Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades

Extended-protected article
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
كتائب الشهيد عز الدين القسام
LeadersMohammed Deif
SpokesmanAbu Obaida
Dates of operation1991–present
HeadquartersGaza Strip
Active regions Palestine
IdeologyPalestinian self-determination
Sunni Islamism[1]
Islamic fundamentalism[2]
Palestinian nationalism
Notable attacksMehola Junction bombing, Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing, Matza restaurant suicide bombing, Patt Junction bus bombing, Kiryat Menachem bus bombing, Operation Al-Aqsa Deluge
Part of Hamas
Battles and warsIsraeli–Palestinian conflict
Designated as a terrorist group by
IQB specifically:

Hamas as a whole:


The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades (abbreviated as IQB;[12][note 1] Arabic: كتائب الشهيد عز الدين القسام, romanizedKatāib al-Shahīd 'izz ad-Dīn al-Qassām [citation needed], lit.'Battalions of martyr Izz ad-Din al-Qassam'; often shortened to Al-Qassam Brigades[13]), named after Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, is the military wing of the Palestinian organization Hamas.[12][14][15] Currently led by Mohammed Deif, IQB is the largest and best-equipped militant group operating within Gaza today.[12]

Created in mid-1991,[13] it was at the time concerned with blocking the Oslo Accords negotiations.[16][17] From 1994 to 2000, the Al-Qassam Brigades has claimed responsibility for carrying out a number of attacks against Israelis.[12]

At the beginning of the Second Intifada, the group became a central target of Israel. The Al-Qassam Brigades operated several cells in the West Bank. Most of them were destroyed by 2004, following numerous operations of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) in the region.[citation needed] In contrast, Hamas retained a forceful presence in the Gaza Strip, generally considered its stronghold. Yahya Sinwar, Hamas political leader in the Gaza Strip since February 2017, is a military leader in the Brigades in Gaza.[18][19]

The Al-Qassam Brigades are explicitly listed as a terrorist organization by the European Union,[20] Australia,[21] New Zealand,[22] Egypt,[23] and the United Kingdom.[24][25] Though not explicitly mentioning IQB, the United States[26][27] and Canada[28] have designated its parent entity, Hamas, as a terrorist organization;[29] Brigade leader Mohammed Deif is classified as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist by the US under Executive Order 13224.[30][31] As the Brigades undertake military activity on behalf of Hamas, "organized terrorist activities associated with Hamas can be reliably attributed to the Brigades."[21]


Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, Syrian Muslim preacher and leader in Arab nationalist resistance to British and French rule, a militant opponent of Zionism in the 1920s and 1930s

The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades is the military wing of the Palestinian organization Hamas, operating in the Gaza Strip.[12][14] It is currently led by Mohammed Deif and, before his death on 17 March 2024, his deputy, Marwan Issa.[12]

The Al-Qassam Brigades is named after Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, a Muslim preacher and mujahid in Mandatory Palestine.[13][32] In 1930, al-Qassam organised and established the Black Hand, a militant organisation that was opposed to Zionism and British and French rule in the Levant.[32] Before dying in a shootout with the Palestine Police Force in 1935, al-Qassam exhorted his followers to embrace martyrdom and fight until the last bullet, which turned him into a role model for Palestinian nationalists.[33]

According to the Al-Qassam Brigades, its aims are:

To contribute in the effort of liberating Palestine and restoring the rights of the Palestinian people under the sacred Islamic teachings of the Holy Quran, the Sunnah (traditions) of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and the traditions of Muslims rulers and scholars noted for their piety and dedication.[13]

In summary, the Brigades seek to establish an Islamist state of Palestine, comprising Gaza, the West Bank, and Israel—ending Israel as a political entity in the process.[21][better source needed]

Relation to political wing; commanders

The Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades are an integral part of Hamas. While they are subordinate to Hamas's broad political goals and its ideological objectives, they have a significant level of independence in decision making.[21][better source needed]

In 1997, political scientists Ilana Kass and Bard O'Neill described Hamas' relationship with the Brigades as reminiscent of Sinn Féin's relationship to the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and quoted a senior Hamas official: "The Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigade is a separate armed military wing, which has its own leaders who do not take their orders [from Hamas] and do not tell us of their plans in advance."[34]

Carrying the IRA analogy further, Kass and O'Neill argued that the separation of the political and military wings shielded Hamas' political leaders from responsibility for terrorism with the plausible deniability provided made Hamas an eligible representative for peace negotiations as had happened with Sinn Féin politician Gerry Adams.[35]

The fighters' identities and positions in the group often remain secret until their death. Even when they fight against Israeli incursions, all the militants wear a characteristic black hood on which the group's green headband is attached. The Brigades operate on a model of independent cells. Even high-ranking members are often unaware of the activities of other cells. This allows the group to constantly regenerate after member deaths.[36]

