Java Platform, Enterprise Edition
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|Java platform editions|
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE), formerly Java 2 Platforms, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), currently Jakarta EE, is a set of specifications, extending Java SE with specifications for enterprise features such as distributed computing and web services. Java EE applications are run on reference runtimes, that can be microservices or application servers, which handle transactions, security, scalability, concurrency and management of the components it is deploying.
Java EE is defined by its specification. The specification defines APIs and their interactions. As with other Java Community Process specifications, providers must meet certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as Java EE compliant.
Examples of contexts in which Java EE referencing runtimes are used are: e-commerce, accounting, banking information systems.
The platform was known as Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE from version 1.2, until the name was changed to Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE in version 1.5. The current version is called Java EE 8.
- J2EE 1.2 (December 12, 1999)
- J2EE 1.3 (September 24, 2001)
- J2EE 1.4 (November 11, 2003)
- Java EE 5 (May 11, 2006)
- Java EE 6 (December 10, 2009)
- Java EE 7 (May 28, 2013, but April 5, 2013 according to spec document. June 12, 2013 was the planned kickoff date)
- Java EE 8 (August 31, 2017)
Java EE was maintained by Oracle under the Java Community Process. On September 12, 2017, Oracle Corporation announced that it would submit Java EE to the Eclipse Foundation. The Eclipse top-level project has been named Eclipse Enterprise for Java (EE4J).. The Eclipse Foundation was forced to change the name of Java EE because Oracle owns the trademark for the name "Java."  On February 26, 2018, it was announced that the new name of Java EE will be Jakarta EE. 
Java EE includes several specifications that serve different purposes, like generating web pages, reading and writing from a database in a transactional way, managing distributed queues.
The Java EE APIs include several technologies that extend the functionality of the base Java SE APIs, such as Enterprise JavaBeans, connectors, servlets, JavaServer Pages and several web service technologies.
- Servlet: defines how to manage HTTP requests, in a synchronous or asynchronous way. It is low level and other Java EE specifications rely on it;
- WebSocket: The Java API for WebSocket specification defines a set of APIs to service WebSocket connections;
- Java Server Faces: a technology for constructing user interfaces out of components;
- Unified Expression Language (EL) is a simple language originally designed to satisfy the specific needs of web application developers. It is used specifically in Java Server Faces to bind components to (backing) beans and in Contexts and Dependency Injection to name beans, but can be used throughout the entire platform.
Web service specifications
- Java API for RESTful Web Services provides support in creating web services according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural pattern;
- Java API for JSON Processing is a set of specifications to manage information encoded in JSON format;
- Java API for JSON Binding provides specifications to convert JSON information into or from Java classes;
- Java Architecture for XML Binding allows mapping XML into Java objects;
- Java API for XML Web Services can be used to create SOAP web services.
- Contexts and Dependency Injection is a specification to provide a depencency injection container, as in Spring;
- Enterprise JavaBean (EJB) specification defines a set of lightweight APIs that an object container (the EJB container) will support in order to provide transactions (using JTA), remote procedure calls (using RMI or RMI-IIOP), concurrency control, dependency injection and access control for business objects. This package contains the Enterprise JavaBeans classes and interfaces that define the contracts between the enterprise bean and its clients and between the enterprise bean and the ejb container.
- Java Persistence API are specifications about object-relational mapping between relation database tables and Java classes.
- Java Transaction API contains the interfaces and annotations to interact with the transaction support offered by Java EE. Even though this API abstracts from the really low-level details, the interfaces are also considered somewhat low-level and the average application developer in Java EE is either assumed to be relying on transparent handling of transactions by the higher level EJB abstractions, or using the annotations provided by this API in combination with CDI managed beans.
- Java Message Service provides a common way for Java programs to create, send, receive and read an enterprise messaging system's messages.
- Validation: This package contains the annotations and interfaces for the declarative validation support offered by the Bean Validation API. Bean Validation provides a unified way to provide constraints on beans (e.g. JPA model classes) that can be enforced cross-layer. In Java EE, JPA honors bean validation constraints in the persistence layer, while JSF does so in the view layer.
- Batch Applications provides the means to run long running background tasks that possibly involve a large volume of data and which may need to be periodically executed.
