Pratt & Whitney JT9D

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JT9D
Aircraft engine IP&W JT9D.jpg
The internal structure of the JT9D.
Type Turbofan
Manufacturer Pratt & Whitney
First run December 1966
Major applications Boeing 747
Boeing 767
Airbus A310
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
Airbus A300
Developed into Pratt & Whitney PW4000

The Pratt & Whitney JT9D engine was the first high bypass ratio jet engine to power a wide-body airliner. Its initial application was the Boeing 747-100, the original "Jumbo Jet". It was the company's first high-bypass-ratio turbofan.[1]

Design and development[edit]

The JT9D was built using titanium alloys and nickel alloys. The engine featured a single-stage fan, a three-stage low-pressure compressor and an eleven-stage high-pressure compressor coupled to a two-stage high-pressure turbine and four-stage low-pressure turbine. The JT9D-3, the earliest certified version of the engine, weighed 8,608 lb (3,905 kg) and produced 43,500 lbf (193,000 N) thrust. The original cost of the engine was $800,000 in 1968 ($5.6 million adjusted to 2017).[2] Production ceased in 1990.

The JT9D was developed starting in September 1965 as part of the design of the C-5 Galaxy. A contract was awarded to Pratt & Whitney to study the type of large engine needed, but the production contract was eventually awarded to General Electric and their TF39 turbofan. The JT9D was, however, chosen by Boeing to power the 747. The engine's first test run took place in a test rig in December 1966 at East Hartford, Connecticut, with the engine's first flight in June 1968 mounted on a Boeing B-52E which served as a 747 testbed.

Pratt & Whitney faced enormous difficulties with the JT9D design during the Boeing 747 test program. Engine failures during the flight test program resulted in thirty aircraft being parked outside the factory with concrete blocks hanging from the pylons, awaiting redesigned engines. The 747 program director, Joe Sutter, jokingly asked the P&W guys for a scrapped JT9D to be mounted on a plinth outside his house so Sutter could "go out every morning with my gun and shoot the damn thing just to make me feel better".

Boeing and Pratt & Whitney worked together in 1969 to solve the problem. The trouble was traced to ovalization, in which stresses during takeoff caused the engine casing to deform into an oval shape and cause the high-pressure turbine blades to grind against the sides. This was solved by strengthening the engine casing and adding yoke-shaped thrust links.

JT9D engines powering USAF E-4A airborne command posts were designated Pratt & Whitney F105.

Pratt & Whitney's designated successor to the JT9D family is the PW4000, which features fewer parts, greater reliability, and lower base selling price.

The Pratt & Whitney JT9D high-bypass turbofan engine was developed for the 747.

Applications[edit]

Specifications (JT9D-7 series)[edit]

Data from [3]

General characteristics

  • Type: High bypass two-spool turbofan engine
  • Length: 128.2 in (3,260 mm) (less intake ring and nozzle)
  • Diameter: 92.3 in (2,340 mm) (Fan tip)
  • Dry weight: 8,608 lb (3,905 kg)

Components

  • Compressor: 1-stage Fan, 3-stage LP compressor and 11-stage HP compressor
  • Combustors: Annular combustion chamber
  • Turbine: 2-stage HP turbine and 4-stage LP turbine
  • Fuel type: Aviation Kerosene typically Jet A-1
  • Oil system: pressure spray with scavenge

Performance

The JT9D Family
Model Static Thrust Basic Engine Weight Length Fan Diameter Application
JT9D-3A 45,800 lbf (203.73 kN) 8,608 lb (3,905 kg) 128.2 in (3,260 mm) 92.3 in (2,340 mm) Boeing 747-100
JT9D-7 47,900 lbf (213.07 kN) 8,850 lb (4,010 kg) 128.2 in (3,260 mm) 92.3 in (2,340 mm) Boeing 747
JT9D-20 49,400 lbf (219.74 kN) 8,450 lb (3,830 kg) 128.2 in (3,260 mm) 92.3 in (2,340 mm) McDonnell Douglas DC-10/Boeing 747
JT9D-7Q/7Q3 53,000 lbf (235.76 kN) 9,295 lb (4,216 kg) 132.1 in (3,360 mm) 93.6 in (2,380 mm) Boeing 747
JT9D-59A/70A 53,000 lbf (235.76 kN) 9,155 lb (4,153 kg) 132.2 in (3,360 mm) 93.6 in (2,380 mm) McDonnell Douglas DC-10/Boeing 747/Airbus A300
JT9D-7R4D/D1 48,000 lbf (213.51 kN) 8,905 lb (4,039 kg) 132.7 in (3,370 mm) 93.4 in (2,370 mm) Boeing 767/Airbus A310
JT9D-7R4G2 54,750 lbf (243.54 kN) 8,935 lb (4,053 kg) 132.7 in (3,370 mm) 93.4 in (2,370 mm) Boeing 747
JT9D-7R4H1 56,000 lbf (249.10 kN) 8,885 lb (4,030 kg) 132.7 in (3,370 mm) 93.4 in (2,370 mm) Airbus A300

See also[edit]

Related development
Comparable engines
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gunston 1989, p.126.
  2. ^ Aero Engines 1968, Flight International, 4 January 1968.
  3. ^ "JT9D ENGINE". Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  4. ^ "Thrust Data for Performance Calculations" (pdf). Figure D9. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]