During the Second Intifada, the leaders of the group were targeted by numerous airstrikes that killed many members, including Salah Shehade and Adnan al-Ghoul. The current leader of the Brigades, Mohammed Deif, remains at large and is said to have survived at least five assassination attempts.[37]

Notable members



In 1984, Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Ibrahim al-Makhadmeh, Sheikh Salah Shehada, and others began preparing for the establishment of an armed organization to resist Israeli control, with a focus on acquiring weapons for future resistance activities. Members of the group were, however, arrested and the weapons were confiscated.[13][40]

In 1986, Shehada formed a network of resistance cells, called al-Mujahidun al-Filastiniun ('Palestinian fighters'), who targeted Israeli troops and "traitors." This network operated until 1989, with their most famous operation being the 1989 kidnapping and killing of two Israeli soldiers: Avi Sasportas and Ilan Saadon.[13][41]

Hamas was officially established on 14 December 1987, forming other similar networks as al-Mujahidun al-Filastiniun, such as the Abdullah Azzam Brigades.[41] In the summer of 1991, during the First Palestinian Intifada (1987–1994), the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades were established, with their first act being the assassination of the rabbi of Kfar Darom.[41]

Contemporary operations and activities

The international community, and more specifically the United Nations, considers the practice of war combatants using civilians as human shields to be a violation of the Geneva Conventions standards of war,[42][43][44] and considers indiscriminate attacks (e.g., by rockets or suicide bombers)[45] on civilian populations as illegal under international law.[46]

The IQB's transition to a recognised militant organisation began during the establishment of the Oslo Accords to assist Hamas efforts in blocking them.[47]

The year 2004 was pivotal in the development of Al-Qassam Brigades from a loosely-formed militia, into a structured organization with a defined chain of command.[48] The Israel Defense Forces (IDF)'s assassinations of local leaders Ahmed Yassin and Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi resulted in decision-making power being transferred to leaders exiled in Damascus, which ultimately led to greater influence and funding from Syria, Iran, and Hezbollah.[49][48]

The Gaza strip was divided into six or seven regional divisions, headed by a division commander with responsibility over defined sectors of territory.[48] Each division commander oversaw regiment commanders and company commanders, who were responsible for small areas such as neighborhoods.[48] A focus on tunnel warfare was selected as a primary means of combating the IDF.[48]

On 3 August 2004, the first Yasin missile–a homebrew anti-tank rocket-propelled grenade–was launched.[50] The group developed other homemade weapons, such as rocket launchers (al-Bana, Batar) and the Qassam rocket.[51][52][21]

Qassam rockets launched from Gaza, on display at an Israeli police station at Sderot, 2009.

In 2003 and 2004, the Brigades in Gaza resisted incursions by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), including the siege of Jabalya in October 2004.

In 2005, as President Mahmoud Abbas had taken direct control of the PA security forces, which were loyal to the president's Fatah movement, the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip formed a separate 3,000-strong paramilitary police force, called the Executive Force,[53] consisting of Al-Qassam Brigades members.[54][55][56][57]

In June 2006, the Al-Qassam Brigades were involved in the operation which led to the capture of Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit.[58] The Al-Qassam Brigades engaged in heavy fighting in the Gaza Strip during Operation Summer Rains, launched by the IDF. It was the first time in over 18 months that the brigades were actively involved in fighting against Israeli soldiers. In May 2007, the brigades acknowledged they lost 192 fighters during the operation.[59]

In January 2007, Abbas outlawed the Executive Force and ordered that its then-6,000 members be incorporated into the PA security forces under his command. The order was resisted by the Hamas government,[60] which instead announced plans to double the size of the force to 12,000 men.[61] The Al-Qassam Brigades and the Executive Force took part in the Hamas takeover of Gaza in June 2007.

In June 2008, Egypt brokered a ceasefire, which lasted until 4 November when Israeli forces crossed into Gaza and killed six Hamas fighters. This resulted in an increase in rocket attacks on Israel, going from two in September and October to 190 in November 2008. Both sides said the other had broken the truce.[62][21][63]


The Izz al Din al-Qassem Brigades are organized into formal military structures with established command hierarchies. The al Qassem Brigades organize themselves from the squad, all the way to the brigade level, similar to conventional militaries. Strategies centered on targeted killings to remove key Hamas leaders are ineffective, as Hamas is capable of promoting low ranking members to replace those assassinated.[64]

The forces are mainly divided into five brigades, divided geographically. Each brigade is divided into multiple battalions, with 30 total battalions. Each battalion is associated with a major settlement. They may be relocated and change their areas of responsibility during conflicts.[64]

The current brigades and battalions identified by the Institute for the Study of War are,[64]

