J. K. Rowling
|J. K. Rowling
Rowling at the White House Easter Egg Roll, 2010
31 July 1965 
Yate, Gloucestershire, England
|Education||Bachelor of Arts|
|Alma mater||University of Exeter|
|Genre||Fantasy, tragicomedy, crime fiction|
|Notable works||Harry Potter series|
|Children||2 daughters, 1 son|
Joanne "Jo" Rowling, OBE FRSL (//; born 31 July 1965), pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist best known as the author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. The books have gained worldwide attention, won multiple awards, and sold more than 400 million copies. They have become the best-selling book series in history and been the basis for a series of films which is the second highest-grossing film series in history. Rowling had overall approval on the scripts and maintained creative control by serving as a producer on the final instalment.
Born in Yate, Gloucestershire, Rowling was working as a researcher and bilingual secretary for Amnesty International when she conceived the idea for the Harry Potter series while on a delayed train from Manchester to London in 1990. The seven-year period that followed saw the death of her mother, birth of her first child, divorce from her first husband and relative poverty until Rowling finished the first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, in 1997. There were six sequels, the last, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, in 2007. Since then, Rowling has written four books for adult readers, The Casual Vacancy (2012) and—under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith—the crime fiction novels The Cuckoo's Calling (2013), The Silkworm (2014) and Career of Evil (2015).
Rowling has lived a "rags to riches" life story, in which she progressed from living on state benefits to multi-millionaire status within five years. She is the United Kingdom's best-selling living author, with sales in excess of £238m. The 2008 Sunday Times Rich List estimated Rowling's fortune at £560 million, ranking her as the twelfth richest woman in the United Kingdom. Forbes ranked Rowling as the 48th most powerful celebrity of 2007, and Time magazine named her as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year, noting the social, moral, and political inspiration she has given her fans. In October 2010, Rowling was named the "Most Influential Woman in Britain" by leading magazine editors. She has supported charities including Comic Relief, One Parent Families, Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain and Lumos (formerly the Children's High Level Group), and in politics supports the Labour Party and Better Together.
- 1 Name
- 2 Biography
- 3 Future writing
- 4 Philanthropy
- 5 Influences
- 6 Views
- 7 Legal disputes
- 8 Awards and honours
- 9 Publications
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Although she writes under the pen name "J. K. Rowling" (pronounced rolling), her name, before her remarriage, was simply "Joanne Rowling". Anticipating that the target audience of young boys might not want to read a book written by a woman, her publishers asked that she use two initials rather than her full name. As she had no middle name, she chose K (for "Kathleen") as the second initial of her pen name, from her paternal grandmother. She calls herself "Jo". Following her marriage, she has sometimes used the name Joanne Murray when conducting personal business. During the Leveson Inquiry she gave evidence under the name of Joanne Kathleen Rowling and her entry in Who's Who lists her name as Joanne Kathleen Rowling.
Birth and family
Rowling was born to Peter James Rowling, a Rolls-Royce aircraft engineer, and Anne Rowling (née Volant), a science technician, on 31 July 1965 in Yate, Gloucestershire, England, 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Bristol. Her parents first met on a train departing from King's Cross Station bound for Arbroath in 1964. They married on 14 March 1965. One of her maternal great-grandfathers, Dugald Campbell, was Scottish, born in Lamlash on the Isle of Arran. Her mother's paternal grandfather, Louis Volant, was French, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre for exceptional bravery in defending the village of Courcelles-le-Comte during the First World War. Rowling originally believed he had won the Légion d'honneur during the war, as she said when she received it herself in 2009. She later discovered the truth when featured in an episode of the UK genealogy series Who Do You Think You Are?
Childhood and education
Rowling's sister Dianne was born at their home when Rowling was 23 months old. The family moved to the nearby village Winterbourne when Rowling was four. She attended St Michael's Primary School, a school founded by abolitionist William Wilberforce and education reformer Hannah More. Her headmaster at St Michael's, Alfred Dunn, has been suggested as the inspiration for the Harry Potter headmaster Albus Dumbledore.
As a child, Rowling often wrote fantasy stories which she frequently read to her sister. Aged nine, Rowling moved to Church Cottage in the Gloucestershire village of Tutshill, close to Chepstow, Wales. She attended secondary school at Wyedean School and College, where her mother worked in the science department. When she was a young teenager, her great-aunt gave her a copy of Jessica Mitford's autobiography, Hons and Rebels. Mitford became Rowling's heroine, and Rowling read all of her books.
Rowling has said that her teenage years were unhappy. Her home life was complicated by her mother's illness and a strained relationship with her father, with whom she is not on speaking terms. Rowling later said that she based the character of Hermione Granger on herself when she was eleven. Steve Eddy, who taught Rowling English when she first arrived, remembers her as "not exceptional" but "one of a group of girls who were bright, and quite good at English". Sean Harris, her best friend in the Upper Sixth, owned a turquoise Ford Anglia which she says inspired a flying version that appeared in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. At this time, she listened to the Smiths and the Clash. Rowling took A-levels in English, French and German, achieving two As and a B and was Head Girl.
In 1982, Rowling took the entrance exams for Oxford University but was not accepted and read for a BA in French and Classics at the University of Exeter. Martin Sorrell, a French professor at Exeter, remembers "a quietly competent student, with a denim jacket and dark hair, who, in academic terms, gave the appearance of doing what was necessary". Rowling recalls doing little work, preferring to listen to the Smiths and read Dickens and Tolkien. After a year of study in Paris, Rowling graduated from Exeter in 1986 and moved to London to work as a researcher and bilingual secretary for Amnesty International. In 1988, Rowling wrote a short essay about her time studying Classics entitled "What was the Name of that Nymph Again? or Greek and Roman Studies Recalled"; it was published by the University of Exeter's journal Pegasus.
Inspiration and mother's death
After working at Amnesty International in London, Rowling and her then boyfriend decided to move to Manchester, where she worked at the Chamber of Commerce. In 1990, while she was on a four-hour-delayed train trip from Manchester to London, the idea for a story of a young boy attending a school of wizardry "came fully formed" into her mind.
When she had reached her Clapham Junction flat, she began to write immediately. In December, Rowling's mother Anne died after ten years suffering from multiple sclerosis. Rowling was writing Harry Potter at the time and had never told her mother about it. Her death heavily affected Rowling's writing and she introduced much more detail about Harry's loss in the first book, because she knew how it felt.
Marriage, divorce, and single parenthood
An advert in The Guardian led Rowling to move to Porto in Portugal to teach English as a foreign language. She taught at night, and began writing in the day while listening to Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto. After 18 months in Porto, she met Portuguese television journalist Jorge Arantes in a bar, and found they shared an interest in Jane Austen. They married on 16 October 1992 and their child, Jessica Isabel Rowling Arantes (named after Jessica Mitford), was born on 27 July 1993 in Portugal. Rowling had previously suffered a miscarriage. The couple separated on 17 November 1993. Biographers have suggested that Rowling suffered domestic abuse during her marriage, although the full extent is unknown. In December 1993, Rowling and her then-infant daughter moved to be near Rowling's sister in Edinburgh, Scotland, with three chapters of what would become Harry Potter in her suitcase.
Seven years after graduating from university, Rowling saw herself as a failure. Her marriage had failed, and she was jobless with a dependent child, but she described her failure as liberating and allowing her to focus on writing. During this period Rowling was diagnosed with clinical depression and contemplated suicide. Her illness inspired the characters known as Dementors, soul-sucking creatures introduced in the third book. Rowling signed up for welfare benefits, describing her economic status as being "poor as it is possible to be in modern Britain, without being homeless."
