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Julang-2 (JL-2)
Julang-2 SLBM.jpg
A JL-2 launch.
Place of origin People's Republic of China
Service history
In service Active as of 2015[1]
Used by People's Liberation Army Navy
Weight 42,000 kilograms (93,000 lb)[2]
Length 13 metres (43 ft)[2]
Warhead 1 or 3-4 MIRV nuclear warheads[3][4][5]
Blast yield 90 kt (MIRV) or 250-1000kt (single)[4][5]

Propellant Solid-fuel rocket[3][4]
7400[6]-8000[5] km (estimated)
Astro-inertial[4] with Beidou[2]
Type 094 submarine[3][4]
2007 estimated ranges of Chinese ballistic missiles; the JL-2 is in light green.

The JL-2 (Chinese: 巨浪-2; pinyin: Jù Làng Èr; literally: "Giant Wave 2", NATO reporting name CSS-N-14[7]) is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) slated for deployment aboard the People's Liberation Army Navy's Type 094 submarine. It succeeds the JL-1 SLBM deployed on the Type 092 submarine. This missile will, for the first time, allow Chinese SSBNs to target portions of the United States from operating areas located near the Chinese coast.[8]


The JL-2 is a naval variant of the land-based DF-31.[5][9] Their common 2-metre diameter solid fuel rocket motor was successfully tested in late 1983,[5] and research and development efforts were reorganized starting in 1985 to produce both missiles.[9]

The first JL-2 at-sea launch occurred in 2001 from a Type 031 submarine.[5][9] The program was delayed after a failed test in 2004.[5] Successful launches occurred in 2005 and 2008. The missile was successfully fired from a Type 094 submarine, the intended operational platform, for the first time in 2009.[5] A series of test launches occurred in 2012.[6][10] Another test launch occurred in January 2015.[11]

During the development of the missile, it was reported that China was considering modifying the missile to accommodate an anti-satellite warhead to give it a sea-based anti-satellite capability.[12]

According to latest source, 094 SSBN armed with JL-2 missiles began deterrent patrol in 2015.[1] The United States Department of Defense believes the missile will give the PLA Navy "its first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent."[13]

As of 2017, 48 JL-2 launchers are deployed on submarines.[14] As of 2018, China is developing the JL-3 as a future replacement.


The JL-2 is a three-stage, solid-fuelled missile.[3][4] Range estimates have included 7,400 km (4,600 mi)[6] and 8,000 km (5,000 mi).[5] Payload is a single[3] 250–1000 kt warhead;[4] or 3 to 4 (MIRV) 90 kt warheads.[5]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fisher, Richard D., Jr. (16 December 2015). "China advances sea- and land-based nuclear deterrent capabilities". Jane's Defence Weekly. Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group. 53 (6). ISSN 0265-3818.
  2. ^ a b c http://missilethreat.csis.org/missile/ju-lang-2-jl-2/ CSIS Missile Threat - JL-2
  3. ^ a b c d e National Air and Space Intelligence Center (2013). Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat (PDF) (Report). p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Rahmat, Ridzwan (25 March 2014). "PACOM chief says China will deploy long-range nuclear missiles on subs this year". janes.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "JL-2 (CSS-NX-14)". Globalsecurity.org. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  6. ^ a b c United States Department of Defense (May 2013). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013 (PDF) (Report). p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  7. ^ United States Department of Defense (May 2017). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2017 (PDF) (Report). p. 24. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  8. ^ http://www.nasic.af.mil/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=F2VLcKSmCTE%3d&portalid=19
  9. ^ a b c Lewis, Jeffrey (25 June 2005). "JL-2 SLBM Flight Test". armscontrolwonk.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  10. ^ Gertz, Bill (21 August 2012). "Ready To Launch: China conducts rare flight test of new submarine-launched missile". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  11. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 February 2015). "China conducts JL-2 sub missile test". The Washington Times. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  12. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 January 2008). "Submarine ASAT". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 May 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)).
  13. ^ Taylor, Marcus; Tamerlani, Eric; Farnsworth, Timothy (June 2013). "Pentagon Sees China Progressing on SLBM". Arms Control Today. Arms Control Association. 43 (5): 31–32. JSTOR 23629520. (Subscription required (help)).
  14. ^ Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat (Report). Defense Intelligence Ballistic Missile Analysis Committee. June 2017. p. 25. NASIC-1031-0985-17. Retrieved 20 July 2017.

External links[edit]