Pratt & Whitney J57

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J57 / JT3C
PRATT & WHITNEY J57.jpg
YJ57-P-3 cut-away demonstrator at USAF Museum
Type Turbojet
National origin United States
Manufacturer Pratt & Whitney
First run 1950
Major applications Boeing 707
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker
Douglas DC-8
North American F-100 Super Sabre
Vought F-8 Crusader
Number built 21,170 built
Developed from Pratt & Whitney XT45
Variants JT3D/TF33
Developed into Pratt & Whitney J52/JT8A
Pratt & Whitney J75/JT4A

The Pratt & Whitney J57 (company designation: JT3C) is an axial-flow turbojet engine developed by Pratt & Whitney in the early 1950s. The J57 (first run January 1950[1]) was the first 10,000 lbf (45 kN) thrust class engine in the United States. The J57/JT3C was developed into the J75/JT4A turbojet, JT3D/TF33 turbofan and the PT5/T57 turboprop.[2]

Design and development[edit]

The J57 was a development of the Pratt & Whitney XT45 (PT4) turboprop engine that was originally intended for the Boeing XB-52. As the B-52 power requirements grew, the design evolved into a turbojet, the JT3.

The J57 used titanium alloys[where?] and the Ti-150 alloy used in the mid 1950s suffered hydrogen embrittlement[3]:412 until the problem was understood.

The prestigious Collier Trophy for 1952 was awarded to Leonard S. Hobbs, Chief Engineer of United Aircraft Corporation, for "designing and producing the P&W J57 turbojet engine".[4]

On May 25, 1953, a J57-powered YF-100A exceeded Mach 1 on its maiden flight. The engine was produced from 1951 to 1965 with a total of 21,170 built.

One XT57 (PT5), a turboprop development of the J57, was installed in the nose of a JC-124C (BuNo 52-1069), and tested in 1956.[5][6]

Variants[edit]

Data from:Aircraft Engines of the World 1964/65[7]

Applications[edit]

J57s on a B-52D
JT3Cs installed on a Boeing 707-123
Pratt & Whitney JT3 (1/4th scale)
J57 (Military)
JT3C (Civilian)
T57 turboprop

Engines on display[edit]

Specifications (J57-P-23)[edit]

Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet

Data from[citation needed]

General characteristics

  • Type: Afterburning turbojet
  • Length: 244 in (6197.6mm)
  • Diameter: 39 in (990.6mm)
  • Dry weight: 5,175 lb (2,347 kg)

Components

Performance

Specifications (JT3C-7)[edit]

Data from Flight [10]

General characteristics

  • Type: civil turbojet
  • Length: 155in (3937mm)
  • Diameter: 39in (990.6mm)
  • Dry weight: 4200lb (1905kg)

Components

  • Compressor: all-axial, 9-stage LP compressor, 7-stage HP compressor
  • Combustors: cannular, 8 flame tubes
  • Turbine: all-axial,single stage HP turbine, 2-stage LP turbine

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development

Comparable engines

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Engines of Pratt & Whitney: A Technical History" Jack Connors, AIAA Inc. 2010, ISBN 978-1-60086-711-8, p. 225
  2. ^ Gunston, p.167
  3. ^ "Iroquois" a 1957 Flight article
  4. ^ "Collier Trophy". www.aerofiles.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  5. ^ Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 (Putnam, 1979), p.470.
  6. ^ Connors, p.294
  7. ^ Wilkinson, Paul H. (1964). Aircraft engines of the World 1964/65 (19th ed.). London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Taylor, John W.R. FRHistS. ARAeS (1962). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1962-63. London: Sampson, Low, Marston & Co Ltd. 
  9. ^ http://neam.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&layout=edit&id=1059 "Pratt & Whitney J57 (JTC3) Cutaway"
  10. ^ Flightglobal archive - Flight International, 27 November 1953 Retrieved: 04 March 2017

Bibliography[edit]

  • Taylor, John W.R. FRHistS. ARAeS (1962). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1962-63. London: Sampson, Low, Marston & Co Ltd. 
  • Connors, Jack (2010). The Engines of Pratt & Whitney: A Technical History. Reston. Virginia: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. ISBN 978-1-60086-711-8. 
  • Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920. London: Putnam, 1979. ISBN 0-370-00050-1.
  • Gunston, Bill (2006). World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines, 5th Edition. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X. 

External links[edit]