Rowling was left in despair after her estranged husband arrived in Scotland, seeking both her and her daughter. She obtained an order of restraint and Arantes returned to Portugal, with Rowling filing for divorce in August 1994. She began a teacher training course in August 1995 at the Moray House School of Education, at Edinburgh University, after completing her first novel while living on state benefits. She wrote in many cafés, especially Nicolson's Café (owned by her brother-in-law, Roger Moore), and the Elephant House; wherever she could get Jessica to fall asleep. In a 2001 BBC interview, Rowling denied the rumour that she wrote in local cafés to escape from her unheated flat, pointing out that it had heating. One of the reasons she wrote in cafés was that taking her baby out for a walk was the best way to make her fall asleep.
In 1995, Rowling finished her manuscript for Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone on an old manual typewriter. Upon the enthusiastic response of Bryony Evens, a reader who had been asked to review the book's first three chapters, the Fulham-based Christopher Little Literary Agents agreed to represent Rowling in her quest for a publisher. The book was submitted to twelve publishing houses, all of which rejected the manuscript. A year later she was finally given the green light (and a £1500 advance) by editor Barry Cunningham from Bloomsbury, a publishing house in London. The decision to publish Rowling's book owes much to Alice Newton, the eight-year-old daughter of Bloomsbury's chairman, who was given the first chapter to review by her father and immediately demanded the next. Although Bloomsbury agreed to publish the book, Cunningham says that he advised Rowling to get a day job, since she had little chance of making money in children's books. Soon after, in 1997, Rowling received an £8000 grant from the Scottish Arts Council to enable her to continue writing.
In June 1997, Bloomsbury published Philosopher's Stone with an initial print run of 1,000 copies, 500 of which were distributed to libraries. Today, such copies are valued between £16,000 and £25,000. Five months later, the book won its first award, a Nestlé Smarties Book Prize. In February, the novel won the British Book Award for Children's Book of the Year, and later, the Children's Book Award. In early 1998, an auction was held in the United States for the rights to publish the novel, and was won by Scholastic Inc., for US$105,000. Rowling said that she "nearly died" when she heard the news. In October 1998, Scholastic published Philosopher's Stone in the US under the title of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, a change Rowling says she now regrets and would have fought if she had been in a better position at the time. Rowling moved from her flat with the money from the Scholastic sale, into 19 Hazelbank Terrace in Edinburgh.
Its sequel, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, was published in July 1998 and again Rowling won the Smarties Prize. In December 1999, the third novel, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, won the Smarties Prize, making Rowling the first person to win the award three times running. She later withdrew the fourth Harry Potter novel from contention to allow other books a fair chance. In January 2000, Prisoner of Azkaban won the inaugural Whitbread Children's Book of the Year award, though it lost the Book of the Year prize to Seamus Heaney's translation of Beowulf.
The fourth book, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, was released simultaneously in the UK and the US on 8 July 2000 and broke sales records in both countries. 372,775 copies of the book were sold in its first day in the UK, almost equalling the number Prisoner of Azkaban sold during its first year. In the US, the book sold three million copies in its first 48 hours, smashing all records. Rowling said that she had had a crisis while writing the novel and had to rewrite one chapter many times to fix a problem with the plot. Rowling was named Author of the Year in the 2000 British Book Awards.
A wait of three years occurred between the release of Goblet of Fire and the fifth Harry Potter novel, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. This gap led to press speculation that Rowling had developed writer's block, speculations she denied. Rowling later said that writing the book was a chore, that it could have been shorter, and that she ran out of time and energy as she tried to finish it.
The sixth book, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, was released on 16 July 2005. It too broke all sales records, selling nine million copies in its first 24 hours of release. In 2006, Half-Blood Prince received the Book of the Year prize at the British Book Awards.
The title of the seventh and final Harry Potter book was announced on 21 December 2006 as Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. In February 2007 it was reported that Rowling wrote on a bust in her hotel room at the Balmoral Hotel in Edinburgh that she had finished the seventh book in that room on 11 January 2007. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was released on 21 July 2007 (0:01 BST) and broke its predecessor's record as the fastest-selling book of all time. It sold 11 million copies in the first day of release in the United Kingdom and United States. The book's last chapter was one of the earliest things she wrote in the entire series.
Harry Potter is now a global brand worth an estimated US$15 billion, and the last four Harry Potter books have consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history. The series, totalling 4,195 pages, has been translated, in whole or in part, into 65 languages.
The Harry Potter books have also gained recognition for sparking an interest in reading among the young at a time when children were thought to be abandoning books for computers and television, although it is reported that despite the huge uptake of the books, adolescent reading has continued to decline.
Harry Potter films
In October 1998, Warner Bros. purchased the film rights to the first two novels for a seven-figure sum. A film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was released on 16 November 2001, and Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets on 15 November 2002. Both films were directed by Chris Columbus. The film version of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was released on 4 June 2004, directed by Alfonso Cuarón. The fourth film, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, was directed by Mike Newell, and released on 18 November 2005. The film of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix was released on 11 July 2007. David Yates directed, and Michael Goldenberg wrote the screenplay, having taken over the position from Steve Kloves. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was released on 15 July 2009. David Yates directed again, and Kloves returned to write the script. Warner Bros. filmed the final instalment of the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, in two segments, with part one being released on 19 November 2010 and part two being released on 15 July 2011. Yates directed both films.
Warner Bros. took considerable notice of Rowling's desires and thoughts when drafting her contract. One of her principal stipulations was the films be shot in Britain with an all-British cast, which has been generally adhered to. Rowling also demanded that Coca-Cola, the victor in the race to tie in their products to the film series, donate US$18 million to the American charity Reading is Fundamental, as well as several community charity programs.
The first four, sixth and seventh films were scripted by Steve Kloves; Rowling assisted him in the writing process, ensuring that his scripts did not contradict future books in the series. She told Alan Rickman (Severus Snape) and Robbie Coltrane (Hagrid) certain secrets about their characters before they were revealed in the books. Daniel Radcliffe (Harry Potter) asked her if Harry died at any point in the series; Rowling answered him by saying, "You have a death scene", thereby not explicitly answering the question. Director Steven Spielberg was approached to direct the first film, but dropped out. The press has repeatedly claimed that Rowling played a role in his departure, but Rowling stated that she had no say in who directed the films and would not have vetoed Spielberg. Rowling's first choice for the director had been Monty Python member Terry Gilliam, but Warner Bros. wanted a family-friendly film and chose Columbus.
Rowling, producers David Heyman and David Barron, along with directors David Yates, Mike Newell and Alfonso Cuarón collected the Michael Balcon Award for Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema at the 2011 British Academy Film Awards in honour of the Harry Potter film franchise.
In September 2013, Warner Bros. announced an "expanded creative partnership" with Rowling, based on a planned series of films about Newt Scamander, author of Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. The first film will be scripted by Rowling, and be set roughly 70 years before the events of the main series. In 2014, it was announced that the series would consist of three films.
In 2004, Forbes named Rowling as the first person to become a U.S.-dollar billionaire by writing books, the second-richest female entertainer and the 1,062nd richest person in the world. Rowling disputed the calculations and said she had plenty of money, but was not a billionaire. The 2008 Sunday Times Rich List named Rowling the 144th richest person in Britain. In 2012, Forbes removed Rowling from their rich list, claiming that her US$160 million in charitable donations and the high tax rate in the UK meant she was no longer a billionaire. In February 2013 she was assessed as the 13th most powerful woman in the United Kingdom by Woman's Hour on BBC Radio 4.
In 2001, Rowling purchased a 19th-century estate house, Killiechassie House, on the banks of the River Tay, near Aberfeldy, in Perth and Kinross. Rowling also owns a £4.5 million Georgian house in Kensington, West London, on a street with 24-hour security.
Remarriage and family
On 26 December 2001, Rowling married Neil Michael Murray (born 30 June 1971), an anaesthetist, in a private ceremony at her home, Killiechassie House, near Aberfeldy. Their son, David Gordon Rowling Murray, was born on 24 March 2003. Shortly after Rowling began writing Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, she ceased working on the novel to care for David in his early infancy.