  • North Brigade—North Gaza Governorate
    • Beit Lahia Battalion
    • Beit Hanoun Battalion
    • al Khalifa al Rashidun Battalion
    • Martyr Suhail Ziadeh Battalion
    • Jabalia al Balad (Abdul Raouf Nabhan) Battalion
    • Imad Aql (Western) Battalion
    • Elite Battalion
  • Gaza Brigade—Gaza Governorate
    • Sabra-Tal al Islam Battalion
    • Daraj wal Tuffah Battalion
    • Radwan(al Furkan) Battalion
    • Shujaiya Battalion
    • Zaytoun Battalion
    • Shati Battalion
    • Possible Elite Battalion per reports by Arab media, unconfirmed by Hamas or IDF.
  • Central Brigade—Central Governorate
    • Deir al Balah Battalion
    • Al Bureij Battalion
    • Al Maghazi Battalion
    • Nusairat Battalion
    • Possible Elite Battalion
  • Khan Younis Brigade—Khan Younis Governorate
    • Camp (West Khan Younis) Battalion
    • North Khan Younis Battalion
    • South Khan Younis Battalion
    • Eastern (Khan Younis) Battalion
    • Qarara Battalion
    • Elite Battalion
  • Rafah Brigade—Rafah Governorate
    • Eastern Battalion
    • Khalid bin al Walid (Yabna Camp) Battalion
    • Shaboura Battalion
    • Possible fourth battalion, name unknown.
    • Elite Battalion


Hamas fighters are largely recruited from unemployed minors, aged under 18. About 50,000 Gazan youths under 18 registered for "security" training.[65][66][67] Recruitment is likely driven by the highest unemployment in the world, where 45% of Gazans are unemployed.[68][69] Al-Qassam spokesman Abu Obaida stated in a public speech in 2023 during the Gaza–Israel conflict that 85% of their recruits are orphans desiring revenge whose parents were killed by the Israeli Defense Forces.[70][71][72]

Strength and armament

Since its establishment in December 1987, the military capability of the Brigades has increased markedly, from rifles to Qassam rockets and more.[73]

The Brigades run their own intelligence division.[74]

The Brigades have a substantial inventory of light automatic weapons and grenades, improvised rockets, mortars, bombs, suicide belts, and explosives. The group engages in military-style training, including training that takes place in Gaza, on a range of weapons designed to inflict significant casualties on civilian and military targets.[75][better source needed]

Al Qassam militants rappelling during a training exercise in Gaza, January 2013

The Brigades have a variety of anti-tank guided missiles, including the Kornet-E, Konkurs-M, Bulsae-2 (North Korean version of Fagot), 9K11 Malyutka and MILAN missiles. They possess shoulder-launched anti-aircraft missiles (MANPADS), such as the SA-7B, SA-18 Igla missiles, and it is believed a number of SA-24 Igla-S that it received from Libya.

While the number of members is known only to the Brigades leadership, in 2011 Israel estimated that the Brigades have a cadre of several hundred members who receive military-style training, including training in Iran and Syria.[76][better source needed] Additionally, the Brigades have an estimated 30,000 operatives "of varying degrees of skill and professionalism" who are members of the internal security forces, Hamas, and their supporters. These operatives can be expected to reinforce the Brigades in an "emergency situation."[77] Other sources estimate their strength at 30,000–50,000.[4][78] An October 2023 estimate provides a figure of 40,000 fighters, with expertise in cyber security, naval warfare, and other specializations.[79]

According to a statement by CIA director George Tenet in 2000, possibly referring to the Brigades, Hamas has pursued a capability to conduct attacks with toxic chemicals.[73] There have been reports of Hamas operatives planning and preparing attacks incorporating chemicals. In one case, nails and bolts packed into explosives detonated by a Hamas suicide bomber in a December 2001 attack in Ben-Yehuda Street in Jerusalem were soaked in rat poison.[73] In 2014, they launched the first Palestinian reconnaissance (UAV) aircraft, called Ababeel1.

Gaza forces, October 2023

During the 2023 Gaza war, the IDF published its intelligence about the Hamas military in the Gaza Strip.[74] They put the strength of the Qassam Brigades there at the start of the war at 30,000 fighters, organised by area in five brigades, consisting in total of 24 battalions and c. 140 companies. Each regional brigade had a number of strongholds and outposts, and included specialised arrays for rocket firing, anti-tank missiles, air defenses, snipers, and engineering.[74]

On 8 January 2024 Israel discovered the largest known weapons factory of Hamas in Bureij. The site was opened for reporters by the IDF which contained, metal tubes and components as well as shell casings were stacked in an overground workshop area and long metal racks holding missiles could be seen. An elevator lead into a tunnel where rockets were stored and is connected to a tunnel network which allowed Hamas to transport rockets underground to launch sites.[80] The same month, Israel reported that it discovered a "massive" stockpile of Chinese weaponry used by Hamas.[81]

