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Julang-2 (JL-2)
Julang-2 SLBM.jpg
A JL-2 launch.
Place of origin People's Republic of China
Service history
In service Active as of 2015[1]
Used by People's Liberation Army Navy
Weight 42,000 kilograms (93,000 lb)[2]
Length 13 metres (43 ft)[2]
Warhead 1 or 3-4 MIRV nuclear warheads[3][4][5]
Blast yield 90 kt (MIRV) or 250-1000kt (single)[4][5]

Propellant Solid[3][4]
7400[6]-8000[5] km (estimated)
Astro-inertial[4] with Beidou[2]
Type 094 submarine[3][4]
2007 estimated ranges of Chinese ballistic missiles; the JL-2 is in light green.

The JL-2 (Chinese: 巨浪-2; pinyin: Jù Làng-2; literally: "Giant Wave 2", NATO reporting name CSS-NX-14[3]) is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) slated for deployment aboard the People's Liberation Army Navy's Type 094 submarine. It succeeds the JL-1 SLBM deployed on the Type 092 submarine.


The JL-2 is a naval variant of the land-based DF-31.[5][7] Their common 2-metre diameter solid fuel rocket motor was successfully tested in late-1983,[5] and research and development efforts were reorganized starting in 1985 to produce both missiles.[7]

The first JL-2 at-sea launch occurred in 2001 from a Type 031 submarine.[5][7] The program was delayed after a failed test in 2004.[5] Successful launches occurred in 2005 and 2008. The missile was successfully fired from a Type 094 submarine, the intended operational platform, for the first time in 2009.[5] A series of test launches occurred in 2012.[6][8] Another test launch occurred in January 2015.[9]

During the development of the missile, it was reported that China was considering modifying the missile to accommodate an anti-satellite warhead to give it a sea-based anti-satellite capability.[10]

According to latest source, 094 SSBN armed with JL-2 missiles began deterrent patrol in 2015.[11] The United States Department of Defense believes the missile will give the PLA Navy "its first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent."[12]


The JL-2 is a three-stage, solid-fuelled missile.[3][4] Range estimates have included 7,400 km (4,600 mi)[6] to 8,000 km (5,000 mi).[5] Payload is a single[3] 250–1000 kt warhead;[4] or 3 to 4 (MIRV) 90 kt warheads,[5]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Fisher, Richard D., Jr. (16 December 2015). "China advances sea- and land-based nuclear deterrent capabilities". Jane's Defence Weekly. Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group. 53 (6). ISSN 0265-3818. 
  2. ^ a b c http://missilethreat.com/missiles/jl-2-css-nx-5/?country=china#china
  3. ^ a b c d e f National Air and Space Intelligence Center (2013). Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat (PDF) (Report). p. 25. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Rahmat, Ridzwan (25 March 2014). "PACOM chief says China will deploy long-range nuclear missiles on subs this year". janes.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "JL-2 (CSS-NX-14)". Globalsecurity.org. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c United States Department of Defense (May 2013). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013 (PDF) (Report). p. 31. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c Lewis, Jeffrey (25 June 2005). "JL-2 SLBM Flight Test". armscontrolwonk.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  8. ^ Gertz, Bill (21 August 2012). "Ready To Launch: China conducts rare flight test of new submarine-launched missile". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  9. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 February 2015). "China conducts JL-2 sub missile test". The Washington Times. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 
  10. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 January 2008). "Submarine ASAT". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 May 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  11. ^ Fisher, Richard D., Jr. (16 December 2015). "China advances sea- and land-based nuclear deterrent capabilities". Jane's Defence Weekly. Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group. 53 (6). ISSN 0265-3818. 
  12. ^ Taylor, Marcus; Tamerlani, Eric; Farnsworth, Timothy (June 2013). "Pentagon Sees China Progressing on SLBM". Arms Control Today. Arms Control Association. 43 (5): 31–32. Retrieved 27 April 2015 – via JSTOR. (subscription required (help)). 

External links[edit]

  • JL-2 from Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica