Jürgen Schmidhuber

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Jürgen Schmidhuber
Jürgen Schmidhuber.jpg
Jürgen Schmidhuber speaking at the AI for GOOD Global Summit in 2017
Born17 January 1963[1]
Alma materTechnische Universität München
Known forArtificial intelligence, Deep learning, Artificial neural networks, Recurrent neural networks, Goedel machine, Artificial curiosity, Meta learning (computer science)
Scientific career
FieldsArtificial intelligence
InstitutionsDalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence Research

Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963)[1] is a computer scientist most noted for his work in the field of artificial intelligence, deep learning and artificial neural networks. He is a co-director of the Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence Research in Manno, in the district of Lugano, in Ticino in southern Switzerland.[2] He is sometimes called the "father of (modern) AI"[3][4][5][6][7] or "father of deep learning."[8]

Schmidhuber did his undergraduate studies at the Technische Universität München in Munich, Germany.[1] He taught there from 2004 until 2009 when he became a professor of artificial intelligence at the Università della Svizzera Italiana in Lugano, Switzerland.[9]


In 1997, Schmidhuber and Sepp Hochreiter published a paper on a type of recurrent neural network which they called Long short-term memory or LSTM. In 2015, LSTM was used in a new implementation of speech recognition in Google's software for smartphones.[2] Google also used LSTM for the smart assistant Allo[10] and for Google Translate.[11][12] Apple used LSTM for the "Quicktype" function on the iPhone[13][14] and for Siri.[15] Amazon used LSTM for Amazon Alexa.[16] In 2017, Facebook performed some 4.5 billion automatic translations every day using LSTM networks.[17] Bloomberg Business Week wrote: "These powers make LSTM arguably the most commercial AI achievement, used for everything from predicting diseases to composing music."[18]

In 2014, Schmidhuber formed a company, Nnaisense, to work on commercial applications of artificial intelligence in fields such as finance, heavy industry and self-driving cars. Sepp Hochreiter, Jaan Tallinn, and Marcus Hutter are advisers to the company.[2] Sales were under 11 million USD in 2016; however, Schmidhuber states that the current emphasis is on research and not revenue. Nnaisense raised its first round of capital funding in January 2017. Schmidhuber's overall goal is to create an all-purpose AI by training a single AI in sequence on a variety of narrow tasks; however, skeptics point out that companies such as Arago GmbH and IBM have applied AI to various different projects for years without showing any signs of artificial general intelligence.[19]


Schmidhuber frequently criticizes modern deep learning researchers such as Yann LeCun for allegedly understating the contributions of Schmidhuber and other early machine learning pioneers. LeCun denies the charge, stating instead that Schmidhuber "keeps claiming credit he doesn't deserve".[2][20]


Schmidhuber received the Helmholtz Award of the International Neural Network Society in 2013,[21] and the Neural Networks Pioneer Award of the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society in 2016.[22] He is a member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts.[23][9]


  1. ^ a b c d CV
  2. ^ a b c d John Markoff (27 November 2016). When A.I. Matures, It May Call Jürgen Schmidhuber ‘Dad’. The New York Times. Accessed April 2017.
  3. ^ Wong, Andrew (May 16, 2018). "The 'father of A.I' urges humans not to fear the technology". CNBC. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  4. ^ Blunden, Mark (June 8, 2018). "Humans will learn to confide in their robot friends, says AI expert. The father of modern AI believes robots could keep lonely people company". The Evening Standard. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  5. ^ Micklethwaite, Jamie (February 17, 2018). "The day robots become smarter than humans will arrive on THIS DATE. THE day robots become smarter than humans is just round the corner, according to a man dubbed "the father of artificial intelligence"". Daily Star. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  6. ^ "The 'father of A.I.' urges humans not to fear the technology". South China Morning Post. May 16, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  7. ^ "Sony WOW Studio at SXSW 2019, Austin, Texas: Quote: "the guest speakers include Juergen Schmidhuber, the father of modern artificial intelligence who revolutionized machine learning with his lab's deep learning neural networks and Avast Security Ambassador, Garry Kasparov who is widely regarded as the greatest chessplayer in history."". PR Newswire. February 22, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  8. ^ Wang, Brian (June 14, 2017). "Father of deep learning AI on General purpose AI and AI to conquer space in the 2050s". Next Big Future. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  9. ^ a b Dave O'Leary (3 October 2016). The Present and Future of AI and Deep Learning Featuring Professor Jürgen Schmidhuber. IT World Canada. Accessed April 2017.
  10. ^ Khaitan, Pranav (May 18, 2016). "Chat Smarter with Allo". Research Blog. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  11. ^ Wu, Yonghui; Schuster, Mike; Chen, Zhifeng; Le, Quoc V.; Norouzi, Mohammad; Macherey, Wolfgang; Krikun, Maxim; Cao, Yuan; Gao, Qin (2016-09-26). "Google's Neural Machine Translation System: Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation". arXiv:1609.08144 [cs.CL].
  12. ^ Metz, Cade (September 27, 2016). "An Infusion of AI Makes Google Translate More Powerful Than Ever | WIRED". Wired. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  13. ^ Efrati, Amir (June 13, 2016). "Apple's Machines Can Learn Too". The Information. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  14. ^ Ranger, Steve (June 14, 2016). "iPhone, AI and big data: Here's how Apple plans to protect your privacy | ZDNet". ZDNet. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  15. ^ Smith, Chris (2016-06-13). "iOS 10: Siri now works in third-party apps, comes with extra AI features". BGR. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  16. ^ Vogels, Werner (30 November 2016). "Bringing the Magic of Amazon AI and Alexa to Apps on AWS. - All Things Distributed". www.allthingsdistributed.com. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  17. ^ Ong, Thuy (4 August 2017). "Facebook's translations are now powered completely by AI". www.allthingsdistributed.com. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  18. ^ Vance, Ashlee (May 15, 2018). "Quote: These powers make LSTM arguably the most commercial AI achievement, used for everything from predicting diseases to composing music". Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  19. ^ "AI Pioneer Wants to Build the Renaissance Machine of the Future". Bloomberg.com. 16 January 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  20. ^ Oltermann, Philip (18 April 2017). "Jürgen Schmidhuber on the robot future: 'They will pay as much attention to us as we do to ants'". the Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  21. ^ INNS Awards Recipients. International Neural Network Society. Accessed December 2016.
  22. ^ Recipients: Neural Networks Pioneer Award. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Accessed January 2019.]
  23. ^ Members. European Academy of Sciences and Arts. Accessed December 2016.