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Julang-2 (JL-2)
JL-1 and JL-2.PNG
JL-1 and JL-2.
Place of origin  China
Service history
In service Development
Used by  People's Liberation Army Navy
Warhead 1 or 3-4 MIRV nuclear warheads[1][2][3]
Blast yield 90 kt (MIRV) or 250-1000kt (single)[2][3]

Propellant Solid[1][2]
7400[4]-8000[3] km (estimated)
Type 094 submarine[1][2]

The JL-2 (Chinese: 巨浪-2; pinyin: Jù Làng-2; literally: "Giant Wave 2", NATO reporting name CSS-NX-14[1]) is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) slated for deployment aboard the People's Liberation Army Navy's Type 094 submarine. It succeeds the JL-1 SLBM deployed on the Type 092 submarine.


The JL-2 is a naval variant of the land-based DF-31.[3][5] Their common 2-metre diameter solid fuel rocket motor was successfully tested in late-1983,[3] and research and development efforts were reorganized starting in 1985 to produce both missiles.[5]

The first JL-2 at-sea launch occurred in 2001 from a Type 031 submarine.[3][5] The program was delayed after a failed test in 2004.[3] Successful launches occurred in 2005 and 2008. The missile was successfully fired from a Type 094 submarine, the intended operational platform, for the first time in 2009.[3] A series of test launches occurred in 2012.[4][6] Another test launch occurred in January 2015.[7]

During the development of the missile, it was reported that China was considering modifying the missile to accommodate an anti-satellite warhead to give it a sea-based anti-satellite capability.[8]

In 2012, the United States Department of Defense noted development had suffered repeated delays.[9] However, the following year, the Department assessed that the missile would reach initial operating capability that year, giving the PLA Navy "its first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent."[10]


The JL-2 is a three-stage, solid-fuelled missile.[1][2] Range estimates have included 7,400 km (4,600 mi)[4] and 8,000 km (5,000 mi).[3] Payload may include multiple 90 kt warheads,[3] or a single 250–1000 kt warhead.[2] According to Hans Kristensen of the Federation of American Scientists, Chinese nuclear policy makes it unlikely that nuclear warheads are fitted to the JL-2 during peacetime.[10]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e National Air and Space Intelligence Center (2013). Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat (PDF) (Report). p. 25. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Rahmat, Ridzwan (25 March 2014). "PACOM chief says China will deploy long-range nuclear missiles on subs this year". janes.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "JL-2 (CSS-NX-14)". Globalsecurity.org. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c United States Department of Defense (May 2013). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013 (PDF) (Report). p. 31. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Lewis, Jeffrey (25 June 2005). "JL-2 SLBM Flight Test". armscontrolwonk.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  6. ^ Gertz, Bill (21 August 2012). "Ready To Launch: China conducts rare flight test of new submarine-launched missile". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  7. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 February 2015). "China conducts JL-2 sub missile test". The Washington Times. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 
  8. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 January 2008). "Submarine ASAT". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 May 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  9. ^ "Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2012" (PDF). Office of the Secretary of Defense. pp. 23 (pp30 of PDF). 
  10. ^ a b Taylor, Marcus; Tamerlani, Eric; Farnsworth, Timothy (June 2013). "Pentagon Sees China Progressing on SLBM". Arms Control Today (Arms Control Association) 43 (5): 31–32. Retrieved 27 April 2015 – via JSTOR. (subscription required (help)). 

External links[edit]

  • JL-2 from Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica