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JT LeRoy

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Sarah "signed" by JT LeRoy

Jeremiah "Terminator" LeRoy is a literary persona created by American writer Laura Albert. After the first novel Sarah was published, Laura Albert started hiring her sister-in-law Savannah Knoop[1] to make public appearances as JT LeRoy. In a January 2006 article in The New York Times, LeRoy's agent, manager, movie producer, as well as several journalists, declared that the person acting as LeRoy in public was Savannah Knoop. Soon after, it was revealed that Laura Albert had written all of JT LeRoy's works, and had done all of the correspondence of "JT LeRoy," in email and on the phone in the voice of a damaged boy from West Virginia for over ten years.

Published works

Albert originally published as Terminator and later JT LeRoy.[2]

By turns magical and realistic, the novel Sarah is narrated by a nameless boy whose mother Sarah is a lot lizard: a prostitute who works the truck stops in West Virginia. She can be abusive and abandoning, yet he longs for her love and tries to follow in her world, working for a pimp who specializes in "boy-girls."
Ten short stories that form a novel about the childhood of Jeremiah, torn from his foster parents at age four when his emotionally disturbed mother reclaims him and then runs away with him. She alternately clings to Jeremiah and abandons him, subjecting him to patterns of abuse and exploitation she has suffered throughout her life.
  • Harold's End (2005)[5]
The novella follows a young heroin addict who is befriended by Larry, an older man, from whom he receives an unusual pet. Illustrations are by Australian artist Cherry Hood. Published by Last Gasp.

Contributions to other written works

Work credited to LeRoy was published in literary journals such as Francis Ford Coppola's Zoetrope: All-Story, McSweeney's Quarterly Concern, Memorious, and Oxford American magazine's Seventh Annual Music Issue. LeRoy was listed as a contributing editor to BlackBook magazine, i-D and 7x7 magazines, and is credited with writing reviews all of which include the character Justin Wayne Dennis, articles and interviews for The New York Times, The Times of London, Spin, Film Comment, Filmmaker, Flaunt, Shout NY, Index Magazine, Interview, and Vogue, among others.

LeRoy's work has also appeared in such anthologies as The Best American Nonrequired Reading 2003, MTV's Lit Riffs, XXX: 30 Porn-Star Portraits, Nadav Kander's Beauty's Nothing, and The Fourth Sex: Adolescent Extremes. LeRoy is also listed as guest editor for Da Capo's Best Music Writing 2005.[6]

Additionally, LeRoy was credited with liner notes and biographies for musicians Billy Corgan, Liz Phair, Conor Oberst, Ash, Bryan Adams, Marilyn Manson, Nancy Sinatra and Courtney Love and profiled award-winner Juergen Teller.

Circumstances of JT LeRoy's creation

Calling a suicide hotline in the 1990s, Albert reached Dr. Terrence Owens, a psychologist with the McAuley Adolescent Psychiatric Program at St. Mary's Medical Center in San Francisco.[7] Owens did not know her as Laura Albert at the time, but as "Jeremiah" or "Terminator". Owens is credited with encouraging "Jeremiah" or "Terminator"—who later became known as JT LeRoy—to write during their phone therapy sessions.[8] The writings that "LeRoy" shared with Owens eventually made their way into the collection of short stories in 1998. Laura Albert also recorded conversations without Owens' consent, and these illegally recorded phone calls made their way into the documentary Author.[9]

Laura Albert explained the circumstances of JT's existence in a Fall 2006 Paris Review interview with Nathaniel Rich. She attested that she could not have written from raw emotion without the right to be presented to the world via JT LeRoy, whom she calls her "phantom limb".

At her trial, Albert described JT LeRoy as her "veil".[10]


Throughout the 1990s, LeRoy rarely appeared in public. Then in 2001, a person claiming to be LeRoy began appearing in public, usually decked out in wig and sunglasses.

Stephen Beachy, in an article in New York Magazine in October 2005, was the first to reveal that the books of "JT LeRoy" were by Laura Albert and the "Wigs and Sunglasses" public JT LeRoy character was actually a family member.[11] The New York Times confirmed that JT LeRoy was the invention of Laura Albert, who people had known as "Speedie" or "Emilly", JT LeRoy's supposed caretaker, family and band member.[12] The newspaper also confirmed that the "Wigs and Sunglasses" character was Laura Albert's sister-in-law Savannah Knoop.[13]

As reported by Vanity Fair in 2006, J. T. LeRoy was the invention of Speedie/Emily, whose real name is Laura Albert. Her co-conspirators were Astor, whose real name is Geoffrey Knoop, 39, and his half-sister Savannah Knoop, a 25-year-old aspiring clothes designer who—once J.T.'s career took off—was drafted to play the writer in public—the wigs-and-sunglasses figure.[14]

In 2008, Savannah Knoop published Girl Boy Girl: How I Became JT LeRoy, a memoir about the six years she spent as LeRoy.[15]