Rowling is a friend of Sarah Brown, wife of former prime minister Gordon Brown, whom she met when they collaborated on a charitable project. When Sarah Brown's son Fraser was born in 2003, Rowling was one of the first to visit her in hospital. Rowling's youngest child, daughter Mackenzie Jean Rowling Murray, to whom she dedicated Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, was born on 23 January 2005.
In October 2012, a New Yorker magazine article stated that the Rowling family lived in a seventeenth-century Edinburgh house, concealed at the front by tall conifer hedges. Prior to October 2012, Rowling lived near the author Ian Rankin, who later said she was quiet and introspective, and that she seemed in her element with children. As of June 2014[update], the family resides in Scotland.
The Casual Vacancy
In July 2011, Rowling parted company with her agent, Christopher Little, moving to a new agency founded by one of his staff, Neil Blair. On 23 February 2012, Rowling's new agency, the Blair Partnership, announced on its website that Rowling was set to publish a new book targeted at adults. In a press release, Rowling said that her new book would be quite different from Harry Potter. In April 2012, Little, Brown and Company announced that the book was entitled The Casual Vacancy and would be released on 27 September 2012. Rowling gave several interviews and made appearances to promote The Casual Vacancy, including at the London Southbank Centre, the Cheltenham Literature Festival, Charlie Rose and the Lennoxlove Book Festival. In its first three weeks of release, The Casual Vacancy sold over 1 million copies worldwide.
On 3 December 2012, it was announced that The Casual Vacancy was to become a BBC television drama series. Rowling's agent, Neil Blair acted as producer, through his independent production company and with Rick Senat serving as executive producer. Rowling collaborated on the adaptation. The series aired in three parts from 15 of February to 1 March 2015.
Over the years, Rowling often spoke of writing a crime novel. In 2007, during the Edinburgh Book Festival, author Ian Rankin claimed that his wife spotted Rowling "scribbling away" at a detective novel in a café. Rankin later retracted the story, claiming it was a joke, but the rumour persisted, with a report in 2012 in The Guardian speculating that Rowling's next book would be a crime novel. In an interview with Stephen Fry in 2005, Rowling claimed that she would much prefer to write any subsequent books under a pseudonym, but she conceded to Jeremy Paxman in 2003 that if she did, the press would probably "find out in seconds".
In April 2013, Little Brown published The Cuckoo's Calling, the purported début novel of author Robert Galbraith, who the publisher described as "a former plainclothes Royal Military Police investigator who had left in 2003 to work in the civilian security industry". The novel, a detective story in which private investigator Cormoran Strike unravels the supposed suicide of a supermodel, sold 1500 copies in hardback (although the matter was not resolved as of 21 July 2013[update], later reports stated that this number is the number of copies that were printed for the first run, while the sales total was closer to 500), and received acclaim from other crime writers and critics—a Publishers Weekly review called the book a "stellar debut", while the Library Journal 's mystery section pronounced the novel "the debut of the month".
India Knight, a novelist and columnist for the Sunday Times, tweeted on 9 July 2013 that she had been reading The Cuckoo's Calling and thought it was good for a début novel. In response, a tweeter called Jude Callegari said that the author was "Rowling". Knight queried this but got no further reply. Knight notified Richard Brooks, arts editor of the Sunday Times, who began his own investigation. After discovering that Rowling and Galbraith had the same agent and editor, he sent the books for linguistic analysis which found similarities, and subsequently contacted Rowling's agent who confirmed it was Rowling's pseudonym. Within days of Rowling being revealed as the author, sales of the book rose by 4000 percent, and Little Brown printed another 140,000 copies to meet the increase in demand. As of 18 June 2013[update], a signed copy of the first edition sold for US$4,453 (£2,950), while an unsold signed first-edition copy was being offered for $6,188 (£3,950).
Rowling said that she had enjoyed working under a pseudonym. On her Robert Galbraith website, Rowling explained that she took the name from one of her personal heroes, Robert Kennedy, and a childhood fantasy name she had invented for herself, Ella Galbraith.
Soon after the revelation, Brooks pondered whether Jude Callegari could have been Rowling as part of wider speculation that the entire affair had been a publicity stunt. Some also noted that many of the writers who had initially praised the book, such as Alex Bray or Val McDermid, were within Rowling's circle of acquaintances; both vociferously denied any foreknowledge of Rowling's authorship. Judith "Jude" Callegari was the best friend of the wife of Chris Gossage, a partner within Russells Solicitors, Rowling's legal representatives. Rowling released a statement saying she was disappointed and angry; Russells apologised for the leak, confirming it was not part of a marketing stunt and that "the disclosure was made in confidence to someone he [Gossage] trusted implicitly". Russells made a donation to the Soldiers' Charity on Rowling's behalf and reimbursed her for her legal fees. On 26 November 2013 the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) issued Gossage a written rebuke and £1000 fine for breaching privacy rules.
On 17 February 2014, Rowling announced that the second Cormoran Strike novel, named The Silkworm, would be released in June 2014. It sees Strike investigating the disappearance of a writer hated by many of his old friends for insulting them in his new novel.
In 2015, Rowling stated on Galbraith's website that the third Cormoran Strike novel would include "an insane amount of planning, the most I have done for any book I have written so far. I have colour-coded spreadsheets so I can keep a track of where I am going." On 24 April 2015, Rowling announced that work on the third book was completed. Titled Career of Evil, it was released on 20 October 2015 in the United States, and on 22 October 2015 in the United Kingdom.
In 2006, Rowling announced that she had finished writing a few short stories and another children's book (a "political fairy story") about a monster, aimed at a younger audience than Harry Potter readers. In July 2007, Rowling said that she wanted to dedicate more time to her family, but was currently writing two works, one for children and the other for adults. She did not give any details about the two projects but did state that she was excited because the two book situation reminded her of writing the Philosopher's Stone, explaining how she was then writing two books until Harry took over.
In November 2007, Rowling said that she was working on another book, a "half-finished book for children that I think will probably be the next thing I publish".
In March 2008, Rowling said in an interview that she had returned to writing in Edinburgh cafés, intent on composing a new novel for children. Rowling also confirmed that her political fairy tale for children was nearing completion.
In September 2012, Rowling stated that she was currently working on two books for readership younger than Harry Potter. She maintained in an interview with The Guardian that one of those two books was the "political fairy tale" she spoke of previously, although she expected to release the other book as her next project. At the Cheltenham Literature Festival on 6 October 2012, she said that she had a couple of things on her laptop aimed at a slightly younger age group than Harry Potter which were "nearly done".
Future of Harry Potter
Rowling has said it is unlikely she will write any more books in the Harry Potter series. In October 2007 she stated that her future work was unlikely to be in the fantasy genre. On 1 October 2010, in an interview with Oprah Winfrey, Rowling stated a new book on the saga might happen.
In 2007, Rowling stated that she planned to write an encyclopaedia of Harry Potter 's wizarding world consisting of various unpublished material and notes. Any profits from such a book would be given to charity. During a news conference at Hollywood's Kodak Theatre in 2007, Rowling, when asked how the encyclopaedia was coming along, said, "It's not coming along, and I haven't started writing it. I never said it was the next thing I'd do." At the end of 2007, Rowling said that the encyclopaedia could take up to ten years to complete.
In June 2011, Rowling announced that future Harry Potter projects, and all electronic downloads, would be concentrated in a new website, called Pottermore. The site includes 18,000 words of information on characters, places and objects in the Harry Potter universe.
In October 2015, Rowling announced via Pottermore, that a two part play she has co-authored with playwrights Jack Thorne and John Tiffany, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, was the 'eighth Harry Potter story' and that it would focus on the life of Harry's Potter's youngest son Albus after the epilogue of the Deathly Hallows. On 28 October, 2015, the first round of tickets went on sale and sold out in several hours.
In 2000, Rowling established the Volant Charitable Trust, which uses its annual budget of £5.1 million to combat poverty and social inequality. The fund also gives to organisations that aid children, one parent families, and multiple sclerosis research.
