Joint Light Tactical Vehicle

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Joint Light Tactical Vehicle
JLTV Spec table.jpg
Oshkosh's Light Combat Tactical All-Terrain Vehicle (L-ATV) was selected as the winner of the JLTV program in August 2015
Type light tactical vehicle[1]
Place of origin United States
Production history
Designer Oshkosh Corporation
Designed 2005–2015
Manufacturer Oshkosh Defense
Unit cost US$433,539[2] (inc R&D)(FY15)
Produced 2016 (Low Rate Initial Production, LRIP)
Variants Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV)
Combat Support Vehicle (CSV)[3]
Light Reconnaissance Vehicle (LRV) (selected)
Specifications

Armor classified (A-kit/B-kit configuration)
Main
armament
a variety of light and medium caliber weapons, plus AGLs or ATGWs can be fitted if required
Secondary
armament
Up to and including four M7 smoke grenade dischargers
Engine GM Duramax V8, 6.6-litre of unspecified power output
(est. 300 hp (224 kW))
Transmission Allison automatic; Oshkosh transfer case
Suspension Oshkosh TAK-4i independent suspension
Operational
range
300 miles
Speed Forward
Road: 70 mph
Off road: varies
Reverse: 8 mph
Steering
system
power-assisted, front axle

The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) is a United States military (specifically U.S. Army, USSOCOM, and U.S. Marine Corps) program to part-replace the Humvee that is currently in service[4] with a family of more survivable vehicles with greater payload.

JLTV traces back to 2005 but publicly emerged in January 2006, with early government requests for information noting: "In response to an operational need and an ageing fleet of light tactical wheeled vehicles, the joint services have developed a requirement for a new tactical wheeled vehicle platform that will provide increased force protection, survivability, and improved capacity over the current Up-Armored High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (UAH) while balancing mobility and transportability requirements with total ownership costs." The joint service nature of the effort was assured through Congressional language in the Fiscal Year 2006 (FY06) Authorization Act, which mandated that any future tactical wheeled vehicle program would be a joint program.[1]

The JLTV program incorporates lessons learned from the earlier and now halted Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) program and other associated efforts.[1] JLTV has evolved throughout various development phases and milestones but variants will be capable of performing armament carrier, utility, command and control (shelter), ambulance, reconnaissance and a variety of other tactical and logistic support roles. JLTV will be manufactured to comply with the US Army's Long Term Armor Strategy (LTAS).[1] The JLTV program was in danger of being outpaced by the rapid development of lightweight MRAPs.[5]

The JLTV program (including numbers required and pricing) evolved considerably as the program developed and requirements stabilized. Oshkosh's L-ATV was selected as the winner of the JLTV program on 25 August 2015 and awarded an initial production contract for up to 16,901 JLTVs. Lockheed Martin filed a protest of the award with the Government Accountability Office (GAO) in September 2015. On 15 December the GAO denied this award, Lockheed Martin proposing to file a "Notice of Post-Award Bid Protest" with the US Court of Federal Claims.[6] On 17 February 2016, Lockheed withdrew their protest of the contract award decision.[7] The first JLTV order was placed in March 2016 with the U.S. Army ordering 657 trucks.[8]

History[edit]

The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), which first entered service in 1985, was developed during the Cold War when improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and asymmetric warfare were not a major factor for military planners. The HMMWV's demonstrated vulnerability to IEDs and the difficulties and costs experienced in satisfactorily up-armoring HMMWVs led to the development of a family of more survivable vehicles with greater payload and mobility. JLTV was originally reported as a one-for-one HMMWV replacement; however, US DOD officials now emphasize that JLTVs are not intended to replace all HMMWVs.[9]

The Joint Chief of Staff's Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) approved the JLTV program In November 2006, this beginning a 13-month Concept Refinement phase which is a pre-systems acquisition process designed to further develop the initial concepts resident in the Initial Capabilities Document (ICD). The Concept Refinement phase also includes an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA). At the conclusion of the Concept Refinement phase in December 2007, the Joint Program Office (JPO) JLTV Project Manager (PM) intended to transition the program directly into the Engineering, Manufacturing, and Development (EMD) phase. However, as the calendar date for the milestone approached, it became clear that the Milestone Decision Authority (MDA), Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE), John Young, would not support the JLTV program entering into the acquisition process at that time. He denied the request and instructed the Army and the Marine Corps to develop a more vigorous Technology Development (TD) phase.[1]

The US DOD released a Request for Proposal (RFP) for the TD phase of the JLTV program on 5 February 2008. Industry proposals were due no later than 7 April. TD phase contract award was postponed in July 2008.[1]