List of the Al-Qassam Brigades attacks

Attacks following the First Intifada of 1987–1993
Date Event Killed Injured Responsibility claimed
16 April 1993 a Hamas suicide car bomb killed two in Mehola Junction bombing.
19 October 1994 a suicide bomber detonates on a bus in Tel Aviv[82] 22 56 Hamas
25 December 1994 a suicide bomber detonates at a bus stop in Jerusalem[82] 12
9 April 1995 two suicide bombers detonate in Gaza[83] 8 (1 American + 7 IDF soldiers) 50 Hamas
21 August 1995 a suicide bomber detonates on a bus[83] 5 (1 American + 4 IDF soldiers) 100 Hamas
9 September 1996 the abduction and murder of IDF soldier Sharon Edri.[84][85] 1
21 March 1997 a Hamas suicide bomber detonated at a Tel Aviv sidewalk café.[83] 3 women 46
4 September 1997 three suicide bombers detonate in Jerusalem.[86] 4 up to 200 Hamas
27 August 1998 a bomb in a garbage bin explodes in Tel Aviv during rush hour[86] 14 Hamas
19 October 1998 two grenades thrown into a crowd at the Be'er Sheva bus station during rush hour.[87] 59 Hamas
29 October 1998 a Hamas suicide car bomber attempts to ram a school bus head-on near the Gush Katif Junction. An IDF jeep escorting the bus blocked the bomber who detonated the vehicle, killing the driver of the jeep and injuring 2 others. Six people in the bus received light injuries.[87] 1 8
Attacks following the Second Intifada (September 2000 – 2005)
Date Event Killed Injured Responsibility claimed
1 January 2001 a Hamas suicide car bomber detonates in the city of Netanya. One victim died 7 days later.[88] 1 59
14 February 2001 a Hamas suicide bomber plowed a bus into a crowd and detonated.[89] 8 21
4 March 2001 a Hamas suicide bomber detonates in the city of Netanya.[88] 3 68
28 March 2001 a Hamas suicide bomber blew himself up amidst a group of students waiting at a bus stop in Qalqilya in the West Bank.[88] 2 4
22 April 2001 a Hamas suicide bomber blew himself up Kfar Saba.[88] 1 50
18 May 2001 a Hamas suicide bomber blew himself up at the entrance of a shopping mall in the city of Netanya.[88] 5 100+
1 June 2001 Dolphinarium massacre — a suicide bomber linked to Hamas denotes outside a Tel Aviv nightclub.[90][91] 21 (16 teens) 76
9 August 2001 Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing — a suicide bomber detonates in Jerusalem. 15 130 Hamas
4 September 2001 a Hamas suicide bomber detonates in West Jerusalem.[88] 15
26 November 2001 a suicide bomber detonates at the Erez Crossing.[92] 2 Hamas
1 December 2001 two suicide bombers detonated one after the other followed by a car bomb in a mall in West Jerusalem.[92] 11 130+ Hamas
2 December 2001 a suicide bomber boarded an Israeli bus traveling from the Nave Sha'anan district in Haifa; paying the driver with a large bill, he then blew himself.[92] 15 40 Hamas
9 March 2002 a suicide bomber explodes in the crowded Moment café in the center of Jerusalem.[93] 11 54 (10 serious) Hamas
31 March 2002 Matza restaurant massacre — a suicide bomber detonates in an Arab restaurant in Haifa.[94] 15 40+ Hamas
10 April 2002 a suicide bombing on a bus near Kibbutz Yagur, east of Haifa.[94] 8 (6 IDF soldiers + 2 civilians) 22 Hamas
7 May 2002 a suicide bombing in a crowded pool hall in Rishon Lezion, southeast of Tel-Aviv.[95] 16 55 Hamas
19 May 2002 a suicide bomber disguised as a soldier, blew himself up in the market in Netanya.[95] 3 59 Hamas and the PFLP
18 June 2002 Patt junction massacre — a suicide bomber detonates on a bus in Jerusalem. 19 74+ Hamas
16 July 2002 a terrorist attack on a bus traveling from Bnei Brak to Emmanuel, wherein an explosive charge was detonated next to the bullet-resistant bus. The terrorists waited in ambush, reportedly wearing Israeli army uniforms, and opened fire on the bus.[96] 9 20 Hamas, Al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, and the DFLP
31 July 2002 a cell-phone detonated bomb exploded in the Frank Sinatra student center cafeteria on the Hebrew University's Mt. Scopus campus.[97] 9 (5 Americans) 85 Hamas (expressed regret for the American deaths)
4 August 2002 a suicide bombing of an Egged bus takes place at the Meron junction in the Galilee.[98] 9 ~50 Hamas
27 February 2008 during February 2008, 257 rockets and 228 mortars were fired from the Gaza Strip into the western Negev causing 5 injuries, and on 27 February, the death of a 47-year-old student at Sapir College. Hamas has previously claimed responsibility for rocket barrages.[99] 1 Hamas
7 October 2023 In a cross-border land incursion dubbed Operation Al-Aqsa Flood, some 3,000 militants infiltrated Israel using trucks, motorcycles, bulldozers, speedboats, and powered paragliders; attacked multiple population centers and military targets in the Gaza periphery, including Sderot, Re'im, Zikim, Be'eri, Holit, Kfar Aza, Netiv HaAsara, Nir Oz, Alumim, and Nahal Oz; killed at least 1,400 people; and took over 200 people hostage. 1,200+ Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), Lions' Den

