Jāti (Buddhism)

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Translations of
Jāti
Englishbirth
SanskritJāti
PaliJāti
Burmeseဇာတိ
(IPA: [zàtḭ])
Chinese
(Pinyinshēng)
Japanese
(rōmaji: shō)
Khmerជាតិ
(Cheat)
Shanၸႃႇတီႉ
([tsaa2 ti5])
Sinhalaජාති
Tibetanskyed.ba
Vietnamesesinh
Glossary of Buddhism

In Buddhism, Jāti (Sanskrit/Pāli), "birth", refers to physical birth; to rebirth, the arising of a new living entity within saṃsāra (cyclic existence); and to the arising of mental phenomena.

Sufferings of minister from jāti

Interpretations[edit]

Within the teachings on the Four Noble Truths, jāti refers to physical birth, and is qualified dukkha (suffering): "Now this, monk , is the noble truth of dukkha: birth (jati) is dukkha, aging is dukkha, death is dukkha."

In traditional Buddhist thought, there are four forms of birth:[1][2]

  • birth from an egg (Sanskrit: Andaja; Pali: Aṇḍaja; Chinese: 卵生; Standard Tibetan: Sgongskyes)—like a bird, fish, or reptile;
  • birth from a womb (Sanskrit: Jarayuja; Pali: Jalābuja; Chinese: 胎生; Standard Tibetan: Mnal-skyes)—like most mammals and some worldly devas;
  • birth from moisture (Sanskrit: Samsvedaja; Pali: Saṃsedaja; Chinese: 濕生; Standard Tibetan: Drod-skyes)—probably referring to the appearance of animals whose eggs are microscopic, like maggots appearing in rotting flesh;
  • birth by transformation (Sanskrit: Upapaduka; Pali: Opapatika; Chinese: 化生; Standard Tibetan: Rdzus-skyes)—miraculous materialization, as with this devas.
  The 12 Nidānas:  
Ignorance
Formations
Consciousness
Name & Form
Six Sense Bases
Contact
Feeling
Craving
Clinging
Becoming
Birth
Old Age & Death
 

Jāti is the eleventh link within the eleventh Nidāna of paṭiccasamuppāda ("dependent arising" or "dependent origination"), where it can refer both to rebirth and to the arising of mental phenomena.[3] The Vibhanga, the second book of the Theravada Abbidhamma, treats it in both ways. In the Suttantabhajaniya it is described as rebirth, which is conditioned by becoming (bhava), and gives rise to old age and death (jarāmaraṇa) in a living being. In the Abhidhammabhajaniya it is treated as the arising of mental phenomena.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 佛學問答第三輯
  2. ^ Bot Thubten Tenzin Karma and Rebirth
  3. ^ a b Analayo 2008, p. 93-94.

Sources[edit]

  • Analayo (2007), "Rebirth and the Gandhabba" (PDF), Journal of Buddhist Studies 1: 91-105

Further reading[edit]

Single suttas
Sutta-collections
  • Bodhi, Bhikkhu (2000), The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-331-1 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Nanamoli, Bhikkhu (1995), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-072-X CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
Commentaries and interpretations
  • Ajahn Sumedho (2002), The Four Noble Truths, Amaravati Publications
  • Ajahn Sucitto (2010), Turning the Wheel of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha's First Teaching, Shambhala
  • Das, Surya (1997), Awakening the Buddha Within, Broadway Books, Kindle Edition CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Epstein, Mark (2004), Thoughts Without A Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective, Basic Books, Kindle Edition CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Goldstein, Joseph (2002), One Dharma: The Emerging Western Buddhism, HarperCollins CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Moffitt, Phillip (2008), Dancing with Life: Buddhist Insights for Finding Meaning and Joy in the Face of Suffering, Rodale, Kindle Edition
  • Nhat Hanh, Thich (1999), The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching, Three River Press CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Rahula, Walpola (2007), What the Buddha Taught, Grove Press, Kindle Edition CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Trungpa, Chogyam (2009), The Truth of Suffering and the Path of Liberation (edited by Judy Leif), Shambhala CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Tulku, Ringu (2005), Daring Steps Toward Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Tibetan Buddhism, Snow Lion
Scholarly
  • Gethin, Rupert (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Harvey, Peter (1990), Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press
  • Kalupahana, David J. (1992), A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Keown, Damien (2003), Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-860560-9 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
Preceded by
Bhava
Twelve Nidānas
Jāti
Succeeded by
Jarāmaraṇa