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Julang-2 (JL-2)
Julang-2 SLBM.jpg
A JL-2 launch.
Place of origin People's Republic of China
Service history
In service Development
Used by People's Liberation Army Navy
Weight 42,000 kilograms (93,000 lb)[1]
Length 13 metres (43 ft)[1]
Warhead 1 or 3-4 MIRV nuclear warheads[2][3][4]
Blast yield 90 kt (MIRV) or 250-1000kt (single)[3][4]

Propellant Solid[2][3]
7400[5]-8000[4] km (estimated)
Astro-inertial[3] with Beidou[1]
Type 094 submarine[2][3]
2009 estimated ranges of Chinese ballistic missiles; the JL-2 is in light green.

The JL-2 (Chinese: 巨浪-2; pinyin: Jù Làng-2; literally: "Giant Wave 2", NATO reporting name CSS-NX-14[2]) is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) slated for deployment aboard the People's Liberation Army Navy's Type 094 submarine. It succeeds the JL-1 SLBM deployed on the Type 092 submarine.


The JL-2 is a naval variant of the land-based DF-31.[4][6] Their common 2-metre diameter solid fuel rocket motor was successfully tested in late-1983,[4] and research and development efforts were reorganized starting in 1985 to produce both missiles.[6]

The first JL-2 at-sea launch occurred in 2001 from a Type 031 submarine.[4][6] The program was delayed after a failed test in 2004.[4] Successful launches occurred in 2005 and 2008. The missile was successfully fired from a Type 094 submarine, the intended operational platform, for the first time in 2009.[4] A series of test launches occurred in 2012.[5][7] Another test launch occurred in January 2015.[8]

During the development of the missile, it was reported that China was considering modifying the missile to accommodate an anti-satellite warhead to give it a sea-based anti-satellite capability.[9]

In 2012, the United States Department of Defense noted development had suffered repeated delays,[10] and has been waiting for the missile to attain initial operating capability since at least 2009;[11] Nuclear deterrence patrols will likely commence this year in 2015. [12]

The Department believes the missile will give the PLA Navy "its first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent."[13]


The JL-2 is a three-stage, solid-fuelled missile.[2][3] Range estimates have included 7,400 km (4,600 mi)[5] to 8,000 km (5,000 mi).[4] Payload is a single[2] 250–1000 kt warhead;[3] or 3 to 4 (MIRV) 90 kt warheads,[4]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c http://missilethreat.com/missiles/jl-2-css-nx-5/?country=china#china
  2. ^ a b c d e f National Air and Space Intelligence Center (2013). Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat (PDF) (Report). p. 25. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Rahmat, Ridzwan (25 March 2014). "PACOM chief says China will deploy long-range nuclear missiles on subs this year". janes.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "JL-2 (CSS-NX-14)". Globalsecurity.org. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c United States Department of Defense (May 2013). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013 (PDF) (Report). p. 31. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c Lewis, Jeffrey (25 June 2005). "JL-2 SLBM Flight Test". armscontrolwonk.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Gertz, Bill (21 August 2012). "Ready To Launch: China conducts rare flight test of new submarine-launched missile". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  8. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 February 2015). "China conducts JL-2 sub missile test". The Washington Times. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 
  9. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 January 2008). "Submarine ASAT". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 May 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  10. ^ "Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2012" (PDF). Office of the Secretary of Defense: 23 (pp30 of PDF). 
  11. ^ "Military Power of the People’s Republic of China 2009" (PDF). Office of the Secretary of Defense: 48 (pp60 of PDF). 
  12. ^ Fisher, Richard D, Jr. (19 April 2015). "US upgrades assessment of China's Type 094 SSBN fleet". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  13. ^ Taylor, Marcus; Tamerlani, Eric; Farnsworth, Timothy (June 2013). "Pentagon Sees China Progressing on SLBM". Arms Control Today (Arms Control Association) 43 (5): 31–32. Retrieved 27 April 2015 – via JSTOR. (subscription required (help)). 

External links[edit]

  • JL-2 from Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica