J. Michael Brady
Sir Mike Brady
John Michael Brady
30 April 1945
|Known for||Kadir–Brady saliency detector|
|Thesis||Just-non-cross varieties of groups (1970)|
|Doctoral advisor||László György Kovács|
Sir (John) Michael Brady (born 30 April 1945)  is an Emeritus professor of Oncological Imaging at the University of Oxford. He has been a Fellow of Keble College, Oxford since 1985 and was elected a foreign associate member of the French Academy of Sciences in 2015. He was formerly BP Professor of Information Engineering at Oxford from 1985 to 2010 and a Senior Research Scientist in the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, from 1980 to 1985.
Brady was educated in the School of Mathematics at the University of Manchester, where he was awarded a first class Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics in 1966 followed by a Master of Science degree in 1968. He went on to study at the Australian National University, where he was awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1970 for research into group theory supervised by László György Kovács.
Research and career
Brady is an authority in the field of image analysis, initially working on shape analysis while at MIT, then on robotics, but most of all with an emphasis on medical image analysis. At MIT he worked on: the multiscale representation of the bounding contours of shapes (the curvature primal sketch), with Haruo Asada (Toshiba); two dimensional shapes (smoothed local symmetries), with Jon Connell; and the application of differential geometry to three-dimensional data, with Jean Ponce and Demetri Terzopoulos. He also worked on texture with Alan Yuille. He also worked with John M. Hollerbach, Tomàs Lozano-Pérez, and Matt Mason on robotics, who together published an early influential collection of articles and founded a seminal series of conferences.
Arriving in Oxford in 1985, he established the Robotics Laboratory and recruited Andrew Blake, Andrew Zisserman, Stephen Cameron, Hugh Durrant-Whyte, Lionel Tarassenko, Alison Noble, David Murray. His initial focus was on mobile robotics, where he worked closely with Huosheng Hu Jan Grothusen, Stephen Smith, Mark Jenkinson, and Ian Reid. This was a collaboration with GEC Electrical Products and led in 1991 to the formation of Guidance Navigation Systems Ltd. The primary interest of this work was sensor data fusion and the real-time detection of obstacles in a robot vehicle's planned path, leading to a “slalom” manoeuvre to avoid it, or, if this was judged infeasible by the robot, a complete re-planning of the path to the goal.
Finishing a spell as Head of Engineering Science (1989–84), Brady was awarded an EPSRC Senior Fellowship, during which he spent two year-long periods in the INRIA Laboratory headed by Nicholas Ayache. Brady had begun to switch from robotics to medical imaging, specifically breast cancer, in 1989, following the death of his mother-in-law Dr. Irene Friedlander from the disease. For the past 29 years he has worked with Ralph Highnam, first supervising Ralph's thesis, then co-authoring a monograph Mammographic Image Analysis, then co-founding Mirada Solutions Ltd and subsequently Volpara Health Technologies (ASX: VHT). Together, they developed an influential mathematical model of the fluence of X-rays through the female breast as a basis for analysis of mammographic images. This work was done in collaboration with Ralph Highnam and pioneered an entirely novel “physics-based” approach. This attracted the interest of Nico Karssemeijer and led to further collaborations and the company ScreenPoint bv co-founded by Mike and Nico.
Brady is the Interim President of the worlds first Artificial Intelligence-based (AI) University: Mohamed bin Zayed University of Artificial Intelligence (MBZUAI), in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Brady's work in image analysis, specifically medical image analysis, has been wide-ranging and he has contributed algorithms for image segmentation, image registration and feature detection. With Timor Kadir and Andrew Zisserman he introduced the influential Kadir–Brady saliency detector at the European Conference on Computer Vision in 2004. During his research career, Brady has supervised students including Alison Noble, David Forsyth, and Demetri Terzopoulos.
Outside of academia, Brady has been involved with numerous start-up companies in the field of medical imaging including Matakina and ScreenPoint (mammographic image analysis), Mirada Medical (medical image fusion) and Perspectum Diagnostics (magnetic resonance imaging of the liver).