Original JLTV contenders

The following companies and partnerships responded to the TD phase RFP:

On 29 October 2008, the Pentagon narrowed the field of vendors to Lockheed Martin, General Tactical Vehicles and BAE Systems/Navistar. Each team were awarded contracts worth between $35.9 million and $45 million to begin the next phase of the program, which at the time was stated to be worth $20 billion or more.[19] The Northrop Grumman/Oshkosh group contested the awards but, their protest was denied by the Government Accountability Office on 17 February 2009.[20]

Australia signed an agreement in February 2009 to fund nine of the first 30 JLTV prototypes.[21] While a final decision has yet to be made, the Australian Government is now pursuing the Hawkei a domestically developed vehicle through Thales-Australia[22] India became interested in the program in 2009.[23] India is currently pursuing an indigenous solution. Israel and the UK have also expressed interest in the program.[1]

On 1 June 2010, it was confirmed that all three contractors had delivered seven JLTV platforms for TD phase evaluation. The U.S. Army appeared to have reduced its support for the program at this time, omitting JLTV numbers from its tactical vehicle strategy published in June 2010.[24][25] However, the U.S. Army clarified that JLTVs are slated to both replace and complement the Humvee.[25][26]

JLTV competitors and their prototypes, some used during the Technology Development phase

JLTV's TD phase lasted 27 months and in May 2011 it was completed. In February 2011, the JLTV Program Office announced the award of the follow-on Engineering and Manufacturing Development phase contract would be delayed until January or February 2012 because the Army changed requirements for the JLTV, requiring it to have the same level of under body protection as the Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected All-Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV).[1]

Upon exiting the TD phase CDD version 3.3 was published. By the time CDD version 3.3 was published, payload options had been reduced to only two. CDD version 3.3 dropped payload verbiage and replaced it with variants. From that point on there were only two required variants; The Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) configuration, which would replace the previous Category A and Category B configurations, would be a 4-seat vehicle with a 3,500 pound payload. The Category B variant was eliminated because it proved to be too heavy to meet the required weight of approximately 15,639 pounds to make it transportable by Army CH-47F and Marine Corps CH-53K helicopters. The Combat Support Vehicle (CSV), which would replace the previous Category C configuration, would be a 2-seat vehicle with a 5,100 pound payload. The two variants that appeared in CDD version 3.3 now had requirements for configurations. Configuration refers to the different types of mission packages that will be installed into each of the two variants. CDD version 3.3 required six configurations.[1]

The draft Request for Proposals (RFP) for JLTV's EMD phase was released on 2 October 2011. This called for an average unit manufacturing cost between $230,000 and $270,000 across the JLTV family of vehicles. The cost target for the B-kit armor package remains at USD65,000. EMD phase requirements also created some trade space for industry by easing weight and mobility constraints. At this time JLTV was in danger of severe budget cuts and possible full cancellation in the wake of spiraling costs, delays and defense-wide budgetary cutbacks; it was also competing against the HMMWV Modernized Expanded Capacity Vehicle (MECV) program, the draft RfP for which was released on 11 August 2011. On 26 January 2012 the Request for Proposals for JLTV's EMD phase was released. Budget priorities for FY13 released on the same day included the termination of the HMMWV MECV Recap program in order to focus vehicle modernization resources on JLTV.[1]

General Tactical Vehicles JLTV during field trials in 2010
The three variants of the Lockheed Martin JLTV in 2012
AM General BRV-O JLTV on static display

Not all of the TD phase contract award teamings remained in place for the EMD phase. By late March 2012 (bids due 27 March), it was clear that at least six teams had submitted responses to the EMD phase RFP,[27] and following EMD phase contract awards on 23 August 2012, in September Hardwire LLC disclosed itself as a previously unknown seventh bidder. The bidders were:

  • AM General (still at the time teamed with GTV for a separate offering) offered the Blast-Resistant Vehicle – Off Road (BRV-O), a product based on its own R&D, and a design that leveraged some of AM General's then recent experience with HMMWV MECV designs.
  • BAE Systems (previously teamed with Navistar) realigned its team for the EMD phase to include Ford (Ford Motor Company's Power Stroke 6.7 liter turbocharged diesel engine; Ford had been considering participating in the JLTV's EMD competition with its own offering) and proposed a design that capitalized on earlier TD phase work with the Valanx.
  • GTV dropped its TD phase developed design and opted to offer a lowest risk solution, a further development of the in-production MOWAG Eagle.
  • Lockheed Martin opted to stay with its TD phase offering, albeit a version that according to the company was "hundreds of pounds lighter in weight."
  • Navistar, which broke away from BAE Systems for the EMD phase, offered a variant of its Saratoga light tactical vehicle, this unveiled in October 2011 as a middle-ground offering between the HMMWV and JLTV, the latter with its then current TD phase spec still technically in place.
  • Oshkosh proposed a variant of the company's L-ATV, unveiled in October 2011. L-ATV has developmental origins that trace back to Oshkosh/Northrop-Grumman's failed initial JLTV proposal.
  • Hardwire offered a proposal featuring a hybrid-electric drive train. Hardwire's armor solutions have been employed on MRAP vehicles, and the company is known for developing an innovative "blast chimney" that it designed to provide an outlet for energy released in an underbelly blast.[1]

Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase[edit]

On 23 August 2012, the Army and Marine Corps selected the Lockheed Martin JLTV, the Oshkosh L-ATV, and the AM General BRV-O as the winners of the Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase of the competition. The three companies were awarded a contract to build 22 prototype vehicles in 27 months to be judged by the services.[28] Losing bidder Navistar filed a protest with the Government Accountability Office (GAO) over the evaluation criteria on 31 August 2012;[29] the company withdrew the protest on 4 September 2012.[30]

On 26 June 2013, Lockheed Martin completed the last of 22 JLTVs produced for the EMD phase.[31] On 8 August 2013, Oshkosh delivered its first L-ATV JLTV prototype to the Army for government testing following a successful vehicle inspection by the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). The four-door multi-purpose variant and two-door utility variant were provided for evaluations.[32] On 14 August 2013, both AM General and Lockheed delivered their 22 vehicles to the Army and Marine Corps to participate in a 14-month government evaluation and testing process.[33][34]

On 27 August 2013, the Army and Marine Corps announced that full-scale testing of JLTV prototypes would begin the following week, with all three vendors having had 66 vehicles delivered. Each company delivered 22 vehicles and six trailers to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. Previous testing had already put the vehicles through more than 400 ballistic and blast tests on armor testing samples, underbody blast testing, and more than 1,000 miles in shakedown testing. Soldiers from the Army Test and Evaluation Command and personnel from the Defense Department's Office of Test and Evaluation would put the vehicles through realistic and rigorous field testing during 14 months of government performance testing. Testing was to be completed by FY 2015, with a production contract to be awarded to a single vendor for nearly 55,000 vehicles, with each vehicle coming off the assembly line not exceeding $250,000. The Army is to begin receiving JLTVs by FY 2018, and have all their vehicles planned to be delivered in the 2030s.[35] On 3 September 2013, full-pace, full-scope JLTV testing began at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Yuma Proving Ground, and Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The program is on track despite sequestration, but if budget issues are not worked out the schedule could slip. One vendor will be selected by July 2015, and produce 2,000 vehicles for three years of additional testing to fine-tune the assembly line and full-up the system.[36]

Testing of the JLTV was temporarily halted in early October during the two-week U.S. Government shutdown of 2013. Civilian workers were furloughed and test sites were closed within hours. Work restarted immediately when the shutdown ended, though one site remained closed until 22 October. The Army and Marine Corps have vowed commitment to buying nearly 55,000 JLTVs even in the face of sequestration cuts. This level of support is given while major acquisition programs like the Ground Combat Vehicle were in danger of cuts (and eventually cancelled), which potentially meant the Army was favoring replacing Humvees more than the M2 Bradley. Army leaders worried that the Marines' priority with the Amphibious Combat Vehicle program could cause them to back out of JLTV procurement. However, the Marines said procurement plans for the two efforts did not overlap and should not conflict with each other. The number of light vehicles that will need to be reduced due to cuts is still being determined, but it is hoped that the cuts will be directed to the existing Humvee fleet rather than planned JLTV numbers.[37][38]

On 1 October 2013, the Defense Department Inspector General launched a year-long audit of the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle program. It was one of about a dozen acquisition programs outlined in the IG's FY 2014 "audit plan." The audit was to determine whether Army and Marine officials were overseeing and managing the program effectively before low-rate production begins. A June 2013 report by the Congressional Research Service estimated the program cost at $23 billion, or $400,000 per vehicle; military leaders contend the unit cost will be $250,000. With fiscal pressures, program efforts are being challenged and focus is being put into oversight.[39] The Army planned to issue a request for proposals to companies interested in bidding for production contracts in mid-November 2014, and to pick a winner possibly by July 2015.[40] Discrepancies in unit cost have been attributed to different methods for analyzing cost. The Pentagon IG report concluded program officials "appropriately assessed the affordability" of the effort, and that average unit production cost remains stable at $250,000.[41] All three vehicles completed Limited User Testing (LUT) and Production Readiness Reviews (PRRs) by mid-November 2014. The JLTV program, like every other weapons program, is still in danger of cuts with the return of sequestration in 2016.[42]