Leaders killed by Israel or other causes

On 3 September 2005, after Israel's withdrawal from settlements in the Gaza Strip, the Al-Qassam Brigades revealed for the first time the names and functions of its commanders on its website as well as in a printed bulletin distributed to Palestinians.[100]

On 12 July 2006, the Israeli Air Force bombed a house in the Sheikh Radwan neighborhood of Gaza City, where Mohammed Deif, Ahmad al-Ghandur, and Raid Said were meeting. The three-story house was completely leveled, killing Hamas official Nabil al-Salmiah, his wife, their five children and two other children. Two of the three brigades leaders present escaped with moderate wounds. Deif received a spinal injury that required four hours of surgery.[101]

On 1 January 2009, Nizar Rayan, a top Hamas leader who served as a liaison between the Palestinian organization's political leadership and its military wing, was killed in an Israeli Air Force strike during Operation Cast Lead.[102] The day before the attack, Rayan had advocated renewal of suicide attacks on Israel, declaring, "Our only language with the Jew is through the gun".[103] A 2,000-pound bomb was dropped on his house, also killing his 4 wives (Hiam 'Abdul Rahman Rayan, 46; Iman Khalil Rayan, 46; Nawal Isma'il Rayan, 40; and Sherine Sa'id Rayan, 25) and 11 of their children (As'ad, 2; Usama Ibn Zaid, 3; 'Aisha, 3; Reem, 4; Miriam, 5; Halima, 5; 'Abdul Rahman, 6; Abdul Qader, 12; Aaya, 12; Zainab, 15; and Ghassan, 16).[104][105][106][107]

On 3 January 2009, Israeli aircraft attacked the car in which Abu Zakaria al-Jamal, a leader of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam armed wing, was traveling. He died of the wounds suffered in the bombing.[108] The following day, the Israeli Air Force struck and killed in Khan Yunis two senior Brigrade leaders, Hussam Hamdan and Muhammad Hilo, both of whom the Israelis blamed for attacks against Israel. According to Israeli authorities Hamdan was in charge of rocket attacks against Beersheba and Ofakim, while Hilo was reportedly behind Hamas' special forces in Khan Yunis.[109]

On 15 January 2009, the Israeli Air Force bombed a house in Jabaliya, killing a prominent Brigades commander named Mohammed Watfa. The strike targeted the Palestinian Interior Minister Said Seyam, who was also killed.[110]

On 30 July 2010, one of the leaders Issa Abdul-Hadi Al-Batran, aged 40, was killed at the Nuseirat refugee camp in the central Gaza Strip by an Israeli airstrike.[111]

On 14 November 2012, Ahmed Jaabari, the head of the Al-Qassam Brigade, was killed along with seven others in Gaza, marking the beginning of Israel's "Operation Pillar of Defense".[15][112]

On 21 August 2014, an Israeli air strike killed Muhammad Abu Shamala, the sub-commander of Southern Gaza Strip; Raed al Atar, the commander of the Rafah company and member of the Hamas high military council; and Mohammed Barhoum.[113]

On 30 January 2018, Imad Al-Alami died as a result of injuries sustained while he was inspecting his personal weapon in Gaza City.[114]

International response

The international community, and more specifically the United Nations, considers the practice of war combatants to turn civilians into human shields as a violation of the Geneva Conventions standards of war,[42][43][44] and considers indiscriminate attacks (e.g., by rockets or suicide bombers)[45] on civilian populations as illegal under international law.[46]

As the Brigades undertake military activity on behalf of Hamas, "organized terrorist activities associated with Hamas can be reliably attributed to the Brigades."[21][better source needed]

The Al-Qassam Brigades are explicitly listed as a terrorist organization by the European Union,[20] Australia,[21] New Zealand,[22] Egypt,[23] and the United Kingdom.[24][25] Though not explicitly mentioning IQB, the United States[26][27] and Canada[28] have designated its parent entity, Hamas, as a terrorist organization;[29] Brigade leader Mohammed Deif has also been classified as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist by the US under Executive Order 13224.[30][31]


Military media

The inverted red triangle has been used as a “signature” by the Qassam Brigades to highlight combat vehicles and ground forces that are about to be targeted

After Israel launched the ground invasion of Gaza on the 27th of October, the Qassam Brigades publicised many of their ambushes against Israeli vehicles on their military media for the battle of al-Aqsa Deluge. Most of these videos, shot mainly from the militant's point of view through a go-pro involve the ambush of vehicles, targeted by rockets before the militants retreat to their bases, though footage of sniper operations and targeting ground forces has been published as well.

