (Ixodes) dentatus, and Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae (Acari: Ixodidae) from Maine". The Journal of Parasitology. 84 (3). [The American Society of Parasitologists, Allen Press]: 629–631. JSTOR 3284739. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
  12. ^ Contini, C.; Palmas, C.; Seu, V.; Stancampiano, L.; Usai, F. (2011). "Redescription of the male of Ixodes festai Rondelli, 1926 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) on specimens from Sardinia (Italy)". Parasite. 18 (3): 235–240. doi:10.1051/parasite/2011183235. PMC 3671470. PMID 21894264. Open access icon
  13. ^ Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Lemon, Howard E. (2018). "Description of a new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) and redescription of I. priscicollaris Schulze, 1932, parasites of New Guinea rodents (Rodentia: Muridae)". Systematic Parasitology. 95 (4): 373–382. doi:10.1007/s11230-018-9786-0. PMID 29536248. S2CID 4504691. Ixodes goliath n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), is described based on females collected from the eastern hyomys, Hyomys goliath (Milne-Edwards) (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua New Guinea.
  14. ^ Kwak, M. L.; Madden, C.; Wicker, L. (2018). "Ixodes heathi n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a co-endangered tick from the critically endangered mountain pygmy possum (Burramys parvus), with notes on its biology and conservation". Experimental and Applied Acarology. 76 (3): 413–419. doi:10.1007/s10493-018-0312-5. PMID 30302626. S2CID 52945250. A new species of co-endangered tick, Ixodes heathi n. sp., is described from specimens of the nymph collected on the critically endangered mountain pygmy possum (Burramys parvus Broom) from the alpine region of Victoria, Australia. Its biology is discussed along with strategies for its conservation.
  15. ^ Apanaskevich, D. A.; Soarimalala, V.; Goodman, S. M. (2013). "A new Ixodes species (Acari: Ixodidae), parasite of shrew tenrecs (Afrosoricida: Tenrecidae) in Madagascar". Journal of Parasitology. 99 (6): 970–972. doi:10.1645/13-306.1. PMC 4833386. PMID 23901784.
  16. ^ Andrei Daniel Mihalca; Călin Mircea Gherman & Vasile Cozma (2011). "Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?". Parasites & Vectors. 4: 71. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-71. PMC 3114005. PMID 21554736.
  17. ^ Kitaoka, Shigeo; Suzuki, Hiroshi (1983). "Studies on the Parasite Fauna of Thailand: 5. Parasitic ticks on mammals and description of Ixodes siamensis sp. n. and Rhipicephalus tetracornus sp. n. (Acarina: Ixodidae)". Tropical Medicine. 25 (4): 205–219. hdl:10069/4366. Ixodes siamensis sp. n. is the second species of the subgenus Paltipalpiger.
  18. ^ Guglielmone, Alberto A.; Robbins, Richard G.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Petney, Trevor N.; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Horak, Ivan G. (2009). "Comments on controversial tick (Acari: Ixodida) species names and species described or resurrected from 2003 to 2008". Experimental and Applied Acarology. 48 (4): 311–327. doi:10.1007/s10493-009-9246-2. hdl:2263/13757. PMID 19169832. S2CID 29053875. We consider the following 40 names valid…Ixodes siamensis Kitaoka and Suzuki, 1983.
  19. ^ a b c Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Goodman, Steven M. (2020). "Description of three new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of tenrecs (Afrotheria: Tenrecidae) on Madagascar". Systematic Parasitology. 97 (6): 623–637. doi:10.1007/s11230-020-09944-2. PMID 33150511. S2CID 226258587.
  • Media related to Ixodes at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Ixodes at Wikispecies