Final selection[edit]

The Army released the final JLTV RFP for LRIP and FRP on 12 December 2014, clearing the way for AM General, Lockheed Martin, and Oshkosh Defense to submit their vehicle proposals. The Army gave competitors until 10 February 2015, to refine and submit their bids. The Army, on behalf of itself and the Marines, stated plans to select a winner and issue a single contract award in the late summer of 2015.[43] The winning contractor would build approximately 17,000 JLTVs for the Army and Marines during three years of LRIP, followed by five years of FRP. The first Army unit would be equipped with JLTVs in FY 2018, and the Army's complete acquisition of 49,099 JLTVs would be completed in 2040, with 2,200 JLTVs delivered each year between 2020–36. The Marines would begin acquiring their 5,500 JLTVs at the beginning of production and would be completed by FY 2022.[43]

FY 2015 budget requests included USD164.6 million (RDT&E USD45.7 million) for 176 JLTV (Army), and USD7.5 million (RDT&E USD11.5 million) for seven (USMC) JLTV in various configurations. The total procurement cost of the JLTV program was quoted as USD30.04 billion (official DoD FY2015 estimate) + USD0.98 billion in research and development (RDT&E) funds, giving a total estimated program cost of USD31.03 billion (figures are aggregated annual funds spent over the life of the program with no price/inflation adjustment). The GAO estimated that the DoD will allocate about USD53.5 billion for the JLTV program, split USD1.082 billion for RDT&E and at least USD52.298 billion for procurement.[43] By April 2015 TACOM had rescheduled JLTV's Milestone C decision for August 2015. The Army and Marines still expected LRIP to commence in FY2015, with TACOM expecting JLTV to enter full-rate production by FY2018. The Army expected JLTV to achieve Initial Operational Capability in 2019.[43]

Oshkosh was selected on 25 August 2015.[44] The award includes a base contract and eight option years covering three years of LRIP and five years of FRP. The initial contract award is valued at USD114 million and is for two year LRIP. LRIP is slated to begin in the first quarter of FY 2016, with Oshkosh commencing delivery of vehicles approximately 10 months after contract award. A FRP decision is expected in FY 2018. The contract award has a potential value of USD6.749 billion and calls for a maximum of 16,901 JLTVs, and includes a sustainment element. JLTV manufacturing will be performed in Oshkosh, WI. Oshkosh CEO, Charles Szews, said the production contract award would involve more than 300 suppliers in 31 states across the country. The Army initially refused to detail why the L-ATV was chosen over its competitors, likely owing to anticipations of protests from either or both of the losing bidders, these to be submitted within ten days of contract award.[45]

On 8 September it was reported that Lockheed Martin would protest the award; on the same day it was also disclosed that AM General had decided not to file a protest. Any work that would be performed under the contract stopped during the review period.[46] On 15 December the Government Accountability Office GAO dismissed Lockheed Martin's protest because the company on 11 December decided to file a “Notice of Post-Award Bid Protest” with the U.S. Court of Federal Claims; according to a source with knowledge of the procedures, it is uncommon for a company to file with the court close to a GAO protest decision.[6] Immediately after the GAO dismissed the protest, the Army instructed Oshkosh to resume work on the JLTV order.[47] Lockheed Martin filed a preliminary injunction on 17 December, stating that new Army-supplied information related to the contract emerged toward the end of the GAO's protest process that was not considered before their ruling and no deadline extension was granted.[48] The U.S. Court of Federal Claims denied Lockheed Martin's request to stop work while the lawsuit was pending, allowing Oshkosh to continue work during the process.[49] The company withdrew its protest in the Court of Federal Claims on 17 February 2016.[7]

Around the time Lockheed Martin withdrew its protest some potentially crucial data from JLTV testing was revealed. The 472 page annual report from the Pentagon's independent Director of Operational Test & Evaluation revealed that in testing Oshkosh's JLTV offer lasted nearly six times longer between significant breakdown than the next closest, Lockheed Martin's offer. The Oshkosh offer achieved 7,051 Mean Miles Between Operational Mission Failure (MMBOMF), Lockheed Martin's offer achieving 1,271 MMBOMF. AM General's offer achieved just 526 MMBOMF. The target for JLTV is 2400 MMBOMF, the current up-armored HMMWV achieving 2,968 MMBOMF.[50][51] Information on protection levels was also released. It was found in testing that both Oshkosh and Lockheed prototypes met all threshold force protection requirements and some objective-level requirements. This level of protection is better than that of up-armored HMMWVs, and similar to Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected (MRAP) All-Terrain Vehicles (M-ATV) without the underbody improvement kit across all spectrum of tested threats. AM General’s prototype would need a significant redesign to meet threshold protection requirements. More details on vehicle protection were included in a classified report.[52]

