Jón Arason

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The Right Reverend

Jón Arason
Bishop of Holar
Jón Arason - gröf.jpg
Bishop Arason
ChurchRoman Catholic
DioceseHólar
Appointed22 December 1520
In office1524–1550
PredecessorGottskálk grimmi Nikulásson
SuccessorÓlafur Hjaltason
Orders
Ordination1504
Consecration1524
by Olav Engelbrektsson
Personal details
Born1484
Gryta, Iceland
Died7 November 1550
Skalholt, Iceland
Nationality Icelandic
Statue of Jón Arason, by Guðmundur Einarsson, in Munkaþverá

Jón Arason (1484 – November 7, 1550) was an Icelandic Roman Catholic bishop and poet, who was executed in his struggle against the imposition of the Protestant Reformation in Iceland.[1]

Background[edit]

Jón Arason was born in Gryta, educated at Munkaþverá, the Benedictine abbey of Iceland, and was ordained a Catholic priest about 1504. Having attracted the notice of Gottskálk Nikulásson bishop of Hólar, he was sent on two missions to Norway. In 1522, he succeeded Gottskálk in the episcopal see of Hólar, but he was soon driven out by the other Icelandic bishop, Ögmundur Pálsson of Skálholt. Bishop Ögmundur later opposed the imposition of Lutheranism to Iceland, but being old and blind by that time his opposition was ineffective.[2]

By this point Jón Arason had become known for his great talents if somewhat erratic faith. He fathered numerous children who fought for his causes figuratively and later literally. This was despite the canonical obligation that Catholic bishops are to be celibate, but Iceland was distant enough from Rome for clerical discipline in that age to be very lax.[3]

Struggle with the king[edit]

Bishop Jón became involved in a dispute with his sovereign, King Christian III, because of the bishop's refusal to promote Lutheranism on the island. Although initially he took a defensive rather than an offensive position on the matter, this changed radically in 1548. At that point he and Bishop Ögmundur joined their forces to attack the Lutherans. Bishop Ögmundur's contribution did not last, however, because of his infirmities, and he quickly faced exile to Denmark.[4]

Jón's continued resistance is thought to have come from a primitive sense of nationalism and raw ambition as much as religion. He resented the Danes' changing the religious landscape of Iceland and felt the island's culture would be less disrupted by staying Catholic. Jón took encouragement from a letter of support from Pope Paul III in continuing his efforts against the Lutheran cause and fighting for a Catholic Iceland. In this struggle Jón had the help of his illegitimate children, who fought with him in various battles. However, at the Battle of Sauðafell, Jón and two of his sons, Ari and Björn, were captured by his greatest adversary, Daði Guðmundsson. The three were taken prisoner and handed over to the king's bailiff. According to legends, on hearing of Jón's capture, one of his daughters rallied her forces to save him, but her efforts proved unsuccessful.

In 1550, Jón, Ari, and Björn were beheaded, editing his campaign for a Catholic Iceland. Christian Skriver, the king's bailiff who pronounced the bishop's death sentence,[5] was later killed by fishermen who favored Jón's cause; they were persuaded to assassinate him by Þjórunn Jónsdóttir,[5] a wealthy female chieftain and the illegitimate daughter of Jón by Helga Sigurðardóttir, Jón's mistress of many years. Skriver's death was as much personal revenge for Jón's death as it was born of any sectarian strife between Catholics and Lutherans.

Legacy[edit]

Memorial at the place of execution of Jon Arason, in Skálholt, south Iceland

Legends claim that as he was about to be beheaded, a priest called Sveinn was by his side to offer him comfort. Sveinn told Jón: Líf er eftir þetta, herra! ("There is a life after this one, Sire!") Jón turned to Sveinn and said: Veit ég það, Sveinki! ("That I know, little Sveinn!") Ever since veit ég það, Sveinki has been a part of the Icelandic treasury of sayings, in this case meaning that something totally obvious has been stated.[6]

Gunnar Gunnarsson wrote Jón Arason (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1930), a fictionalized account of the life of Jón. Originally written in Danish, the book has been translated into other languages, including English.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kórkápa Jóns biskups Arasonar". Þjóðminjasafn Íslands. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ "Aftaka Jóns biskups Arasonar og atburðir á Suðurnesjum Hólafeðgar hálsgöggnir". Ferlir.is. Retrieved October 11, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ "Jón Arason - The reformation". The Saga Museum. Retrieved October 31, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ "Jón Arason í vitund Íslendinga". Ýmsir höfundar. Retrieved October 11, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ a b "Saga". Minjar í hættu. 22 September 2013.
  6. ^ "The Beheading of Jón Arason". icelandic roots. Retrieved 2016-04-30. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]