Awards and honours
Distinguished for his work in artificial intelligence and its application to the visual guidance of robot manipulators and vehicles. He was one of the first information scientists to apply (David) Marr's ideas on human vision to the engineering problems of computer vision. His pioneer work on the automatic transcription of handwritten coding sheets demonstrated the need for visual representations at many levels of description, and led to the first working theory of the early visual processes involved in human reading. His work on the shapes of three-dimensional surfaces imaginatively combined ideas from group theory, descriptive differential geometry and the optimal interpretation of noisy measurements. His work in robot vision has demonstrated the paramount importance of computational stability in the algorithms used for integrating the information from successive images, and has shown how the performance of conventional stereo algorithms can be equalled in efficiency and reliability by the matching of distinctive curves. He has recently applied the techniques of stereo and photometric stereo to the monitoring of glaucoma development, and is actively involved in other medical applications. Through the work of his research groups, in both the UK and the USA, he has been a pioneer in the push towards the hardware demonstration of robots with diverse sensory capabilities. In this way, and through the scientific journals he has founded and/or edited, he has exerted a major influence over the development of robotics and artificial intelligence, particularly robot vision.
Brady was knighted in the 2004 New Year Honours for services to engineering. He delivered the Turing Lecture in 2009. He was also awarded the Faraday Medal from the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) in 2000, the Millennium Medal from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 2000. He was elected a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (FMedSci) in 2008.  Brady was awarded Honorary Doctorates  at the University of Essex (1996), University of Manchester (1998) the University of Southampton(1999) the University of Liverpool (1999), the Paul Sabatier University (Toulouse) (2000), Oxford Brookes University (2006), the University of York, and Changsha and Chongqing. In 2007 he was appointed a commissioner of the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851.
- Anon (2016). "Brady, Sir (John) Michael". Who's Who. ukwhoswho.com (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U8502. (subscription or UK public library membership required) (subscription required)
- Kadir, Timor; Zisserman, Andrew; Brady, Michael (2004). An Affine Invariant Salient Region Detector. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3021. pp. 228–241. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24670-1_18. ISBN 978-3-540-21984-2. ISSN 0302-9743.
- "No. 57155". The London Gazette (1st supplement). 31 December 2003. pp. 1–28.
- "Professor Sir Michael Brady". London: British Computer Society. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016.
- J. Michael Brady at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Forsyth, David A. (1988). Colour constancy and its applications in machine vision (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC 69733640.
- "CV - Ann Nicholson - Bayesian Intelligence". bayesian-intelligence.com. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Noble, Julia Alison (1989). Descriptions of image surfaces (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC 863522054. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.238117.
- Terzopoulos, Demetri (1984). Multiresolution computation of visible-surface representations (PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. hdl:1721.1/15380. OCLC 12379782.
- "Brady, Professor Sir (John) Michael KBE FREng FRS FMedSci: 1992". London: raeng.org.uk. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016.
- Anon (1997). "Sir Michael Brady FMedSci FREng FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where:
"All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License." --"Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Brady, Sir (John) Michael". Who's Who online. A & C Black. Retrieved 17 November 2020.(subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries)
- "Professor Michael Brady FRS FEng, BP Professor of Information Engineering". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015.
- "Mike Brady: Oncological Image Analysis". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016.
- Brady, John Michael (1970). Just-non-cross varieties of groups (PhD thesis). Australian National University. OCLC 222121274.
- J. Michael Brady's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
- J. Michael Brady author profile page at the ACM Digital Library
- Zhang, Y.; Brady, J.M.; Smith, S. (2001). "Segmentation of brain MR images through a hidden Markov random field model and the expectation-maximization algorithm". IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. 20 (1): 45–57. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.200.3832. doi:10.1109/42.906424.
- Woolrich, Mark W.; Ripley, Brian D.; Brady, Michael; Smith, Stephen M. (2001). "Temporal Autocorrelation in Univariate Linear Modeling of FMRI Data". NeuroImage. 14 (6): 1370–1386. doi:10.1006/nimg.2001.0931. PMID 11707093.
- Highnam, R.P.; Brady, J.M.; Shepstone, B.J. (1997). "Mammographic image analysis". European Journal of Radiology. 24 (1): 20–32. doi:10.1016/S0720-048X(96)01110-2. ISSN 0720-048X. PMID 9056146.
- Dubai, TenTwenty | Webdesign, Webshops & E.-marketing |. "MBZUAI | About". MBZUAI. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
- "Sir Michael Brady. GCS and Mirada Ltd" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2016.
- "Perspectum diagnostics: Meet our team". perspectum-diagnostics.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016.
- "Certificate of election EC/1997/02: Brady, John Michael". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "Professor Sir Michael Brady FRS FREng FMedSci". acmedsci.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016.