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Joint Artificial Intelligence Center

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The Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC) (pronounced "jake")[1] was an American organization on exploring the usage of Artificial Intelligence (AI) (particularly Edge computing), Network of Networks and AI-enhanced communication for use in actual combat.[2][3][4][5] In February 2022, JAIC was integrated into the Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Office (CDAO).[6]

A subdivision of the United States Armed Forces, it was created in June 2018. The organization's stated objective was to "transform the US Department of Defense by accelerating the delivery and adoption of AI to achieve mission impact at scale. The goal is to use AI to solve large and complex problem sets that span multiple combat systems; then, ensure the combat Systems and Components have real-time access to ever-improving libraries of data sets and tools."[3]


JAIC was originally proposed to Congress on June 27, 2018;[7] that same month, it was established under the Defense Department's Chief Information Officer (CIO), itself subordinate to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), to coordinate Department-wide AI efforts.[1] Throughout 2020, JAIC started financially engaging with the AI industry for the development of specific applications.[8][9][10]

Current proposals for JAIC include giving it the authority as a financial entity to acquire its own technology, and elevating its position to be under the Deputy Secretary of Defense.[11][12][13]

On 24 June 2021 the Department of Defense gathered reporters for an AI symposium in which it announced the launch of an "AI and data accelerator (ADA) initiative" in which, over the month of July, data teams would work directly with military personnel to provide a proof of concept in data-driven warfare and to observe the possible obstacles for such implementation.[14][15]

On 1 June 2022 JAIC, the Defense Digital Service, and the Office of Advancing Analytics were fully merged into a unified organization, the Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Officer (CDAO).[16] JAIC, DDS, and the other groups within CDAO will cease to be recognized as entities.[17][18]


Note: as more information becomes available, this section may be split off

The Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Office (CDAO)[19] or Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Officer [18][17] is Dr. Craig Martell.[20][21][22][23] USAF secretary Frank Kendall has signalled that the CDAO will have an approach to solving the DoD-wide Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) problem: "Deputy Defense Secretary Kathleen Hicks has already asked Martell to take a leading role in the discussions about JADC2".[24][25] Martell's approach is bottom-up starting with each agency, working one-by-one, preserving what is important for each agency.[26][27] However connectivity between Nodes is currently the critical resource for JADC2.[28]

On 30 January 2023 the CDAO announced a series of global information dominance experiments (GIDEs).[29][a] GIDE 5 is being held 30 January — 3 February 2023 (Monday—Thursday) at the Pentagon, and at multiple combatant commands (and therefore across the global information grid for JADC2). The experiment is twofold: 1) "to identify where we may have barriers in policy, security, connectivity, user-interface, or other areas that prohibit data sharing across the Joint force"; and 2) "to show how data, analytics, and AI can improve Joint workflows in a variety of missions from global integrated deterrence through targeting and fires".[29]

GIDE 6 was held from June 5 to July 26, 2023, with allies and partners, to exercise Combined Joint All-domain command and control (CJADC2).[32]

In GIDE 7, and in GIDE 8 more elements of the kill chains were exercised.[33] In GIDE 9, which is aligned with Project Convergence C4 (2024), Combined JADC2 is almost ready for deployment, pending Congressional approval of FY2024 funding.[33][34]

Reaction to large language models[edit]

Dr. Martell has expressed apprehension over the large language models of AI such as ChatGPT.[35]

US Air Force Secretary Frank Kendall notes that AI tools to aid decision-making will likely find application.[36] However the US will apply ethical constraints.[36]

Dr. Radha Iyengar Plumb will assume the CDAO role after the April 2024 departure of Dr. Martell.[37]


AI-powered surveillance[edit]

The USAF has expressed interest in AI-based surveillance for operations based in CENTCOM.[38] Interest in these operations has grown from $600 million to $2.5 billion, from 2016 to 2021.[38]

Neuromorphic computing[edit]

JAIC's primary area of interest is edge computing, as even more sensor technologies are being added to weapon systems and military vehicles. The edge processors that will be used are neuromorphic processors that will perform neural network computations on the sensor itself without having to send the data to a central processor, thus increasing the robustness of the combat network.[5] JAIC plans to access the U.S. commercial sector and academia to recruit professionals in the fields of neuromorphic technology and AI safety.[39][40][41][42] See § data fabric

Network of networks[edit]

Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) is an initiative of the military's network of networks, as each branch of the US Armed Forces (Army, Air Force, Navy, Marines and Coast Guard) intends to have its own communications network. The JADC2 project would integrate all those networks into a larger network on all spatial scales. ′Connect every sensor, every shooter′, being the tagline.[b]

JADC2 confers on the US the capability to "move data globally at scale".[55] —Gen. Chance Saltzman, US Space Force

Joint Common Foundation[edit]

"The DoD’s Cloud-Based AI Development and Experimentation Platform"[56]

List of directors[edit]