Anti-poverty and children's welfare
Rowling, once a single parent, is now president of the charity Gingerbread (originally One Parent Families), having become their first Ambassador in 2000. Rowling collaborated with Sarah Brown to write a book of children's stories to aid One Parent Families.
In 2001, the UK anti-poverty fundraiser Comic Relief asked three best-selling British authors – cookery writer and TV presenter Delia Smith, Bridget Jones creator Helen Fielding, and Rowling – to submit booklets related to their most famous works for publication. Rowling's two booklets, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them and Quidditch Through the Ages, are ostensibly facsimiles of books found in the Hogwarts library. Since going on sale in March 2001, the books have raised £15.7 million for the fund. The £10.8 million they have raised outside the UK have been channelled into a newly created International Fund for Children and Young People in Crisis. In 2002 Rowling contributed a foreword to Magic, an anthology of fiction published by Bloomsbury Publishing, helping to raise money for the National Council for One Parent Families.
In 2005, Rowling and MEP Emma Nicholson founded the Children's High Level Group (now Lumos). In January 2006, Rowling went to Bucharest to highlight the use of caged beds in mental institutions for children. To further support the CHLG, Rowling auctioned one of seven handwritten and illustrated copies of The Tales of Beedle the Bard, a series of fairy tales referred to in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. The book was purchased for £1.95 million by on-line bookseller Amazon.com on 13 December 2007, becoming the most expensive modern book ever sold at auction. Rowling gave away the remaining six copies to those who have a close connection with the Harry Potter books. In 2008, Rowling agreed to publish the book with the proceeds going to Lumos. On 1 June 2010 (International Children's Day), Lumos launched an annual initiative – Light a Birthday Candle for Lumos. In November 2013, Rowling handed over all earnings from the sale of The Tales of Beedle the Bard, totalling nearly £19 million.
In July 2012, Rowling was featured at the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony in London where she read a few lines from J.M. Barrie's Peter Pan as part of a tribute to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. An inflatable representation of Lord Voldemort and other children's literary characters accompanied her reading.
Rowling has contributed money and support for research and treatment of multiple sclerosis, from which her mother suffered before her death in 1990. In 2006, Rowling contributed a substantial sum toward the creation of a new Centre for Regenerative Medicine at Edinburgh University, later named the Anne Rowling Regenerative Neurology Clinic. In 2010 she donated a further £10 million to the centre. For reasons unknown, Scotland, Rowling's country of adoption, has the highest rate of multiple sclerosis in the world. In 2003, Rowling took part in a campaign to establish a national standard of care for MS sufferers. In April 2009, she announced that she was withdrawing her support for Multiple Sclerosis Society Scotland, citing her inability to resolve an ongoing feud between the organisation's northern and southern branches that had sapped morale and led to several resignations.
Other philanthropic work
In May 2008, bookseller Waterstones asked Rowling and 12 other writers (Sebastian Faulks, Doris Lessing, Lisa Appignanesi, Margaret Atwood, Lauren Child, Richard Ford, Neil Gaiman, Nick Hornby, Michael Rosen, Axel Scheffler, Tom Stoppard and Irvine Welsh) to compose a short piece of their own choosing on a single A5 card, which would then be sold at auction in aid of the charities Dyslexia Action and English PEN. Rowling's contribution was an 800-word Harry Potter prequel that concerns Harry's father, James Potter, and godfather, Sirius Black, and takes place three years before Harry was born. The cards were collated and sold for charity in book form in August 2008.
On 1 and 2 August 2006, she read alongside Stephen King and John Irving at Radio City Music Hall in New York City. Profits from the event were donated to the Haven Foundation, a charity that aids artists and performers left uninsurable and unable to work, and the medical NGO Médecins Sans Frontières. In May 2007, Rowling pledged a donation reported as over £250,000 to a reward fund started by the tabloid News of the World for the safe return of a young British girl, Madeleine McCann, who disappeared in Portugal. Rowling, along with Nelson Mandela, Al Gore, and Alan Greenspan, wrote an introduction to a collection of Gordon Brown's speeches, the proceeds of which were donated to the Jennifer Brown Research Laboratory. After her exposure as the true author of The Cuckoo's Calling led a massive increase in sales, Rowling announced she would donate all her royalties to the Army Benevolent Fund, claiming she had always intended to, but never expected the book to be a bestseller.
Rowling is a supporter of The Shannon Trust, which runs the Toe by Toe Reading Plan and the Shannon Reading Plan in prisons across Britain, helping and giving tutoring to prisoners who cannot read.
Rowling has named communist and civil rights activist Jessica Mitford as "[her] most influential writer" saying, "Jessica Mitford has been my heroine since I was 14 years old, when I overheard my formidable great-aunt discussing how Mitford had run away at the age of 19 to fight with the Reds in the Spanish Civil War", and claims what inspired her about Mitford was that she was "incurably and instinctively rebellious, brave, adventurous, funny and irreverent, she liked nothing better than a good fight, preferably against a pompous and hypocritical target". Rowling has described Jane Austen as her favourite author, calling Emma her favourite book in O magazine. As a child, Rowling has said her early influences included The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis, The Little White Horse by Elizabeth Goudge, and Manxmouse by Paul Gallico.
In September 2008, on the eve of the Labour Party Conference, Rowling announced that she had donated £1 million to the Labour Party, and publicly endorsed Labour Prime Minister Gordon Brown over Conservative challenger David Cameron, praising Labour's policies on child poverty. Rowling is a close friend of Sarah Brown, wife of Gordon Brown, whom she met when they collaborated on a charitable project (see above).
Rowling discussed the 2008 United States presidential election with the Spanish-language newspaper El País in February 2008, stating that the election would have a profound effect on the rest of the world. She also said that Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton would be "extraordinary" in the White House. In the same interview, Rowling identified Robert F. Kennedy as her hero.
In April 2010, Rowling published an article in The Times, in which she criticised Cameron's plan to encourage married couples to stay together by offering them a £150 annual tax credit: "Nobody who has ever experienced the reality of poverty could say 'it's not the money, it's the message'. When your flat has been broken into, and you cannot afford a locksmith, it is the money. When you are two pence short of a tin of baked beans, and your child is hungry, it is the money. When you find yourself contemplating shoplifting to get nappies, it is the money."
As a resident of Scotland, Rowling was eligible to vote in the 2014 referendum on Scottish independence, and campaigned for the "No" vote. She donated £1 million to the Better Together anti-independence campaign (run by her former neighbour Alistair Darling), the largest donation it had received at the time. In a blog post, Rowling explained that an open letter from Scottish medical professionals raised problems with First Minister Alex Salmond's plans for a common research funding. Rowling compared some Scottish Nationalists with the Death Eaters, characters from Harry Potter who are scornful of those without pure blood.
On October 22 2015, a letter was published in The Guardian signed by Rowling (along with over 150 other figures from arts and politics) opposing the cultural boycott of Israel, and announcing the creation of a network for dialogue, called Culture for Coexistence. Rowling later explained her position in more detail, saying that although she opposed most of Benjamin Netanyahu's actions she did not think the cultural boycott would bring about the removal of Israel's leader or help improve the situation in Israel and Palestine.
Over the years, some religious people, particularly Christians, have decried Rowling's books for supposedly promoting witchcraft. Rowling identifies as a Christian, and attended a Church of Scotland congregation while writing Harry Potter. Her eldest daughter, Jessica, was baptised there. She once said, "I believe in God, not magic." Early on she felt that if readers knew of her Christian beliefs they would be able to predict her plot line.
In 2007, Rowling described having been brought up in the Church of England. She said she was the only one in her family who regularly went to church. As a student she became annoyed at the "smugness of religious people" and worshipped less often. Later, she started to attend again at a church in Edinburgh.
In a 2006 interview with Tatler magazine, Rowling noted that, "like Graham Greene, my faith is sometimes about if my faith will return. It's important to me." She has said that she has struggled with doubt, that she believes in an afterlife, and that her faith plays a part in her books. In a 2012 radio interview, she said that she was a member of the Scottish Episcopal Church, a province of the Anglican Communion.