Targets were highlighted with a flashing inverted red triangle.[115] Due to the nature of these attacks, being hit and run and militants turning away immediately after the round has been shot, as well as the Israeli vehicles Trophy APS, it has been called into question how effective these attacks were and how many tanks were successful hit instead of the rockets being intercepted. In spite of this, the Qassam brigades have publicised videos on their military media showing successful hits where plates are seen being torn off tanks after being hit by rockets, or the aftermath of their ambushes showing ignited vehicles,[116][117] as well as captured uniforms and weapons from the IDF.

See also


  1. ^ Also spelt Izzedine or Ezzedeen and abbreviated EQB


  1. ^ * "Understanding Islamism" Archived 7 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Crisis Group Middle East/North Africa Report N°37, 2 March 2005.
    • "The New Hamas: Between Resistance and Participation". Middle East Report. Graham Usher, 21 August 2005.
    • "Hamas leader condemns Islamist charity blacklist". Reuters. 23 August 2007. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
    • Hider, James (12 October 2007). "Islamist leader hints at Hamas pull-out from Gaza". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
    • "Council on Foreign Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  2. ^
    • Islamic fundamentalism in the West Bank and Gaza: Muslim Brotherhood and Islamic Jihad, by Ziyād Abū 'Amr, Indiana University Press, 1994, pp. 66–72
    • Anti-Semitic Motifs in the Ideology of Hizballah and Hamas, Esther Webman, Project for the Study of Anti-Semitism, 1994. ISBN 978-965-222-592-4
  3. ^ (IISS), International Institute for Strategic Studies (14 February 2018). The Military Balance, 2018, Vol. 118, No. 1, February 2018. Routledge. ISBN 9781857439557.
  4. ^ a b (in French) Christian Chesnot, Michel Goya : "Militairement, le Hamas monte en gamme depuis 2010", France Culture, 18 May 2021.
  5. ^ Tollast, Robert; Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (15 November 2023). "Who are Hamas's allies in Gaza? From Islamic Jihad to Marxist militants". The National. Retrieved 17 December 2023.
  6. ^ a b "Exclusive: Hamas Official Discusses Decline of Iranian Support". موقع الدكتور عدنان ابو عامر.
  7. ^ "On Sanctioning of Four Financial Facilitators for Hamas – United States Department of State". Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  8. ^ Hussein Abou Saleh (2 November 2023). "Iran's 'axis of resistance': how Hamas and Tehran are attempting to galvanise their allies against Israel". The Conversation. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  9. ^ "Evidence shows Hamas militants likely used some North Korean weapons in attack on Israel". Associated Press. 19 October 2023. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  10. ^ "Hamas arrests Salafi sheikh in Gaza over IS ties". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  11. ^ AFP. "Hamas arrests Salafi sheikh over alleged Islamic State ties - Radical cleric Adnan Khader Mayat detained on Sunday by Gaza security forces". Times of Israel. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades (IQB) – Hamas." Mapping Palestinian Politics. European Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2021 May 20.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "About Us". Al-Qassam Brigades Information Office. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  14. ^ a b "Al-Quds Brigades says it targets Israeli cities". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  15. ^ a b "Hamas: The Palestinian militant group that rules Gaza". BBC News. 13 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  16. ^ Cleveland, William L. (1999). A history of the modern Middle East. Westview Press. p. 494. ISBN 978-0-8133-3489-9. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  17. ^ Schanzer, Jonathan (2003). "The Challenge of Hamas to Fatah". The Middle East Quarterly. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  18. ^ Beaumont, Peter (13 February 2017). "Hamas elects hardliner Yahya Sinwar as its Gaza Strip chief". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017.
  19. ^ Balousha, Hazam; Booth, William (13 February 2017). "Hamas names hard-liner as its new political leader in Gaza". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  20. ^ a b "Council Decision of 21 December 2005" (PDF). Eur-Lex. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "al-Qassam Brigades: Details of the organisation Archived 21 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine." Australian National Security. Australian Government. updated 2018. Retrieved 2021 May 20. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011.
  22. ^ a b "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
  23. ^ a b "La branche armée du Hamas palestinien déclarée "terroriste" en Egypte". rts.ch. 31 January 2015.
  24. ^ a b "Terrorism Act 2000". Schedule 2, Act No. 11 of 2000. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  25. ^ a b "Proscribed terrorist groups or organisations". GOV.UK. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  26. ^ a b "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". United States Department of State. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  27. ^ a b "Country Reports on Terrorism 2004" (PDF). U.S. State Department. April 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  28. ^ a b "Al-Qassam Brigades | Database." Jihad Intel. Middle East Forum. Retrieved 2021 May 20.