No. Director Term Service branch
Portrait Name Took office Left office Term length
John N.T. Shanahan[57]
Lieutenant General
John N.T. Shanahan[57]
December 20181 June 2020~1 year, 183 days
U.S. Air Force
Nand Mulchandani[58]
Nand Mulchandani[58]
1 June 20201 October 2020122 days
U.S. Senior
Executive Service
Michael S. Groen
Lieutenant General
Michael S. Groen
1 October 202019 May 20221 year, 230 days
U.S. Marine Corps

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Four Global Information Dominance Experiments (GIDEs) were held from 2020 to 2021.[30][31]
  2. ^ JADC2 has to connect the military services: "When you go to war, four DoD defense agencies — National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), and National Security Agency (NSA) — become Combat Support Agencies. They are part of the warfighting mechanism, so you need to include all the capabilities they bring to bear."— Scott Stapp [43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]
  1. ^ a b Kelley M. Sayler (June 8, 2021). Defense Primer: Emerging Technologies (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  2. ^ "DOD Unveils Its Artificial Intelligence Strategy". U.S. Department of Defense.
  3. ^ a b "Joint Artificial Intelligence Center". Department of Defense. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  4. ^ McLeary, Paul (June 29, 2018). "Joint Artificial Intelligence Center Created Under DoD CIO".
  5. ^ a b Barnett, Jackson (June 19, 2020). "For military AI to reach the battlefield, there are more than just software challenges". FedScoop. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  6. ^ "CDAO - Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Office". November 9, 2022. Archived from the original on November 9, 2022. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  7. ^ "Memo: Establishment of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center" (PDF). Deputy Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense. June 27, 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  8. ^ Rockwell, Mark (May 20, 2020). "DOD lands major contract for war-fighting AI". Defense Systems.
  9. ^ Eversden, Andrew (May 18, 2020). "Booz Allen Hamilton wins massive Pentagon artificial intelligence contract". C4ISRNET.
  10. ^ "Booz Allen wins $800 million AI contract from Defense Department". consulting.us. June 16, 2020.
  11. ^ Barnett, Jackson (May 21, 2020). "JAIC needs its own acquisition authority within next two years, Shanahan says". FedScoop. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  12. ^ Barnett, Jackson (June 22, 2020). "Lawmakers want Joint AI Center directly under deputy secretary of Defense". FedScoop. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  13. ^ "H.R. 6395—FY21 National Defense Authorization Bill" (PDF). Subcommittee on Intelligence and Emerging Threats and Capabilities. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  14. ^ "Pentagon to send AI, data teams to combatant commands this summer". June 29, 2021.
  15. ^ "DOD to send AI data teams to combatant commands this summer". June 28, 2021. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  16. ^ JASPREET GILL (24 May 2022) Say goodbye to JAIC and DDS, as offices cease to exist as independent bodies June 1
  17. ^ a b Robert Johnson (3 Jun 2022) DOD’s New Chief Digital and AI Office Achieves Full Operating Capability
  18. ^ a b Brandi Vincent (1 Jun 2022) Pentagon announces new leadership for chief digital, AI office
  19. ^ ai.mil (June 2022) Announcing the 2022 DoD Digital and Artificial Intelligence Symposium
  20. ^ Department of Defense (25 April 2022) DoD Announces Dr. Craig Martell as Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Officer
  21. ^ Colin Demarest (2 Jun 2022) Pentagon’s AI, data office fully operational as leadership posts filled
    • DCDAO for Acquisition – Sharothi Pikar
    • DCDAO for Policy, Strategy and Governance – Clark Cully
    • DCDAO for Enterprise Platforms and Business Optimization – Greg Little
    • DCDAO for Algorithmic Warfare – Joe Larson
    • DCDAO for Digital Services – Katie (Olson) Savage
    • Chief Operating Officer – Dan Folliard
    • Chief Technology Officer – Bill Streilein
    • Chief of AI Assurance – Jane Pinelis
  22. ^ CDAO (June 2022) Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Office (CDAO)
  23. ^ David Roza (14 Jun 2022) The Pentagon’s new data chief waited days just for an ID card CAC card
  24. ^ Jaspreet Gill (2 Sep 2022) Kendall: CDAO will ‘hopefully’ be able to pull JADC2 efforts together
  25. ^ Colin Demarest (26 Oct 2022) Pentagon setting up office to speed JADC2 integration across military
  26. ^ Patrick Tucker (8 Dec 2022) The Defense Department’s New Data King Is Skeptical of AI 'Pixie Dust' "A more unified approach to data collection will enable bottom-up tools and capabilities"
  27. ^ Colin Demarest (14 Dec 2022) Pentagon's AI ambitions require high-quality data, CDAO’s Martell says "More than 685 AI projects, including several tied to major weapons systems, were underway at the Defense Department as of early 2021"