In the Pentagon's FY 2017 budget, it requested USD587.5 million to procure 1,828 JLTVs for the Army and USD113.2 million to procure 192 for the Marines. About USD34.7 million was requested for research and development between the Army and Marines' JLTV programs.[53] Procurement objectives remain 49,099 JLTV for the Army and 5,500 for the Marines.[54]

The first order for JLTV was announced on 23 March 2016 with the U.S. Army ordering 657 JLTVs, along with kits and support. The $243 million order includes vehicles for the Army and Marines. According to Oshkosh, "The vehicles, trailers, and installed kits for this order will be delivered by first quarter FY2018."[55] Overall JLTV requirements remain at 5,500 for the US Marines and 49,099 for the Army. In April 2016 it was disclosed that JLTV's Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for both services would be delayed as a result of earlier protests and associated issues. Initial USMC operating capability will be delayed by about one year to the first quarter of fiscal 2020, with 69 JLTVs for a Marine infantry battalion, with procurement by the Marines complete by FY 2022. The Army anticipates a six-month delay, reaching IOC in mid-2019. Army procurement will last until approximately 2040.[56]

According to the Pentagon's latest Selected Acquisition Report (SAR), released on 24 March 2016, The JLTV program has dropped its total costs by $5.9 billion. JLTV's total program costs dropped 19.32%, from $30.574 billion to $24.668 billion "due primarily to revised estimates for unit costs of vehicles and kits based on realised savings", which accounted for a $3.7 billion decrease. A stretched out procurement "due to budget adjustments and revised assumptions regarding the maximum buy profile year" decreased costs by $1.28 billion, and several other changes – such as for cost estimation methodologies and indices – accounted for another $921 million decrease.[57] The SAR's total cost estimates include "research and development, procurement, military construction, and acquisition-related operations and maintenance" associated with a program, the Pentagon said. These reflect actual costs so far and anticipated costs in the future, with all estimates in fully inflated then-year dollars.[57]

On 11 May 2016, the U.S. Army disclosed that the JLTV is to be used as the platform for the upcoming Light Reconnaissance Vehicle (LRV) program rather than procuring a new system. The LRV is to be an off-road platform for carrying a suite of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance sensors; it is be light enough to be carried by a CH-47 Chinook helicopter. The JLTV has been described as an interim LRV solution, and there is a possibility that evaluation of JLTV in the LRV role will determine if a change is necessary.[58]

UK MoD interest[edit]

In June 2016 it was reported that to meet Package 1 of the Multi Role Vehicle - Protected (MRV-P) requirement, the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) was in talks with the Pentagon on acquiring the JLTV via the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) route. “We can confirm that we are talking to the US DOD regarding Package 1 [of MRV-P], to inform our understanding of an FMS option for the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle,” said an MoD spokesman.[59]

Design requirements[edit]

JLTV has been designed to comply with U.S. Army's Long Term Armor Strategy (LTAS).

The USMC requires a vehicle that can be transported by their current and planned systems. In April 2009, Marine Corps Commandant Gen. James Conway warned that the Marines "will not buy a vehicle that's 20,000 lb."[60]

The vehicle's jam-resistant doors will allow the passengers to easily escape after the vehicle has taken damage.[61][62] It will include an automatic fire extinguishing system,[62]

The cabin heater can raise the crew compartment temperature from minus 40 to 65 degrees in one hour. The air-conditioner can drop the temperature from 120 to 90 degrees within 40 minutes.[63]

The JLTV will be equipped with a diagnostic monitoring system that will electronically alert the operator of equipment failures so that they can be fixed. The electronic monitoring will observe the fuel, air intake, engine, cooling, transmission, energy storage, power generation and vehicle speed as well as other systems.[61][62]

The JLTV will have a trailer capable of carrying the same payload as its prime mover over the same speeds and mission profile.[61] It will have the capacity to carry various kinds of ammunition.[61]

The JLTV is to fill a capability gap in the light vehicle fleet for the 21st century strategy for a vehicle that balances performance, payload, and protection. It is to provide the same level of protection as an M-ATV while being more mobile and transportable, and have better network integration than the Humvee.[35] The mission set will be similar to the Humvee's original purpose, not as a frontline combat vehicle but to perform reconnaissance and transport. Unlike the Humvee however, the JLTV is made to survive in hostile environments where roadside bombs, ambushes, and other irregular threats might be prevalent, as the permissive "behind the lines" zone unarmored Humvees were designed to operate in rarely exists in modern combat zones.[64]

Mobility[edit]

The Pentagon requires at least 600 mean miles before an essential function failure.[63] The vehicle will be capable of traveling one terrain feature after having endured a single small caliber arms sized perforation to the fuel tank, engine oil reservoir, or coolant system.[61] It will be able to run on two flat tires.[61][62] The JLTV must also operate in altitudes from minus 500 feet to 12,000 feet and maintain full mission capability in temperatures from −40 to 125 °F (−40 to 52 °C), according to established requirements. When temperatures drop well below zero, the JLTV must start within one minute with no external aids, kits or prior warming of the batteries. The vehicle must be capable of traveling 350 paved miles at 35 miles per hour (56 km/h) or 300 miles (480 km) in operational terrain on a single tank of JP-8 fuel. Acceleration from 0 to 30 mph in seven seconds on dry, level, hard terrain is required, as is the ability to ford 60 inches (150 cm) of saltwater without a fording kit, in forward and reverse, while maintaining contact with the ground.[63]

Other tactically driven mobility requirements include a 25-foot turning radius and the ability to climb 24-inch vertical obstacles in forward and reverse. JLTV must be able to drive off an 18-inch vertical step at 15 mph and sustain no mechanical damage. It will be capable of traversing a 20-degree V-ditch that is 25 feet wide at an approach angle of 45 degree. It can 'jump' a 6-inch parallel curb at 15 mph and traverse a 20-foot flight of stairs at 5 mph. It must climb a 60 percent dry, hard-surfaced gradient and traverse a 40 percent sideslope with no degradation in driver control.[63]

JLTV is transportable by sea, rail, and air. The JLTV will be transportable on all classes of ocean-going transport ships with minimal dis-assembly. It is required to be rail-transportable on CONUS and NATO country railways. Air transportability will be by fixed-wing aircraft as large as or larger than the C-130 Hercules and sling-loadable with rotary-wing aircraft such as the CH-47/MH-47, and CH-53. The ambulance variant must be air-dropable by C-5 and C-17 fixed-wing aircraft.[65] The JLTV can be prepared in 30 minutes for transport by aircraft, Maritime Prepositioning Force ships or rail. This is aided by an adjustable-height suspension.[63]

Technical description[edit]

The JLTV is based around Oshkosh's TAK-4i (i = intelligent) independent suspension system. Around 26,000 military vehicles are fitted with an earlier version of the system,[66] these including the Oshkosh Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement (MTVR), Oshkosh Logistic Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR), and Oshkosh MRAP All-Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV); the TAK-4 system has also been retro-fitted to the Force Protection Inc Cougar and BAE Systems RG-33 MRAPs.[67] The majority of systems supplied to date have been coil-sprung. The TAK-4i version fitted to the JLTV remains undisclosed, but is not coil-sprung and is of the variable adjustable ride-height type with up to 20 inches (51 cm) of wheel travel, 25 percent more than the current standard.[68][69]

Motive power is provided by a digitally-controlled General Motors (GM) Duramax V8 cylinder 6.6-liter diesel engine of undisclosed power output, but estimated to be around 300 hp. In commercial use power output of this engine is currently up to 397 hp (296 kW) at 3000 rpm. An unspecified fully automatic Allison Transmission is fitted, this coupled to an Oshkosh transfer case. It is currently not known if this is a single-speed or two-speed (high/low ratio) transfer case.[70]

The JLTV offers protection levels greater than those of up-armored HMMWVs and comparable to those of original MRAP class designs, but in an overall vehicle package that is considerably smaller and lighter than vehicles procured under the US Marines MRAP procurement.[71]

The LTAS protection system follows an A-kit/B-kit principle, with vehicles designed 'fitted for, but not with', protection. Protection kits can be installed and uninstalled from vehicles in the field using only basic tools. The A-kit is fitted on the production line and is a combination of a limited amount of armoring, in difficult-to-access areas of the vehicle, together with a significant amount of armor installation attachments and required support structures. The bulk of the armor, the B-kit, is installed in the field on an 'as required' basis.[1] Two soldiers can install B-kit armor in five hours. An 800-pound RPG protection kit can be installed in two hours at field-level maintenance and completed by the crew within 30 minutes.[63] The JLTV mounts up to four M7 Light Vehicle Obscuration Smoke Systems.