  29. ^ a b "Currently listed entities". www.publicsafety.gc.ca. 21 December 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  30. ^ a b "Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List." U.S. Department of the Treasury. 2021 May 20. Retrieved 2021 May 20.
  31. ^ a b "Executive Order 13224". United States Department of State. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  32. ^ a b Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 360–362. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0.
  33. ^ Blumenthal 2015, p. 29.
  34. ^ The Deadly Embrace: The Impact of Israeli and Palestinian Rejectionism on the Peace Process Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine University Press of America, Ilana Kass & Bard E. O'Neill, 1997, p. 267
  35. ^ Kass & O'Neill, p. 268
  36. ^ "Profile: Hamas commander Mohammed Deif". BBC News. 26 September 2002. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  37. ^ "Profile: Hamas commander Mohammed Deif". BBC News. 26 September 2002. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  38. ^ Jeroen Gunning; p. 179; Hamas in Politics: Democracy, Religion, Violence, Columbia University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-231-70044-X
  39. ^ Lieber, Dov. "Co-founder of Hamas military wing issues startling apology to Palestinians". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  40. ^ Hussein 2021, p. 84.
  41. ^ a b c Najib & Friedrich 2007, p. 105.
  42. ^ a b Berger, Yosef Ari Soffer (10 July 2014). "Seeking Human Shields, Hamas Tells Gazans to Ignore IDF Warnings". Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  43. ^ a b Sidner, Josh Levs, Sara, and Talal Abu-Rahma (15 November 2012). "Rockets pound Israel, Gaza as Netanyahu alleges 'double war crime'". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  44. ^ a b Keinon, Herb. "As casualties in Gaza rise, PM accuses Hamas of double war crime". The Jerusalem Post | Jpost.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  45. ^ a b Kurz, Robert W.; Charles K. Bartles (2007). "Chechen suicide bombers" (PDF). Journal of Slavic Military Studies. 20 (4). Routledge: 529–547. doi:10.1080/13518040701703070. S2CID 96476266. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  46. ^ a b "Protection of the civilian population". Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. International Committee of the Red Cross. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  47. ^ Yousef, Mosab (2009). Son of Hamas. Tyndale Housing Publisher. p. 57.
  48. ^ a b c d e Aviad 2009, p. 4.
  49. ^ Hussein 2021, p. 91.
  50. ^ Hussein 2021, p. 93.
  51. ^ Strazzari & Tholens 2010, p. 126.
  52. ^ "Missiles and Mortars". Weapon Survey. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009.
  53. ^ border, Tim Butcher on Israel-Gaza (5 January 2009). "Hamas fighters now a well-organised force". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  54. ^ Friedrich and Luethold–2007, p. 22
  55. ^ "Hamas to expand 'Executive Force'" Archived 29 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Jerusalem Post, 21 December 2006
    "The Executive Force, which was established a few months ago by Interior Minister Said Siam of Hamas, today includes nearly 3,000 members."
  56. ^ "The Palestinian Security Services: Past and Present" Archived 3 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine. MIFTAH, 30 May 2006
  57. ^ "Hamas-Led Government Deploys Security Force, Defying Abbas" Archived 28 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine. New York Times, 17 May 2006
  58. ^ Chehab 2007, p. 67.
  59. ^ www.alqassam.ps https://web.archive.org/web/20070528131219/http://www.alqassam.ps/arabic/wfaa_alahrar/sohdaa1.htm. Archived from the original on 28 May 2007. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  60. ^ "Abbas outlaws Hamas's paramilitary Executive Force" Archived 17 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Richard Boudreaux, The Boston Globe, 7 January 2007
  61. ^ "Hamas defiant on 'illegal' force" Archived 28 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News, 6 January 2007
  62. ^ Seurat 2019, p. 53.
  63. ^ McCarthy, Rory (5 November 2008). "Gaza truce broken as Israeli raid kills six Hamas gunmen". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 November 2023.
  64. ^ a b c "THE ORDER OF BATTLE OF HAMAS' IZZ AL DIN AL QASSEM BRIGADES". Institute for the Study of War.
  65. ^ Knudsen, Are (2005). "Crescent and Sword: The Hamas Enigma". Third World Quarterly. 26 (8): 1373–1388. doi:10.1080/01436590500336898. hdl:11250/2435993. ISSN 0143-6597. JSTOR 4017719. S2CID 145445167. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  66. ^ "Al-Qassam Brigades announces military training camp for children and teenagers | FDD's Long War Journal". www.longwarjournal.org. 16 June 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  67. ^ "Hamas continues recruiting child soldiers: Where is the condemnation?". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. 27 June 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  68. ^ "Occupied Palestinian Territory Has World's Highest Unemployment Rate – UNCTAD Report | UNCTAD". unctad.org. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  69. ^ "Economic impact of the conflict on Israelis and Palestinians". ifamericansknew.org. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  70. ^ Staff, The Judean (3 November 2023). "Who Is The Mysterious Hamas Leader Mohammad Deif?". The Judean. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  71. ^ "Understanding Hamas". www.husseinhamid.com. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  72. ^ "85% of the members of their unit are orphans who lost their relatives in the war". INF News. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  73. ^ a b c "Hamas's Tactics: Lessons from Recent Attacks", by Jamie Chosak and Julie Sawyer. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. 19 October 2005
