Joint Photographic Experts Group

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The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is the joint committee between ISO/IEC JTC 1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created and maintains the JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) – titled as Coding of still pictures.[1][2][3] In the ITU-T, its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG). ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 – SG16[4] and previously also with Study Group 8 – SG8[5][6]) is responsible for the JPEG and JBIG standards.[7] The scope of the organization includes the work of both the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.[1][8]

In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to text terminals. In the mid-1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) – Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 – Coding of Audio and Picture Information.[9][10] They were historically targeted on image communication. In 1986, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Photographic Expert Group.[11] The JPEG committee was created in 1986.[12] In 1988, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Bi-level Image Group (JBIG).[11] The group typically meets three times annually in North America, Asia and Europe. The group often meets jointly with the JBIG committee.[10][13] The current JPEG president is Touradj Ebrahimi,[14][15] who was previously chairman of the JPEG 2000 development group[16] and led the MPEG-4 standards committee.[17]

Joint Bi-level Image experts Group[edit]

The Joint Bi-level Image experts Group (JBIG) is the second sub-group of the same working group (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) as the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which focuses on binary images.[1] They created the JBIG and JBIG2 standard.[7][13]

Standards published and under development[edit]

The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) as a sub-group of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 – Coding of Still Pictures (working as a joint team with ITU-T SG 16) have developed various standards, which have been published by ITU-T and/or ISO/IEC. The standards developed by the JPEG and JBIG sub-groups are referred to as a joint development of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 and ITU-T SG 16. The JPEG standards consist of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification. Some of the published JPEG standards were revised by later amendments and/or new editions. Standards developed and under development by JPEG are shown in the table below.[2][18]

Joint Photographic Experts Group - standards published and under development
Common Name Part First public release date (First edition) ISO/IEC Number ITU Number Formal Title
JPEG Part 1 1992 ISO/IEC 10918-1 ITU-T Rec. T.81 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images – Requirements and guidelines
Part 2 1994 ISO/IEC 10918-2 ITU-T Rec. T.83 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images – Compliance testing
Part 3 1996 ISO/IEC 10918-3 ITU-T Rec. T.84 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Extensions
Part 4 1998 ISO/IEC 10918-4 ITU-T Rec. T.86 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Registration of JPEG profiles, SPIFF profiles, SPIFF tags, SPIFF colour spaces, APPn markers, SPIFF compression types and Registration Authorities (REGAUT)
Part 5 2013 ISO/IEC 10918-5 ITU-T Rec. T.871 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF)[19]
Part 6 2013 ISO/IEC 10918-6 ITU-T Rec. T.872 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Application to printing systems
Part 7 2019 ISO/IEC 10918-7 ITU-T Rec. T.873 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Reference software[20]
JPEG-LS Part 1 1998 ISO/IEC 14495-1 ITU-T Rec. T.87 Information technology – Lossless and near-lossless compression of continuous-tone still images: Baseline
Part 2 2002 ISO/IEC 14495-2 ITU-T Rec. T.870 Information technology – Lossless and near-lossless compression of continuous-tone still images: Extensions
JPEG 2000 Part 1 2000 ISO/IEC 15444-1 ITU-T Rec. T.800 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Core coding system
Part 2 2004 ISO/IEC 15444-2 ITU-T Rec. T.801 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Extensions
Part 3 2002 ISO/IEC 15444-3 ITU-T Rec. T.802 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Motion JPEG 2000
Part 4 2002 ISO/IEC 15444-4 ITU-T Rec. T.803 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Conformance testing
Part 5 2003 ISO/IEC 15444-5 ITU-T Rec. T.804 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Reference software
Part 6 2003 ISO/IEC 15444-6 ITU-T Rec. T.805 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Compound image file format
Part 8 2007 ISO/IEC 15444-8 ITU-T Rec. T.807 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Secure JPEG 2000
Part 9 2005 ISO/IEC 15444-9 ITU-T Rec. T.808 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Interactivity tools, APIs and protocols
Part 10 2008 ISO/IEC 15444-10 ITU-T Rec. T.809 Information technology –JPEG 2000 image coding system: Extensions for three-dimensional data
Part 11 2007 ISO/IEC 15444-11 ITU-T Rec. T.810 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Wireless
Part 12 2004 ISO/IEC 15444-12 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Part 12: ISO base media file format
Part 13 2008 ISO/IEC 15444-13 ITU-T Rec. T.812 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: An entry level JPEG 2000 encoder
Part 14 2013 ISO/IEC 15444-14 ITU-T Rec. T.813 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: XML structural representation and reference
MRC 1999 ISO/IEC 16485 ITU-T Rec. T.44 Information technology – Mixed Raster Content (MRC)
JPSearch Part 1 2007 ISO/IEC TR 24800-1 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 1: System framework and components
Part 2 2011 ISO/IEC 24800-2 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 2: Registration, identification and management of schema and ontology
Part 3 2010 ISO/IEC 24800-3 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 3: Query format
Part 4 2010 ISO/IEC 24800-4 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 4: File format for metadata embedded in image data (JPEG and JPEG 2000)
Part 5 2011 ISO/IEC 24800-5 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 5: Data interchange format between image repositories
Part 6 2012 ISO/IEC 24800-6 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 6: Reference software
JPEG XR Part 1 2011 ISO/IEC TR 29199-1 T.Sup2 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 1: System architecture
Part 2 2009 ISO/IEC 29199-2 ITU-T Rec. T.832 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 2: Image coding specification
Part 3 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-3 ITU-T Rec. T.833 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 3: Motion JPEG XR
Part 4 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-4 ITU-T Rec. T.834 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 4: Conformance testing
Part 5 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-5 ITU-T Rec. T.835 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 5: Reference software
AIC Part 1 2017 ISO/IEC TR 29170-1 Information technology – Advanced image coding and evaluation methodologies – Part 1: Guidelines for codec evaluation
Part 2 2015 ISO/IEC 29170-2 Information technology – Advanced image coding and evaluation – Part 2: Evaluation procedure for nearly lossless coding
JPEG XT Part 1 2015 ISO/IEC 18477-1 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 1: Core Coding System Specification
Part 2 2016 ISO/IEC 18477-2 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 2: Coding of High Dynamic Range Images
Part 3 2015 ISO/IEC 18477-3 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 3: Box file format
Part 4 2017 ISO/IEC 18477-4 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 4: Conformance Testing
Part 5 2018 ISO/IEC 18477-5 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 5: Reference software
Part 6 2016 ISO/IEC 18477-6 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 6: IDR Integer coding
Part 7 2017 ISO/IEC 18477-7 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 7: HDR Floating-Point Coding
Part 8 2016 ISO/IEC 18477-8 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 8: Lossless and Near-lossless Coding
Part 9 2016 ISO/IEC 18477-9 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 9: Alpha channel coding