- Java EE Connector Architecture is a Java-based technology solution for connecting application servers and enterprise information systems (EIS) as part of enterprise application integration (EAI) solutions. This is a low-level API aimed at vendors that the average application developer typically does not come in contact with.
In an attempt to limit the footprint of web containers, both in physical and in conceptual terms, the web profile was created, a subset of the Java EE specifications. The Java EE web profile comprises the following:
|Specification||Java EE 6||Java EE 7||Java EE 8|
|JavaServer Pages (JSP)||2.2||2.3||2.3|
|Unified Expression Language (EL)||2.2||3.0||3.0|
|Debugging Support for Other Languages (JSR-45)||1.0||1.0||1.0|
|JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL)||1.2||1.2||1.2|
|JavaServer Faces (JSF)||2.0||2.2||2.3|
|Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)||1.1||2.0||2.1|
|Java API for WebSocket (WebSocket)||n/a||1.0||1.1|
|Java API for JSON Processing (JSON-P)||n/a||1.0||1.1|
|Common Annotations for the Java Platform (JSR-250)||1.1||1.2||1.3|
|Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)||3.1 Lite||3.2 Lite||3.2|
|Java Transaction API (JTA)||1.1||1.2||1.2|
|Java Persistence API (JPA)||2.0||2.1||2.2|
|Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform||1.0||1.1||2.0|
|Dependency Injection for Java||1.0||1.0||1.0|
Certified referencing runtimes
Although by definition all Java EE implementations provide the same base level of technologies (namely, the Java EE spec and the associated APIs), they can differ considerably with respect to extra features (like connectors, clustering, fault tolerance, high availability, security, etc.), installed size, memory footprint, startup time, etc.
|Referencing runtime||Developer||Java EE 8 certified – Full||Java EE 8 certified – Web||Java EE 7 certified – Full||Java EE 7 certified – Web||Java EE 6 certified – Full
Official Oracle page for Java EE Compatibility.
|Java EE 6 certified – Web||Java EE 5 certified||J2EE 1.4 certified||Licensing|
|GlassFish server Open Source Edition||Oracle||Yes v5.0||Yes v5.0||Yes v4.x||Yes v4.x||Yes v3.x and upward||Yes v3.x Web Profile||Yes v2.1.x||Free software|
|Oracle GlassFish Server||Oracle||Yes v3 based on the open source GlassFish application server||Yes Sun Java System Application Server v9.0||Yes Sun Java System Application Server v8.2||Proprietary software|
|Oracle WebLogic Server||Oracle||Yes 12.2.1||Yes v12c||Yes v10.3.5.0||Yes v9||Proprietary software|
|WildFly||Red Hat||Yes v14.x||Yes v14.x||Yes v8.1 ||Yes v8.0.0.Final||Yes v7.1||Yes v6.0 and v7.0||Yes v5.1||Yes v4.x||Free software|
|JBoss Enterprise Application Platform||Red Hat||Yes v7.0||Yes v7.0||Yes v6.0||Yes v5||Source is Free software|
|IBM WebSphere Application Server||IBM||Yes v9.x||Yes v9.x||Yes v8||Yes v7||Yes||Proprietary software|
|IBM WebSphere Application Server Liberty||IBM||Yes v220.127.116.11||Yes v18.104.22.168||Yes v22.214.171.124||Yes v126.96.36.199||Yes v8.5.5||Proprietary software|
|Open Liberty||IBM||Yes v188.8.131.52||Yes v184.108.40.206||Free software|
|IBM WebSphere Application Server Community Edition||IBM||Yes v3.0||Yes v2.1||Proprietary software|
|Apache Geronimo||Apache||Yes v3.0-beta-1||Yes v2.0||Yes v1.0||Free software|
|JEUS||TmaxSoft||Yes v8||Yes v7||Yes v6||Yes v5||Proprietary software|
|Cosminexus Application Server||Hitachi||Yes v10.0||Yes v9||Proprietary software|
|Fujitsu Interstage Application Server||Fujitsu||Yes v12.0||Yes v1 Azure/v10.1||Yes||Proprietary software|
|BES Application Server||Baolande||Yes v9.5|
|Apache TomEE||Apache||No 7 (Java EE 7 like, but not certified)||Yes||Free software|
|Resin Server||Caucho||Yes v4.0||Yes||Proprietary software|
|Siwpas||OW2||Yes v6.0||Free software|
|JOnAS||OW2||Yes v5.3 rc1||Yes||Yes||Free software|
|SAP NetWeaver||SAP||Yes v2.x||Yes||Yes||Proprietary software|
|Oracle Containers for Java EE||Oracle||Yes||Proprietary software|
|Oracle iPlanet Web Server||Oracle||Yes Sun Java System Web Server||Proprietary software|
|Oracle Application Server 10g||Oracle||Yes||Proprietary software|
|Pramati Server||Pramati||Yes v5.0||Proprietary software|
|Trifork T4||Trifork||Yes||Proprietary software|
|Sybase Enterprise Application Server||Sybase||Yes||Proprietary software|
- Web container
- Deployment descriptor
- Java BluePrints
- Sun Java System Portal Server
- Java EE version history
- Sun Community Source License
- Java Research License
- "Differences between Java EE and Java SE - Your First Cup: An Introduction to the Java EE Platform". Docs.oracle.com. 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "Java EE Overview". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
- "The Java Community Process(SM) Program - JSRs: Java Specification Requests - detail JSR# 342".
- Wieldt, Tori. "Introducing Java EE 7: June 12 Kickoff".
- "Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) Specification, v8" (PDF). Oracle.
- "Java EE Is Moving to the Eclipse Foundation". ADTmag. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
- "Eclipse Enterprise for Java FAQ".
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. "Good-bye JEE, hello Jakarta EE | ZDNet". ZDNet.
- "And the Name Is…". wordpress. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
- "The Java Community Process(SM) Program - JSRs: Java Specification Requests - detail JSR# 316".
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- "JBoss Application Server - JBoss Community".
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- "Java EE Compatibility".
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- Business Wire (2012-06-20). "Red Hat Launches JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 6 to Help Enterprises Move Application Development and Deployment to the Cloud". Business Wire. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "What's new in WebSphere Application Server V8". Ibm.com. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "IBM WebSphere Application Server Liberty delivers the first production-ready, Java EE 8-compatible application server and broadens support for Spring Boot applications". IBM. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Java EE 7 has landed in WAS Liberty - WASdev". 25 June 2015.
- "IBM Java EE 6 Web Profile Tested Configurations".
- "Apache Geronimo : Index".
- "Apache Geronimo fully certified for Java EE 6 - The H Open: News and Features". H-online.com. 2011-11-14. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "Tested Configurations, Java EE 6 - TMAX JEUS 7". Oracle.com. 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "Java EE6 Web Application Server, WAS Software". Us.tmaxsoft.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "Java EE 6 - Tested Configurations, Java EE 6 - Hitachi uCosminexus Application Server v9.0". Oracle.com.
- Fujitsu Interstage Application Server powered by Windows Azure Archived 2011-08-10 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Tested Configurations, Java EE6 - Fujitsu Interstage". Oracle.com. 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "Fujitsu Releases Interstage Application Server V10.1". Fujitsu.
- "NEC WebOTX Application Server V9.x Certification".
- "Apache TomEE". Openejb.apache.org. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "MarketWatch.com". MarketWatch.com. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- TomEE, Apache. "Apache TomEE 7.0.1".
- "Please Welcome Siwpas as Java EE Certified Option!". Oracle.com. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- "SAP NetWeaver Cloud Java EE 6 Web Profile Certified! (The Aquarium)".
- "SAP Software Solutions - Business Applications and Technology".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Java EE.|
- Goncalves, Antonio (2013). Beginning Java EE 7. Apress.
- Gupta, Arun (2013). Java EE 7 Essentials. O’Reilly.
- Oracle Technology Network's Java EE
- Oracle's Java EE Compatibility page - Certified Java EE Compatible Implementations
- Core J2EE Patterns
- A short tutorial introducing beginning Java EE developers to the Java EE platform
- Cloud Tutorial - Java EE in a Day Java EE Tutorial that embraces the use of a Cloud IDE to let you learn the fundamentals of Java EE in just one day
- Platform devolpment tutorial for beginning