Rowling has had a difficult relationship with the press. She admits to being "thin-skinned" and dislikes the fickle nature of reporting. Rowling disputes her reputation as a recluse who hates to be interviewed.
By 2011, Rowling had taken more than 50 actions against the press. In 2001, the Press Complaints Commission upheld a complaint by Rowling over a series of unauthorised photographs of her with her daughter on the beach in Mauritius published in OK! Magazine. In 2007, Rowling's young son, David, assisted by Rowling and her husband, lost a court fight to ban publication of a photograph of him. The photo, taken by a photographer using a long-range lens, was subsequently published in a Sunday Express article featuring Rowling's family life and motherhood. The judgement was overturned in David's favour in May 2008.
Rowling particularly dislikes the British tabloid the Daily Mail, which has conducted interviews with her estranged ex-husband. As one journalist noted, "Harry's Uncle Vernon is a grotesque philistine of violent tendencies and remarkably little brain. It is not difficult to guess which newspaper Rowling gives him to read [in Goblet of Fire]." As of January 2014[update], she was seeking damages from the Mail for libel over an article about her time as a single mother. Some have speculated that Rowling's fraught relationship with the press was the inspiration behind the character Rita Skeeter, a gossipy celebrity journalist who first appears in Goblet of Fire, but Rowling noted in 2000 that the character predates her rise to fame.
In September 2011, Rowling was named a "core participant" in the Leveson Inquiry into the culture, practices and ethics of the British press, as one of dozens of celebrities who may have been the victim of phone hacking. On 24 November 2011, Rowling gave evidence before the inquiry; although she was not suspected to have been the victim of phone hacking, her testimony included accounts of photographers camping on her doorstep, her fiancé being duped into giving his home address to a journalist masquerading as a tax official, her chasing a journalist a week after giving birth, a journalist leaving a note inside her then-five-year-old daughter's schoolbag, and an attempt by the Sun to "blackmail" her into a photo opportunity in exchange for the return of a stolen manuscript. Rowling claimed she had to leave her former home in Merchiston because of press intrusion. In November 2012, Rowling wrote an article for The Guardian in reaction to David Cameron's decision not to implement the full recommendations of the Leveson inquiry, saying she felt "duped and angry".
In 2014, Rowling reaffirmed her support for "Hacked Off" and its campaign towards press self-regulation by co-signing with other British celebrities a declaration to "[safeguard] the press from political interference while also giving vital protection to the vulnerable."
Rowling, her publishers, and Time Warner, the owner of the rights to the Harry Potter films, have taken numerous legal actions to protect their copyright. The worldwide popularity of the Harry Potter series has led to the appearance of a number of locally produced, unauthorised sequels and other derivative works, sparking efforts to ban or contain them.
Another area of legal dispute involves a series of injunctions obtained by Rowling and her publishers to prohibit anyone from reading her books before their official release date. The injunction drew fire from civil liberties and free speech campaigners and sparked debates over the "right to read".
Awards and honours
Rowling has received honorary degrees from St Andrews University, the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Napier University, the University of Exeter, the University of Aberdeen and Harvard University, for whom she spoke at the 2008 commencement ceremony. In 2009 Rowling was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur by French President Nicolas Sarkozy.
Other awards include:
- 1997: Nestlé Smarties Book Prize, Gold Award for Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
- 1998: Nestlé Smarties Book Prize, Gold Award for Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
- 1998: British Children's Book of the Year, winner Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
- 1999: Nestlé Smarties Book Prize, Gold Award for Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
- 1999: National Book Awards Children's Book of the Year, winner Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
- 1999: Whitbread Children's Book of the Year, winner Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
- 2000: British Book Awards, Author of the Year
- 2000: Order of the British Empire, Officer (for services to Children's literature)
- 2000: Locus Award, winner Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
- 2001: Hugo Award for Best Novel, winner Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
- 2003: Premio Príncipe de Asturias, Concord
- 2003: Bram Stoker Award for Best Work for Young Readers, winner Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
- 2006: British Book of the Year, winner for Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince
- 2007: Blue Peter Badge, Gold
- 2008: British Book Awards, Outstanding Achievement
- 2010: Hans Christian Andersen Literature Award, inaugural award winner
- 2011: British Academy Film Awards, Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema for the Harry Potter film series, shared with David Heyman, cast and crew
- 2012: Freedom of the City of London
Harry Potter series
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (26 June 1997)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2 July 1998)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (8 July 1999)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (8 July 2000)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (21 June 2003)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (16 July 2005)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (21 July 2007)
- Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (supplement to the Harry Potter series) (1 March 2001)
- Quidditch Through the Ages (supplement to the Harry Potter series) (1 March 2001)
- The Tales of Beedle the Bard (supplement to the Harry Potter series) (4 December 2008)
- Harry Potter prequel (July 2008)
- The Casual Vacancy (27 September 2012)
Cormoran Strike series
- The Cuckoo's Calling (as Robert Galbraith) (18 April 2013)
- The Silkworm (as Robert Galbraith) (19 June 2014)
- Career of Evil (as Robert Galbraith) (20 October 2015)
- McNeil, Gil and Brown, Sarah, editors (2002). Foreword to the anthology Magic. Bloomsbury.
- Brown, Gordon (2006). Introduction to "Ending Child Poverty" in Moving Britain Forward. Selected Speeches 1997–2006. Bloomsbury.
- Sussman, Peter Y., editor (26 July 2006). "The First It Girl: J. K. Rowling reviews Decca: the Letters by Jessica Mitford". The Daily Telegraph.
- Anelli, Melissa (2008). Foreword to Harry, A History. Pocket Books.
- Rowling, J. K. (5 June 2008). "The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination". Harvard Magazine.
- J. K. Rowling, Very Good Lives: The Fringe Benefits of Failure and Importance of Imagination, illustrated by Joel Holland, Sphere, 14 April 2015, 80 pages (ISBN 978-1-4087-0678-7).
- Rowling, J. K. (30 April 2009). "Gordon Brown – The 2009 Time 100". Time magazine.
- Rowling, J. K. (14 April 2010). "The Single Mother's Manifesto". The Times.
- Rowling, J. K. (30 November 2012). "I feel duped and angry at David Cameron's reaction to Leveson". The Guardian.
- Rowling, J. K. (17 December 2014). Isn’t it time we left orphanages to fairytales? The Guardian.
- Rowling, J. K. (guest editor) (28 April 2014). "Woman's Hour Takeover". Woman's Hour, BBC Radio 4.
- ROWLING, Joanne Kathleen. Who's Who 2015 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (subscription required)
- "Caine heads birthday honours list". BBC News. 17 June 2000. Retrieved 25 October 2000.
- Flood, Alison (17 June 2008). "Potter tops 400 million sales". theBookseller.com. The Bookseller. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
- "Record for best-selling book series". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- "Movie Franchises and Brands Index". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Billington, Alex (9 December 2010). "Exclusive Video Interview: 'Harry Potter' Producer David Heyman". firstshowing.net. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "Warner Bros. Pictures Worldwide Satellite Trailer Debut: Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1". Businesswire. 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- Shapiro, Marc (2000). J.K. Rowling: The Wizard Behind Harry Potter. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-32586-X.
- Flood, Alison (17 February 2014). "J.K. Rowling to publish second novel as Robert Galbraith". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- Farr, Emma-Victoria (3 October 2012). "J.K. Rowling: Casual Vacancy tops fiction charts". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- "Joanne Rowling". The Sunday Times. 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "#48 J.K. Rowling". Forbes magazine. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Gibbs, Nancy (19 December 2007). Person of the Year 2007: Runners-Up: J.K. Rowling. Time magazine. Retrieved 23 December 2007.
- Pearse, Damien (11 October 2010). "Harry Potter creator J.K. Rowling named Most Influential Woman in the UK". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Rowling, J.K. (16 February 2007). "The Not Especially Fascinating Life So Far of J.K. Rowling". Accio Quote (accio-quote.org). Retrieved 28 April 2008.