JPEG XL[edit]

JPEG XL
Filename extension.jxl
Developed by
Type of formatLossy/lossless bitmap image format
Extended from
StandardISO/IEC 18181
Open format?Yes
Websitejpeg.org/jpegxl/index.html

In 2017, JTC1/SC29/WG1 issued a Call for proposals for JPEG XL – the next generation image coding standard.[23] The standard is expected to follow still image compression performance shown by HEVC HM, Daala and WebP. The core requirements include better compression efficiency, 8–10 bits per component, RGB/YCbCr/ICtCp color encoding, animated images, alpha channel coding, Rec.709 color space and gamma, Rec.2100 wide color gamut and high dynamic range, and high-quality compression of synthetic images, such as bitmap fonts and gradients. Additional requirements include higher bit depths (12–16 bit integer and floating point), different color spaces (Rec. 709, Rec.2020/2100, and LogC), embedded preview images, lossless alpha channel encoding, image region coding, and low-complexity encoding. The current contributors have agreed to licensing it on a royalty-free basis.[24] The current target publication date is October 2019.[25] The reference software implementation of JPEG XL will losslessly transcode JPEG images while reducing their size by 20%,[26] and will also include lightweight lossless conversion to JPEG for backward compatibility.

Joint Photographic Experts Group - evolution of JPEG XL
Common Name Part First public release date (First edition) ISO/IEC Number ITU Number Formal Title
JPEG XL under development ISO/IEC WD 18181 JPEG XL Image Coding System

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-05-07). "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 - Coding of Still Pictures (SC 29/WG 1 Structure)". Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  2. ^ a b ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29. "Programme of Work, (Allocated to SC 29/WG 1)". Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  3. ^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  4. ^ "ITU-T Home : Study Groups : Study Group 16 - Question 6/16 – Visual coding". ITU-T. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
  5. ^ ITU-T, ITU-T Study Group 8 List of Questions under Study (Study Period 1997 - 2000) (DOC), retrieved 2010-03-07
  6. ^ ITU-T. "ITU-T Study Group 8 (Study Period 1997-2000)". Retrieved 2010-03-07.
  7. ^ a b JPEG. "Joint Photographic Experts Group, JBIG Homepage". Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  8. ^ JPEG, JBIG (2007). "About our committee". Archived from the original on 2009-10-17. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  9. ^ ITU-T. "ITU-T extensions to JPEG-1". Retrieved 2010-03-07.
  10. ^ a b chiariglione.org (2009-09-06). "Riding the Media Bits, The Faultline". Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  11. ^ a b ITU-T (2005-07-23), The First Joint ITU ISO/IEC Still Image Compression Standards (PDF), p. 3, retrieved 2009-11-12
  12. ^ JPEG. "Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG Homepage". Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  13. ^ a b JPEG. "How does JPEG work?". Archived from the original on 2010-06-12. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  14. ^ Pessina, Laure-Anne (12 December 2014). "JPEG changed our world". EPFL News. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  15. ^ "JPEG changed our world". Phys.org. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  16. ^ Taubman, David; Marcellin, Michael (2012). JPEG2000 Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice: Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461507994.
  17. ^ Ebrahimi, Touradj; Pereira, Fernando (2002). The MPEG-4 Book. Prentice Hall Professional. ISBN 9780130616210.
  18. ^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  19. ^ JPEG (2009-04-24). "Press Release - 48th WG1 meeting, Maui, USA - JPEG XR enters FDIS status, JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) to be standardized as JPEG Part 5". Archived from the original on 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  20. ^ Press Release of the 78th JPEG Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  21. ^ a b "fuif/README.md". GitHub. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  22. ^ "brunsli/README.md". GitHub. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  23. ^ "JPEG - Next-Generation Image Compression (JPEG XL) Final Draft Call for Proposals". Jpeg.org. April 23, 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  24. ^ "JPEG XL reaches Committee Draft". JPEG Org. 3 August 2019. Archived from the original (html) on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2019. The current contributors have committed to releasing it publicly under a royalty-free and open source license.
  25. ^ "N79010 Final Call for Proposals for a Next-Generation Image Coding Standard (JPEG XL)" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 (ITU-T SG16). Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  26. ^ https://jpeg.org/items/20190803_press.html

External links[edit]