The benefits of the A-kit/B-kit principle are that armor is only fitted when required, reducing vehicle wear and tear and, by default, whole life cycle costs. Improvements and/or upgrades to armor are also far easier to integrate into an appliqué solution. No quantity for JLTV armoring kits has yet been disclosed, but it is anticipated that the estimated $65,000 kits will be procured on a 'one kit to three vehicle' basis.[1] The overall protection solution will include a spall liner to minimize perforation effects within a vehicle when the vehicle takes hostile fire.[61][72]

The JLTV also has an automatic fire-extinguishing system to protect the crew cabin and engine compartment.[63] Fires in the engine compartment are to be detected and extinguished within 10 seconds to minimize vehicle damage. In addition, the driver also has access to a small portable fire extinguisher.[65] Fixed fuel tanks are self-sealing, mounted externally and shielded by the JLTV structure. Each crew seat has a combined seat and blast restraint device. Ingress time for a crew of four in combat equipment is 30 seconds or less. Egress with B-kit doors is within 10 seconds.[63]

The JLTV could have polyfibroblast applied to it, a type of self-healing paint developed by the Office of Naval Research and Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory made to decrease vehicle maintenance. Development began in 2008 and created a powder consisting of microscopic liquid-filled polymer spheres that can be combined with standard primers. The substance lets paint scratches heal by breaking capsules and forming a coating over the exposed steel before corrosion takes place, cutting maintenance costs and allowing vehicles to operate in the field longer.[73]

Versions[edit]

JLTV configurations (no longer current)

There are now two JLTV variants. In the Initial Capability Document (ICD) there were four payload options, this later reduced to three, Payload Categories A, B, and C. Variants share some capabilities, while certain configurations may have additional capabilities. All variants are transportable externally by CH-47 and CH-53 helicopters and internally by C-130 aircraft.[74]

Payload Category A[edit]

Payload Category A vehicles were to fill the role of "Battlespace Awareness" with a payload capacity of 3,500 lb (1,600 kg).[74]

General Purpose Mobility: General Purpose Mobility (JLTV-A-GP) was the only variant in Payload Category A, designed for general purpose utility vehicle for use by the Army and Marine Corps, with a four-person capacity.[74] Unlike other variants, a C-130 is capable of transporting two vehicles at a time.[74]

Payload Category B[edit]

Payload Category B vehicles was to fill the role of "Force Application" with a payload capacity of 4,000–4,500 lb (1,800–2,000 kg).[74]

  • Infantry Carrier: The Infantry Carrier (JLTV-B-IC) had a 6-person capacity, and was designed to carry a fire-team of troops. Each service may have gotten a different vehicle, or have used the same one.[74]
  • Reconnaissance, scout: Six-seat configuration for use by the U.S. Army.[74]
  • Reconnaissance, knight: Six-seat configuration for use by the U.S. Army.[74]
  • Command and Control on the Move: Four-seat command and control (JLTV-B-C2OTM) configuration for use by the U.S. Army.[74]
  • Heavy Guns Carrier: Heavy Guns Carrier for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for convoy escort, military police, and patrol with four seats and a gunner position.[74]
  • Close combat weapons carrier: Four-seat close-combat weapons carrier for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps.[74]
  • Utility vehicle: Two-seat utility vehicle for use by the USMC.[74]
  • Ambulance: Ambulance configuration for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps. Three seats and two litters.[74]

Payload Category C[edit]

Payload Category C vehicles were to fill the role of "Focused Logistics" with a payload of 5,100 lb (2,300 kg).[74]

  • Shelter carrier/utility/prime mover: Two-seat shelter carrier/utility/prime mover for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps.[74]
  • Ambulance: Higher capacity ambulance configuration for use by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps. Three seats and four litters.[74]

By the time Capability Development Document (CDD) version 3.3 was published at the conclusion of JLTV's Technology Development (TD) phase payload options had been reduced to only two and payload verbiage had been dropped, this replaced by reference to variants. From that point on the two current variants were required, the Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) and Combat Support Vehicle (CSV).[3]

The previous Category B variant was eliminated because it proved to be too heavy to meet the required weight of approximately 15,639 lbs to make it transportable by Army CH-47F and Marine Corps CH-53K heavy-lift helicopters.[3][75]

The Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) configuration replaces the previous Category A and Category B configurations and is a 4-seat vehicle with a 3,500 pound payload. The Combat Support Vehicle (CSV) replaces the previous Category C configuration and is a 2-seat vehicle with a 5,100 pound payload. The CTV and CSV variants that appeared in CDD version 3.3 had requirements for configurations. Configuration refers to the different types of mission packages that will be installed into each of the two variants. CDD version 3.3 required six configurations. CDD version 3.6 was published for entry into the EMD phase in August, this reducing from six to four the total number of to configurations required.[1]