- "Jo Rowling Interview on Oprah". The Oprah Winfrey Show. 2010-10-01. Event occurs at 1:50. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
- Shelagh, Rogers (23 October 2000). "Interview: J.K. Rowling". This Morning. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Reprint at Accio Quote! (accio-quote.org). 28 July 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- "Judge rules against J.K. Rowling in privacy case". Guardian Unlimited. 7 August 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
- Greig, Geordie (10 January 2006). "There would be so much to tell her ...". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
- "Witness statement of Joanne Kathleen Rowling" (PDF). The Leveson Inquiry. November 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Parker, Ian (1 October 2012). "Mugglemarch: J.K. Rowling writes a realist novel for adults". The New Yorker. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Smith, Sean (2003), J.K. Rowling: A Biography (Michael O'Mara, London), p. 55.
- "Biography: J.K. Rowling". Scholastic.com. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- "Rowling, J.K.". World Book 2006.
- Hutchinson, Lynne (6 September 2012). "Concerns raised about future of former Chipping Sodbury cottage hospital site". Gazette Series (Gloucestershire, UK). Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "Biography". JKRowling.com. Retrieved 17 March 2006.
- McGinty, Stephen (16 June 2003). "The J.K. Rowling Story". The Scotsman. Retrieved 9 April 2006.
- "J.K. Rowling's ancestors on ScotlandsPeople". ScotlandsPeople. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- Powell, Kimberly. "J.K. Rowling Family Tree". About.com. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Keaten, Jamey (3 February 2009). "France honors Harry Potter author Rowling". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- Colleen A. Sexton (2008). J. K. Rowling. Brookfield, Conn: Twenty-First Century Books. p. 13. ISBN 0-8225-7949-9.
- "St Michaels Register 1966–70 1. Winterbourne. —Rowling listed as admission No. 305. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
- "Happy birthday J.K. Rowling – here are 10 magical facts about the 'Harry Potter' author [Updated]". Los Angeles Times. 31 July 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
- Kirk, Connie Ann (2003). J. K. Rowling: a biography. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-313-32205-8.
- Rowling, J.K. (26 November 2006). The first It Girl. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Fraser, Lindsey (2 November 2002). "Harry Potter – Harry and me". The Scotsman. Interview with Rowling, edited excerpt from Conversations with J.K. Rowling.
Reprint at Accio Quote! (accio-quote.org). 31 May 2003; last updated 12 February 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- Feldman, Roxanne (September 1999). "The Truth about Harry". School Library Journal.
Reprint at Accio Quote! (accio-quote.org). Retrieved 2014-12-06.
- Fraser, Lindsey. Conversations with J.K. Rowling, pp. 19–20. Scholastic.
- Fraser, Lindsey. Conversations with J.K. Rowling, p. 29. Scholastic.
- Fraser, Lindsey. Conversations with J.K. Rowling, p. 34. Scholastic.
- Norman-Culp, Sheila (23 November 1998). "British author rides up the charts on a wizard's tale". Associated Press Newswires.
Reprint at Accio Quote! (accio-quote.org). 24 February 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2007.
- Rowling, J.K. (1988). "What was the Name of that Nymph Again? or Greek and Roman Studies Recalled". Pegasus (Exeter: University of Exeter Department of Classics and Ancient History) (41).
- Loer, Stephanie (18 October 1999). "All about Harry Potter from quidditch to the future of the Sorting Hat". The Boston Globe.
Reprint at Accio Quote! (accio-quote.org). No date. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
- "Harry Potter and Me". BBC Christmas Special. 2001. A&E Biography (American edition), 13 November 2002.
Reprint (part 1 of 5) at Accio Quote! (accio-quote.org). Retrieved 25 February 2007.
- Transcript of Richard and Judy. Richard & Judy, Channel Four Corporation (UK). 26 June 2006. Retrieved 4 July 2006.
- Weeks, Linton. "Charmed, I'm Sure". The Washington Post. 20 October 1999. Retrieved 21 March 2006.
- Kirk, Connie Ann (2003). J.K. Rowling: A Biography. United States: Greenwood Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-313-32205-8.
Soon, by many eyewitness accounts and even some versions of Jorge's own story, domestic violence became a painful reality in Jo's life.
- JK Rowling (June 2008). "JK Rowling: The fringe benefits of failure". TED. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
Failure & imagination
- "Harry Potter author: I considered suicide". CNN. 23 March 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Harry Potter's magician. BBC News. 18 February 2003. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
- "JK Rowling awarded honorary degree". Daily Telegraph (London). 8 July 2004. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Melissa Anelli (2008). Harry, A History: The True Story of a Boy Wizard, His Fans, and Life Inside the Harry Potter Phenomenon. New York: Pocket. p. 44. ISBN 1-4165-5495-5.
- Kirk, Connie Ann (2003). J.K. Rowling: A Biography. United States: Greenwood Press.
- Dunn, Elisabeth (30 June 2007). "From the dole to Hollywood". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 8 August 2010.
- "JK Rowling – Biography on Bio.". Biographies.co.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "Harry Potter and Me". BBC Christmas Special. 28 December 2001. Transcribed by "Marvelous Marvolo" and Jimmi Thøgersen. Quick Quotes Quill.org. Retrieved 17 March 2006.
- Damien Henderson (2007). "How JK Rowling has us spellbound". The Herald. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- Riccio, Heather. Interview with JK Rowling, Author of Harry Potter. Hilary Magazine. Retrieved 26 October 2007.
- "Meet the Writers: J. K. Rowling". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 25 March 2006.
- Lawless, John (3 July 2005). "Revealed: The eight-year-old girl who saved Harry Potter". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- Blais, Jacqueline. "Harry Potter has been very good to JK Rowling. USA Today 9 July 2005. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- Scottish Arts Council Wants Payback. hpna.com. 30 November 2003. Retrieved 9 April 2006.
- Kleffel, Rick. Rare Harry Potter books. metroactive.com. 22 July 2005. Retrieved 9 April 2006.
- Reynolds, Nigel. "$100,000 Success Story for Penniless Mother". The Daily Telegraph. 7 July 1997. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- "Red Nose Day" Online Chat Transcript, BBC Online, 12 March 2001, The Burrow. Retrieved 16 April 2008. Archived at Wayback Engine.
- "Harry Potter awards". Bloomsbury Publishing House. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
- Potter's award hat-trick. BBC News. 1 December 1999. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Gibbons, Fiachra. "Beowulf slays the wizard". Guardian Unlimited. 26 January 2000. Retrieved 19 March 2006.
- "Potter sales record". Reuters/PRNewswire. 11 July 2000. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Johnstone, Anne. The hype surrounding the fourth Harry Potter book belies the fact that Joanne Rowling had some of her blackest moments writing it – and that the pressure was self-imposed; a kind of magic. The Herald. 8 July 2000. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- "JK Rowling Biography". Biography Channel. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
Rowling was named Author of The Year at the British Book Awards in 2000
- Rowling denies writer's block. BBC News. 8 August 2001. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Grossman, Lev. "J.K. Rowling Hogwarts And All". Time magazine. 17 July 2005. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- New Potter book topples U.S. sales records. MSNBC. 18 July 2005. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Press Release. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Bloomsbury. 21 December 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
- Cornwell, Tim.Finish or bust – JK Rowling's unlikely message in an Edinburgh hotel room. The Scotsman. 3 February 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
- Rowling, J. K. "J.K.Rowling Official Site". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Harry Potter finale sales hit 11 m. BBC News. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
- "Rowling to kill two in final book". London: BBC News. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 24 March 2010.27 June 2006. Retrieved 25 July 2007.
- Harry Potter, the $15 billion man. Advertising Age. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
- Pauli, Michelle. "June date for Harry Potter 5". The Guardian; "Potter 'is fastest-selling book ever". BBC News. Retrieved 4 August 2007.