Film option and lawsuit

Antidote International Films, Inc., and its president Jeffrey Levy-Hinte announced plans for a film adaptation of Sarah to be directed by Steven Shainberg. According to The New York Times, when Shainberg "learned who had truly written Sarah an inspiration came to him to make a 'meta-film', a triple-layered movie that would blend the novel with the lives of its real and purported authors in a project he took to calling Sarah Plus."[16] The New York Times also reported that this new project "required the rights to Laura Albert's story, rights that she in no uncertain terms refused to grant".[17]

In June 2007 Antidote sued Laura Albert for fraud, claiming that a contract signed by Albert in JT LeRoy's name to make a feature film of Sarah was null and void.[18] A jury found against Albert, holding that the use of the pseudonym to sign the film rights contract was fraudulent.[19]

In popular culture

Filmmaker Michael Arias claimed JT LeRoy for his inspiration in translating Taiyo Matsumoto's manga Sunny.[20] At a 2013 symposium with filmmaker J. J. Abrams in New York, actress and writer Lena Dunham said that JT LeRoy "co-opted my imagination for a full year of my life. [...] It was pretty remarkable. And then you also go, 'This person isn't who they claim to be, but they still wrote this book that captured all of our imaginations, so then why does the identity of the author even matter when you're reading fiction and engaging with it in a really personal way?'"[21] That same year, Laura Albert told Interview, "You know, JT LeRoy does not exist. But he lives. That's what a famous film historian once said about Bugs Bunny."[22] Another interviewer insisted, "Albert had ingeniously hacked the literary establishment."[23] In March 2014 the San Francisco Chronicle reported that the Academy of Friends Oscar Party in San Francisco invited JT LeRoy – played by gender fluid fashion model Rain Dove Dubilewski – to walk the runway as part of its HIV/AIDS fundraiser.[24] Documentaries about JT LeRoy include Author: The JT LeRoy Story (2016) directed by Jeff Feuerzeig, The Cult of JT LeRoy (2015) directed by Marjorie Sturm, and The Ballad of JT LeRoy (2014) directed by Lynn Hershman Leeson.

Armistead Maupin's The Night Listener features the case of Anthony Godby Johnson, which is similar to that of LeRoy.[25]


  1. ^ What to Stream Now. "Laura Albert Versus Savannah Knoop: Who Is the Real Fake JT LeRoy?". Vulture. Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Laura Albert" (PDF). 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  3. ^ LeRoy, JT. Sarah. Bloomsbury USA (June 9, 2000) ISBN 1-58234-146-X.
  4. ^ LeRoy, JT. The Heart is Deceitful Above All Things. Bloomsbury USA Hardcover (June 9, 2001) ISBN 1-58234-142-7 Paperback (June 1, 2002) ISBN 1-58234-211-3.
  5. ^ LeRoy, JT. Harold's End. Last Gasp (January 30, 2005) ISBN 0-86719-614-9. Originally in McSweeney's Quarterly Concern Issue 7. Italian translation La fine di Harold by Martina Testa. Fazio Editore 2003. ISBN 88-8112-387-8.
  6. ^ LeRoy, JT (ed). Da Capo Best Music Writing 2005: The Year's Finest Writing on Rock, Hip-hop, Jazz, Pop, Country & More. Da Capo Press (October 30, 2005) ISBN 0-306-81446-3
  7. ^ "Figure in JT LeRoy Case Says Partner Is Culprit". The New York Times. February 7, 2006. 
  8. ^ "Soul-baring fiction author J.T. LeRoy plays with gender—and identity. Does it really matter who he is?". SFGate. Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  9. ^ "Argento and Others are angry About it Being in JT Leroy Documentary". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  10. ^ "JT LeRoy author ordered to pay triple-sized costs | Books". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  11. ^ Beachy, Stephen. "Who is JT LeRoy? The True Identity of a Great Literary Hustler". Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  12. ^ Warren St. John (2006-02-07). "Figure in JT Leroy Case Says Partner Is Culprit". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  13. ^ Warren St. John (2006-01-09). "The Unmasking of JT Leroy: In Public, He's a She". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  14. ^ "The Boy Who Cried Author". Vanity Fair. 2014-01-02. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  15. ^ This is the woman who played the man who became a transsexual and fooled the world for six years, The Guardian, November 2, 2008
  16. ^ Feuer, Alan. "In Writer's Trial, a Conflict Over Roles of Art and Money". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  17. ^ Feuer, Alan (August 1, 1007). ""Judge Orders Author to Pay Film Company $350,000 in Legal Fees"". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  18. ^ Writer Testifies About Source of Nom de Plume By Alan Feuer, The New York Times, Published: June 20, 2007.
  19. ^ Westfeldt, Amy (June 23, 2007). "Jury: novel bought by company fraudulent". USA Today. Associated Press. 
  20. ^ "The 'Sunny' side of Taiyo Matsumoto". The Japan Times. 
  21. ^ CuInAnotherLifeBro (November 29, 2013). "JJ Abrams and Doug Dorst w/ Lena Dunham discuss S. #whoisStraka (2/4)" – via YouTube. 
  22. ^ "Laura Albert". 
  23. ^ "5 Questions for Laura Albert". LASTLOOK. 
  24. ^ "Long-lost Ukrainian uncle has left you $5 million". 
  25. ^ "Who is JT LeRoy? The True Identity of a Great Literary Hustler". Retrieved 2016-11-20. 

External links