  28. ^ Colin Demarest (28 Apr 2023) Connectivity will 'make or break' US military use of AI, official says
  29. ^ a b CDAO (30 January 2023) DoD Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Office Hosts Global Information Dominance Experiments
  30. ^ Gen. Glen D VanHerck (6 Jul 2021) NEW TOOLS TO CREATE TIME AND INFORMATION: "BUILDING THE BIKE WHILE WE RIDE IT" "global information dominance", 3rd in a series of exercises for all 11 combatant commands. See United States Joint Forces Command#Organization disestablished 2011
  31. ^ Patrick Tucker (29 Jul 2021) AI Gives ‘Days of Advanced’ Warning in Recent NORTHCOM Networked Warfare Experiment
  32. ^ Jamie Bennet (15 June 2023) CDAO Continues CJADC2 Research With 6th Iteration of Global Information Dominance Experiment; Craig Martell Quoted
  33. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (21 Feb 2024) First version of all-service battle network is 'real and ready now': Hicks
  34. ^ Joseph Clark, DoD News ((21 Feb 2024) Hicks Announces Delivery of Initial CJADC2 Capability 
  35. ^ Patrick Tucker (3 May 2023) The Pentagon's AI Chief Is 'Scared to Death' of ChatGPT
  36. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (22 Jun 2023) Kendall: Air Force studying 'military applications' for ChatGPT-like artificial intelligence
  37. ^ C. Todd Lopez, DOD News (14 Mar 2024) Austin Returns to Global Travel With Next Week's Ukraine Defense Contact Group
  38. ^ a b Colin Demarest (31 Jan 2023) AI-powered surveillance sought for US Central Command
  39. ^ "JAIC Looking to Improve Engagement With Private Sector". MeriTalk.
  40. ^ Barnett, Jackson (July 5, 2019). "DOD's artificial intelligence center wants pitches from industry this fall". FedScoop. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  41. ^ "Pentagon Needs Tools to Test the Limits of Its Artificial Intelligence Projects". Nextgov.com. April 16, 2020.
  42. ^ Ashutosh Gupta, Gartner (11 May 2021) Data Fabric Architecture is Key to Modernizing Data Management and Integration
  43. ^ Breaking Defense (22 Mar 2023) When we talk about what will enable JADC2, we’re really talking about the Internet of Warfighting Things (IoWT vs IoMT- Internet of Military Things): "Combatant commanders may have units they have command authority over, but if they can't talk to them and connect to them, they don’t have control. That’s what IoWT enables. "— Scott Stapp
  44. ^ Barnett, Jackson (March 3, 2020). "Air Force wants to lead on JADC2 system to connect military domains". FedScoop. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  45. ^ CRS (6 April 2020) "Defense Capabilities: Joint All Domain Command and Control" (PDF). In Focus. Congressional Research Service. April 6, 2020.
  46. ^ Sydney Freedberg (4 Nov 2020) Military AI Is Bigger Than Just The Kill Chain: JAIC Chief
  47. ^ Jaspreet Gill (27 Oct 2022) DoD, military services ‘haven’t actually defined’ the JADC2 problem: Navy official
  48. ^ Gen. David Goldfein and Gen. Jay Raymond (28 Feb 2020) America's future battle network is key to multidomain defense JADC2: " We cannot yet share data in a seamless and simultaneous way between the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps or the Space Force"
  49. ^ Colin Demarest (21 Oct 2022) Project Convergence shows JADC2 alignment, leaders from 3 services say Interoperations "show the services are aligned and not disjointed".
  50. ^ Jaspreet Gill (27 Oct 2022) Pentagon seeks more 'jointness' for JADC2 as OSD stands up new office "The new office will be led by Dave Tremper, director of electronic warfare in the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment".
  51. ^ AUSA US Army Professional Forum (Oct 2021) AUSA 2021 Warriors Corner: Advanced Technologies (Cloud and Data) for MDO/JADC2/Cyber Panel
  52. ^ DoD (17 Mar 2022) DoD Announces Release of JADC2 Implementation Plan: " ' °sense, °make sense, and °act' on information across the battle-space quickly using automation, artificial intelligence (AI), predictive analytics, and machine learning to deliver informed solutions via a resilient and robust network environment ".—Dr. Kathleen Hicks, Deputy Secretary of Defense (DSD)
  53. ^ DoD (17 Mar 2022) Summary of the Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) strategy pages 2 — 8.
  54. ^ Colin Demarest (17 Nov 2022) How the Pentagon knows when JADC2 innovations are working by introducing benchmarks: "The benchmarks include data on how technologies speed or slow decision making, how many errors are introduced, the variance among available options and potential weak spots or pitfalls" —Jeffery Valenzia.
  55. ^ Theresa Hitchens (29 Mar 2023) Space Development Agency readies launch of first satellites for comms, missile tracking
  56. ^ CDAO Joint Common Foundation (JCF)
  57. ^ "John N.t. "Jack" Shanahan".
  58. ^ "Leadership - Bio-Mulchandani - JAIC". Archived from the original on September 20, 2020. Retrieved October 3, 2020.