- Sawyer, Jenny. Missing from 'Harry Potter' – a real moral struggle. The Christian Science Monitor. 25 July 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
- Associated, By (29 June 2007). "Final Harry Potter is expected to set record". The Boston Globe. 29 June 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
- New Study Finds That the Harry Potter Series Has a Positive Impact on Kids' Reading and Their School Work. Scholastic. 25 July 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
- Mehegan, David. Mehegan, David (9 July 2007). "In end, Potter magic extends only so far". The Boston Globe. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2008.
- Walker, Andrew. "Harry Potter is off to Hollywood – writer a Millionairess". The Scotsman. 9 October 1998. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Harry Potter release dates. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- "Half-Blood Prince Filming News: Threat of Strike to Affect Harry Potter Six?". The Leaky Cauldron.19 September 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2007.
- Spelling, Ian. Yates Confirmed For Potter VI. Sci Fi Wire. 3 May 2007. Archived 5 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Jeff Boucher (13 March 2008). "Final 'Harry Potter' book will be split into two movies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- "WB Sets Lots of New Release Dates!". Comingsoon.net. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- Treneman, Ann. J.K. Rowling, the interview. The Times. 30 June 2000. Retrieved 26 July 2006.
- Coke backs Harry Potter literacy drive. BBC News. 9 October 2001. Retrieved 26 July 2006.
- Mzimba, Lizo, moderator. "Interview with Steve Kloves and J.K. Rowling". BBC Newsround. February 2003. Retrieved 21 March 2006.
- "J.K. Rowling: 'Fans will be happy'". CBBC Newsround. 2 November 2001. Retrieved 21 March 2006.
- J.K. Rowling on 'Today' part 2: what Daniel Radcliffe knew, the final line (with video). Times Herald-Record. 27 July 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
- Rowling denies vetoing Spielberg. J. K. Rowling's official site (now archived at Wayback Machine). Retrieved 3 April 2006.
- Wizard News: Terry Gilliam Bitter About "Potter". Wizard News. 29 August 2005. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Billington, Alex. Exclusive Video Interview: 'Harry Potter' Producer David Heyman. firstshowing.net. 9 December 2010. Retrieved on 29 September 2011.
- Warner Bros. Pictures mentions J. K. Rowling as producer. Business Wire. 22 September 2010. Retrieved on 29 September 2011.
- "Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema in 2011 – The Harry Potter Films". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "Warner Bros. Announces Expanded Creative Partnership with J.K. Rowling". Business Wire. 22 September 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- Brooks Barnes (29 March 2014). "Warner's C.E.O. Is Bullish on the Big Screen". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- Watson, Julie and Kellner, Tomas. "J.K. Rowling And The Billion-Dollar Empire". Forbes.com. 26 February 2004. Retrieved 19 March 2006.
- #1062 Joanne (JK) Rowling. Forbes.com. Retrieved 16 March 2008; Oprah is Richest Female Entertainer. Contact Music. Retrieved 20 January 2007.
- J.K. Rowling, the author with the magic touch. MSN. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
- "J.K. Rowling: Billionaire to millionaire". The New Zealand Herald. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour Power list". BBC. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Nichols, Michelle. Hogwarts hideaway for Potter author. The Scotsman. 22 November 2001. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Boshoff, Alison. What does JK Rowling do with her money. Daily Mail. 24 August 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Collinson, Patrick. "Rub shoulders with Brucie for £4.3m, or Tony for £7,250". Guardian Unlimited. 26 April 2005. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- Christmas wedding for Rowling. BBC News. 30 December 2001. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- "Baby joy for JK Rowling". BBC News (London). 24 March 2003. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- J.K. Rowling's Official Site, "Progress on Book Six". 15 March 2004. Retrieved 22 March 2006. Archived at Wayback Machine.
- Morrison, Jenny (23 April 2004). "Chancellor's daughter remembered at christening service". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- J.K. Rowling's Official Site, "JKR gives Birth to Baby Girl". Retrieved 25 January 2005. Archived at Wayback Machine.
- "Biography". J.K. Rowling.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- Carrell, Severin (11 June 2014). "JK Rowling donates £1m to Scotland's anti-independence campaign". theguardian.com (Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- Charlotte Williams (2011). "Rowling leaves Christopher Little Agency". thebookseller.com. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- Little, Brown & Company (2012). "The Casual Vacancy". Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- "JK Rowling launches new novel at Southbank Centre". The Londonist. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "JK Rowling to appear at Cheltenham Literature Festival". BBC News. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "An hour with J. K. Rowling". Charlie Rose LLC. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "J.K. Rowling | Lennoxlove Book Festival". Lennoxlove Book Festival. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "After Strong Start, J.K. Rowling's 'The Casual Vacancy' Falls on Charts". The Wall Street Journal. 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- "Rowling's Casual Vacancy to become BBC TV drama series". BBC. 3 December 2012.
- Singh, Anita (3 December 2012). "JK Rowling's The Casual Vacancy to be BBC drama". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "J.K. Rowling writing crime novel, says report". CBC News. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- Lea, Richard (20 August 2007). "Rowling's 'crime novel' is a red herring". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- Flood, Alison (24 February 2012). "JK Rowling's new book: clues suggest a turn to crime fiction". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- "JK's OOTP interview". Newsnight. 2003. Retrieved 20 May 2008. * "Living with Harry Potter". BBC Radio 4. 2005. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- Richard Brooks (14 July 2013). "Whodunnit? J. K. Rowling's Secret Life As A Wizard Crime Writer Revealed". The Sunday Times. p. 1.
- Beth Carswell (18 July 2013). "More on The Cuckoo's Calling – Signed First Sells for $4,453". AbeBooks.com. AbeBooks, Inc. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- Osley, Richard (14 July 2013). "The Cuckoo's Calling, by 'Robert Galbraith': JK Rowling's secret bestseller". The Independent (London). Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "The Cuckoo's Calling". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- "Mystery Reviews". Library Journal. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- Maxine Frith (16 July 2013). "Harry Plotter?". The Evening Standard. pp. 20–21.
- Lyall, Sarah (14 July 2013). "This Detective Novel's Story Doesn't Add Up". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- James Meikle (18 July 2013). "JK Rowling directs anger at lawyers after secret identity revealed". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Watts, Robert (13 July 2013). "JK Rowling unmasked as author of detective novel writing under nom de-plume". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- Liz Bury (25 July 2013). "JK Rowling tells story of alter ego Robert Galbraith". Chennai, India: Guardian News Service. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- Goldsmith, Belinda. "Real-life mystery of JK Rowling's 'secret' novel uncovered". Reuters. trust.org. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Meikle, James (18 July 2013). "JK Rowling directs anger at lawyers after secret identity revealed". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Rowling accepts compensation for identity revelation". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 31 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- "JK Rowling lawyer fined over Robert Galbraith leak". BBC News. 2 January 2014.
- Charles Poladian (17 February 2014). "J.K. Rowling Returns As Robert Galbraith For New Cormoran Strike Novel, 'The Silkworm,' Plot Summary And Release Date". Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Rowling, J,K. "About Robert Galbraith". Robert Galbraith. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Wilken, Selina (11 June 2015). "J.K. Rowling helps out Robert Galbraith, unveils ‘Career of Evil’ cover and publication date". Hypable. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "J.K. Rowling on Finishing Harry Potter". in.rediff.com. 11 January 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2006.
- Memmott, Carol. A fond look back at Harry. USA Today. 25 July 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2007.
- JK's writing two books but she won't be rushing. The Scotsman. 27 July 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- "Rowling completes post-Harry Potter book". Associated Press. 1 November 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2007.
- Eden, Richard (2 March 2008). "New adventure is child's play for Jo". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2008.