The two-seat variant now has one base vehicle platform: the Utility (UTL). The four-seat variant now has two base vehicle platforms: the Close Combat Weapons Carrier (CCWC) and the General Purpose (GP). Each base vehicle platform will be configured as a mission package configuration through the installation of mission packages. Mission packages include the GP, Heavy Guns Carrier (HGC), CCWC, and UTL.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "GAO-15-342SP DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs" (PDF). US Government Accountability Office. March 2015. p. 97. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c "Joint Light Tactical Vehicle: A Case Study". 20 Aug 2012.  Retrieved 19 May 2015
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  5. ^ Pentagon push for vehicle program menaces another. Guardian
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  7. ^ a b Lockheed Withdraws Protest of Army's JLTV Award – DoDBuzz.com, 17 February 2016
  8. ^ Daniel Wasserbly. "JLTV orders begin after protest dropped". IHS Jane's. Retrieved March 30, 2016. 
  9. ^ Andrew Feickert. "Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved March 19, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Defense Markets Summary October 2007 – from www.Defense-Update.com". 
  11. ^ A Little LUV for the Future Military Jeep. Defense Tech
  12. ^ AM General and General Dynamics Announce Joint Venture Company. globalsecurity.org
  13. ^ Melissa Davis. "Weak MRAP Order Wrecks Force Protection". TheStreet. 
  14. ^ DRS Technologies, Force Protection team to compete for JLTV programme
  15. ^ "SEC Info – Force Protection Inc - ‘10-K’ for 12/31/07". 
  16. ^ Lockheed Martin And Armor Holdings Announce Teaming Agreement For Joint Light Tactical Vehicles. globalsecurity.org
  17. ^ [1] Wired.com
  18. ^ Blackwater, Raytheon Pitch JLTV Candidate. Defense News
  19. ^ "MSN.com – Hotmail, Outlook, Skype, Bing, Latest News, Photos & Videos". 
  20. ^ Kris Osborne (2009-02-17). "GAO denies protest of Army JLTV award". Army Times (Army Times Publishing Co.). 
  21. ^ CRS RS22942 Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
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  23. ^ McLeary, Paul. "Officials Report Progress With JLTV". Aviation Week, 7 October 2009.
  24. ^ "JLTV Sinking, EFV Wobbly". 
  25. ^ a b http://images.dodbuzz.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Army-Truck-Program-Report.pdf ARMY TRUCK PROGRAM (TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE ACQUISITION STRATEGY)
  26. ^ [3]. U.S. Army
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  28. ^ EMD contract – DodBuzz.com, 23 August 2012
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  31. ^ Lockheed Martin's Final JLTV Development Vehicle Rolls off Assembly Line – Lockheed Martin press release, 26 June 2013.
  32. ^ Oshkosh Defense delivers the first Joint Light Tactical Vehicle to United States Army – Armyrecognition.com, 8 August 2013
  33. ^ AM General Delivers the BRV-O JLTV to U.S. – AM General press release, 14 August 2013
  34. ^ Lockheed Martin Delivers 22 JLTV Development Vehicles to U.S. Army and Marines – Lockheed Martin press release, 14 August 2013
  35. ^ a b Army, Marine Corps take delivery of JLTVs for user testing – Army.mil, 27 August 2013
  36. ^ JLTV testing begins, program on schedule, budget – Army.mil, 5 September 2013
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  39. ^ Pentagon Inspector General to Audit JLTV – DoDBuzz.com, 28 October 2013
  40. ^ Army to Start Next JLTV Competition This Fall – DoDBuzz.com, 25 September 2014
  41. ^ Army: JLTV on Track Despite Budget Uncertainty – DoDBuzz.com, 15 October 2014
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  49. ^ Oshkosh To Continue JLTV Production During Lawsuit – Defensenews.com, 12 February 2016
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  54. ^ "USMC Commandant Neller: Marines Made Cuts In FY2017 JLTV Buy To Save ACV, G/ATOR". USNI News (Megan Eckstein). Retrieved 2016-03-08. 
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  56. ^ Jen Hudson. "Humvee Replacement Delayed for Army and Marine Corps". DefenseNews. Retrieved May 12, 2016. 
  57. ^ a b Daniel Wasserbly. "Pentagon: JLTV programme costs decrease". IHS Jane's. Retrieved March 30, 2016. 
  58. ^ Stew Magnuson. "Army selects JLTV Truck for Light Recon Vehicle Program". National Defense Magazine. Retrieved May 12, 2016. 
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  60. ^ Pentagon Seeks More Power From Vehicles
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  73. ^ Self-Healing Paint Tech Stops Vehicle Corrosion – Armedforces-Int.com, 20 March 2014
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p TACOM-Warren Electronic Contracting
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External links[edit]