  74. ^ a b c [1]
  75. ^ "Error". 2 June 2022. Archived from the original on 2 June 2022.
  76. ^ "Hamas's Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades". AG. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  77. ^ The HAMAS Terror Organization – 2007 update Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  78. ^ Omer, Mohammed. "Hamas growing in military stature, say analysts". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  79. ^ Nakhoul, Samia (16 October 2023). "How Hamas secretly built a 'mini-army' to fight Israel". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023.
  80. ^ "Israeli forces say they locate large underground weapons factory in Gaza". Reuters. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  81. ^ Swan, Melanie (5 January 2024). "Hamas 'using massive stockpile of Chinese weaponry' in Gaza". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  82. ^ a b Anthony Cordesman and Jennifer Moravitz The Israeli-Palestinian War: Escalating to Nowhere Greenwood Publishing Group 2005 ISBN 9780275987589 p. 24
  83. ^ a b c Moravitz p. 25
  84. ^ Weiss, Efrat (11 October 2005). "Senior Hamas fugitive nabbed". Ynetnews.
  85. ^ "Abduction as a Weapon". Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  86. ^ a b Moravitz Pg 26
  87. ^ a b Moravitz Pg 27
  88. ^ a b c d e f Suicide Attacks In Israel And The Occupied Territories October 2000 to September 2001 Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group Data retrieved from B'Tselem Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  89. ^ "Major Palestinian Terror Attacks Since Oslo". Radio Bergen. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  90. ^ O'Sullivan, Arieh (25 November 2001). "No. 1 Hamas terrorist killed. Followers threaten revenge in Tel Aviv". Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
  91. ^ Fisher, Ian (29 January 2006). "In Hamas's Overt Hatred, Many Israelis See Hope". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
  92. ^ a b c Joe Stork Erased in a Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks Against Israeli Civilians Human Rights Watch 2002 ISBN 9781564322807 Pg 143
  93. ^ Stork Pg 145
  94. ^ a b Stork Pg 146
  95. ^ a b Stork Pg 147
  96. ^ Terrorist attack on bus at Emmanuel – 16 July 2002 Israel Ministry of foreign affairs [dead link]
  97. ^ Bush Is 'Furious' at American Toll in Latest Bombing Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine New York Times 1 August 2002
  98. ^ Stork Pg 148
  99. ^ The Hamas war against Israel: A Diary – February 2008 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs [dead link]
  100. ^ "Yahoo News – Latest News & Headlines". Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 2005-09-04. [dead link]
  101. ^ Israel's Most Wanted Man Seriously Injured In Bombing wltx news 12 July 2006
  102. ^ Israel raids kill Hamas leader, take Gaza death toll past 400 AFP, 1 January 2009 Archived 8 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  103. ^ "Israel fells key Hamas strongman, escalating conflict; says it's ready for ground invasion". New York Daily News. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  104. ^ "Israeli strike kills senior Hamas leader". Reuters. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
  105. ^ "Strike Kills Hamas Leader as Israel Demands Global Monitors for Truce". FOX News. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  106. ^ "Child casualties mount in besieged Gaza". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  107. ^ IOF Offensive on the Gaza Strip Continues for the 7th Consecutive Day Palestinian Centre for Human Rights, 15 January 2009 Archived 13 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  108. ^ McGreal, Chris (3 January 2009). "Israeli ground forces cross border into Gaza". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  109. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  110. ^ "IAF kills Hamas strongman Siam | Confronting Hamas | Jerusalem Post". Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  111. ^ "Hamas leader killed in Israeli airstrike". Sify. 31 July 2010. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  112. ^ "IAF strike kills Hamas military chief Jabari". The Jerusalem Post | Jpost.com. The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  113. ^ Reuters Editorial (21 August 2014). "UPDATE 1-Hamas says Israel killed three top Gaza commanders". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2016. {{cite news}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  114. ^ "Hamas leader dies after receiving life threatening head injury". Middle East Monitor. 30 January 2018. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  115. ^ "What's the red triangle being used by pro-Palestinian activists?".
  116. ^ "شاهد.. القسام تدمر عددا من آليات الاحتلال في الشجاعية شمالي غزة". aljazeera.
  117. ^ "شاهد فيديو: استهداف وتدمير آليات العدو في حي تل الهوى غرب مدينة غزة ة". Alahed.