- "JK Rowling in court over photo of son". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). 10 March 2008. 10 March 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
- Aitkenhead, Decca (22 September 2012). "JK Rowling: 'The worst that can happen is that everyone says, That's shockingly bad'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- Nikkhah, Roya (6 October 2012). "JK Rowling: I will return to writing children's books". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- "JK Rowling: 'I’ve written part of a children’s book that I really love'". BBC. 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- Transcript of J. K. Rowling interview on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Topel, Fred. "Harry Potter Author J.K. Rowling Enchants Readers on Her U.S. Book Tour". New York Post. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "Oprah and Harry Potter phenom JK Rowling interview".
- Brown, Jen. Stop your sobbing! More Potter to come. MSNBC. 24 July 2007. Retrieved 25 July 2007.
- Harry Potter Encyclopedia in Progress. The Guardian. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- David L. Ulin. "J.K. Rowling brings magic touch to U.S.". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. 16 October 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- Hastings, Chris. Tears as JK Rowling returns to where it began. The Daily Telegraph. 24 December 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
- Singh, Anita (16 June 2011). "JK Rowling launches Pottermore Website". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- Flood, Alison (23 June 2011). "Pottermore website launched by JK Rowling as 'give-back' to fans". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- "First batch of Harry Potter and the Cursed Child tickets sell out". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-10-30.
- "The Volant Charitable Trust (UK and overseas)". Merseyside Funding. Retrieved 19 January 2008.
- "One Parent Families Gingerbread". OneParentFamilies. Archived from the original on 7 July 2007.. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
- J K Rowling becomes President of One Parent Families. 16 November 2004. Retrieved 20 October 2007. Archived 6 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Gordon's Women. Guardian Unlimited. 13 May 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Goodson, Rory and Chittenden, Maurice. "Rowling casts a spell that will give charities millions". The Sunday Times. 7 January 2001. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Comic Relief, The Money, Archived 29 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Magic (foreword by JK Rowling). Bloomsbury Publishing, 2002 (ISBN 0747557462).
- "About". Lumos. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- Philanthropy Impact, Sophie Radice. JK Rowling OBE. "Women and Philanthropy".
- Rare JK Rowling book fetches £2m. BBC News. 13 December 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
- Majendie, Paul. Rowling says goodbye to Potter with fairy tales
- Lumos (10 May 2010). "Light a Birthday Candle". Archived from the original on 12 April 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2013. Archived at Wayback Engine.
- "The Season of Giving – The Millionaire Donations that Defined 2013". Spear's. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "Rupert Grint Runs in Olympic Torch Relay, JK Rowling in Opening Ceremony". The Leaky Cauldron. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- "J K Rowling marks start for clinic". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- "J.K. Rowling donates £10m to multiple sclerosis clinic". AFP. 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- Andy McSmith (10 April 2009). "Rowling quits multiple sclerosis charity over Anglo-Scottish feud". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 20 April 2009.
- Williams, Rachel (29 May 2008). "Rowling pens Potter prequel for charities". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Harry, Carrie, Garp. Scholastic. 2006. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- 'Potter' Author Adds to UK Reward Fund. USA Today. 13 May 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2012; Harry Potter Author Adds To Reward. Sky News. 13 May 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- Brown publishes greatest speeches. BBC News. 5 April 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Madeleine Davies (2013). "J.K. Rowling to Donate All Royalties From Her Secret Novel to Charity". jezebel.com. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "toe-by-toe.co.uk". toe-by-toe.co.uk. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- J. K. Rowling (26 November 2006). "The first It Girl". The Telegraph (London).
- "Online chat transcript, Scholastic.com, 3 February 2000". Accio Quote!. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "J.K. Rowling's bookshelf". O magazine. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "Early influences". J.K. Rowling's official website. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- Ben Leach (20 September 2008). "Harry Potter author JK Rowling gives £1 million to Labour". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- Cruz, Juan (8 February 2008). "Ser invisible... eso sería lo más". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- J. K. Rowling (14 April 2010). "The single mother's manifesto". The Times (UK). Retrieved 15 April 2010.
- "JK Rowling donates £1m to Scottish independence 'No' campaign and calls some nationalists 'Death Eaters'". The Independent (London). 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Various (22 October 2015). "Israel needs cultural bridges, not boycotts – letter from JK Rowling, Simon Schama and others". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- "Cultural boycotts:=JK Rowling". Twitlong (UK). 26 October 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Shawn Adler (2007). "Harry Potter Author J.K. Rowling Opens Up About Books' Christian Imagery". mtv. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
- Linton Weeks (1999). "Charmed, I'm Sure". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
- Nelson, Michael. Fantasia: The Gospel According to C.S. Lewis. The American Prospect. 25 February 2002. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Wyman, Max. "You can lead a fool to a book but you can't make them think". Vancouver Sun. 26 October 2000. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- "New Interview with J.K. Rowling for Release of Dutch Edition of "Deathly Hallows"". The Leaky Cauldron. 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2007.
- Hale, Mike (16 July 2009). "The Woman Behind the Boy Wizard". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- "Rowling's Christian critics miss the mark". Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- Cruz, Juan (8 February 2008). "Ser invisible... eso sería lo más". El País (in Spanish) (Edinburgh). Retrieved 9 February 2008.
- Vieira, Meredith."Harry Potter: The final chapter". MSNBC. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
- Presenter: Mark Lawson (27 September 2012). "J. K. Rowling". Front Row. Event occurs at 17:45. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- Treneman, Ann. "I'm not writing for the money: It's for me and out of loyalty to fans.". The Times. 20 June 2003. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
- Lisa O'Carroll and Josh Halliday (24 November 2011). "Leveson inquiry: JK Rowling and Sienna Miller give evidence". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- Press Complaints Commission: JK Rowling. pcc.org.uk. 2001. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
- David Murray (by his litigation friends Neil Murray and Joanne Murray) v Big Pictures (UK) Limited  EWCA Civ 446 (7 May 2008).
- Lockerbie, Catherine. "All aboard the Hogwarts Express". The Scotsman. UK. 11 July 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- Roy Greenslade (31 January 2014). "JK Rowling sues Daily Mail for libel over 'single mother' article". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "About the Books: transcript of J.K. Rowling's live interview on Scholastic.com". Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. 16 October 2000. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- O'Carroll, Lisa (14 September 2011). "Leveson phone-hacking inquiry: JK Rowling among 'core participants'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "JK Rowling tells Leveson inquiry of press intrusion". BBC. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Richard Allen Greene (2011). "J.K. Rowling chased from home by press, she says". cnn.com. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Rowling, JK (30 November 2012). "I feel duped and angry at David Cameron's reaction to Leveson". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Szalai, Georg (18 March 2014). "Benedict Cumberbatch, Alfonso Cuaron, Maggie Smith Back U.K. Press Regulation". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Jack Malvern; Richard Cleroux (13 July 2005). "Reading ban on leaked Harry Potter". The Times (London). Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Michael Geist (18 July 2005). "Harry Potter and the Right to Read". Toronto Star. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (21 June 2003). "Publisher's Efforts to Keep Story's Secrets Collide With Free Speech Concerns". New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
- Pook, Sally (15 July 2000). "J K Rowling given honorary degree at her alma mater". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- David Cribb (2006). "JK Rowling receives honorary degree". digital spy. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- "'Harry Potter' author JK Rowling receives Honorary Degree". University of Aberdeen. 2006. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- Claire M. Guehenno and Laurence H. M. Holland (2008). "J. K. Rowling To Speak at Commencement". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- Alison Flood (10 April 2014). "JK Rowling to become Woman's Hour first guest editor for 60 years". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
Find more about
J. K. Rowling
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
- Official website
- J. K. Rowling at British Council: Literature
- "The first It Girl", Rowling's article on Jessica Mitford for The Telegraph
- Video, audio and transcript of Rowling's speech at Harvard University's 2008 commencement
- J. K. Rowling at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- J. K. Rowling at the Internet Movie Database
- Works by J. K. Rowling at Open Library
- Works by or about J. K. Rowling in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- J.K. Rowling at the Internet Book List
- The Blair Partnership
- Daily Prophet reports about the Quidditch World Cup