JT LeRoy

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Sarah "signed" by JT LeRoy

Jeremiah "Terminator" LeRoy is a literary persona created by American writer Laura Albert. The name was used from 1996 on, for publication in magazines such as Nerve and Shout NY.[1] After his first novel Sarah was published, "LeRoy" started making public appearances. In a January 2006 article in The New York Times, LeRoy's agent, manager, movie producer, as well as several journalists, declared that the person acting as LeRoy in public was Savannah Knoop.

In 2007, Albert was found liable in monetary damages for the tort of fraud for having signed legal papers in the name of her fictional character.[2]

After the reveal, artist/director Robert Wilson created his VOOM video portrait of JT LeRoy.[3] Albert and JT are the subjects of the hit Brazilian rock musical JT, Um Conto de Fadas Punk (JT, A Punk Fairy Tale). The documentarian Marjorie Sturm produced and directed "The Cult of JT LeRoy" about the JT LeRoy scandal. It premiered in 2015[4] and is currently streaming on multiple platforms. The documentarian Jeff Feuerzeig co-produced, wrote, and directed a film documenting the scandal, titled Author: The JT LeRoy Story; the only film on this subject thus far to receive American and European theatrical distribution, it premiered in United States theaters in September 2016.

Background and creation of the character[edit]

LeRoy was supposedly born October 31, 1980 in West Virginia. His backstory was one of prostitution, drug addiction, and vagrancy in California, prior to the publication of his first novel in 1999. However, an exposé in October 2005 revealed that JT LeRoy was a fictional character created by Laura Albert.[5][6] The JT LeRoy scandal involved Laura Albert and her family. As reported by Vanity Fair in 2006, "J. T. LeRoy was the invention of Speedie/Emily, whose real name is Laura Albert. Now 40, she wrote all of J.T.’s books, articles, and stories, corresponded as J.T. by e-mail, and spoke as him on the phone, putting on a southern accent she thought was in accordance with J.T.’s supposed West Virginian origins. The high, feminine pitch was sometimes explained away as a result of J.T.’s not having fully matured physically due to the abuse he suffered. Her co-conspirators were Astor, whose real name is Geoffrey Knoop, 39, and his half-sister Savannah Knoop, a 25-year-old aspiring clothes designer who, once J.T.’s career took off, was drafted to play the writer in public—the wigs-and-sunglasses figure."[7]

Albert described LeRoy as an "avatar",[8] and said that she was able to write things as LeRoy that she could not have said as Laura Albert, comparing it to "the way an oyster creates a pearl: out of irritation and suffering. It was an attempt to try to heal something."[9] She later ommented, "I had survived sexual and physical abuse and found a way to turn it into art [...] Having struggled with issues of gender fluidity when there was no language for it, I created a character both on and off the page who modeled this as yet to be named state of being."[10] Writing for The New York Times in 2016, Albert noted, "I meet a lot of young people and they're shocked that it was an issue to even have an avatar. Because they've grown up where you have multiple fully formed avatars."[11]

Published works[edit]

Laura Albert in her study


Albert originally published as Terminator and later JT LeRoy.[12]

By turns magical and realistic, the novel Sarah is narrated by a nameless boy whose mother Sarah is a lot lizard: a prostitute who works the truck stops in West Virginia. She can be abusive and abandoning, yet he longs for her love and tries to follow in her world, working for a pimp who specializes in "boy-girls."
Ten short stories that form a novel about the childhood of Jeremiah, torn from his foster parents at age four when his emotionally disturbed mother reclaims him and then runs away with him. She alternately clings to Jeremiah and abandons him, subjecting him to patterns of abuse and exploitation she has suffered throughout her life.
  • Harold's End (2005)[15]
The novella follows a young heroin addict who is befriended by Larry, an older man, from whom he receives an unusual pet. Illustrations are by Australian artist Cherry Hood. Published by Last Gasp.
A young boy lives with his mother and her boyfriend in a small trailer. When a new baby comes along, he must take care of it the best he can, drawing inspiration from a book about the labors of Hercules. This volume also features watercolor illustrations from Australian artist Cherry Hood.

Contributions to other written works[edit]

LeRoy's work was also published in literary journals such as Francis Ford Coppola's Zoetrope: All-Story, McSweeney's Quarterly Concern, Memorious, and Oxford American magazine's Seventh Annual Music Issue. LeRoy was listed as a contributing editor to BlackBook magazine, i-D and 7x7 magazines, and is credited with writing reviews all of which include the character Justin Wayne Dennis, articles and interviews for The New York Times, The Times of London, Spin, Film Comment, Filmmaker, Flaunt, Shout NY, Index Magazine, Interview, and Vogue, among others.

LeRoy's work has also appeared in such anthologies as The Best American Nonrequired Reading 2003, MTV's Lit Riffs, XXX: 30 Porn-Star Portraits, Nadav Kander's Beauty's Nothing, and The Fourth Sex: Adolescent Extremes. LeRoy is also listed as guest editor for Da Capo's Best Music Writing 2005.[17]

Additionally, LeRoy was credited with liner notes and biographies for musicians Billy Corgan, Liz Phair, Conor Oberst, Ash, Bryan Adams, Marilyn Manson, Nancy Sinatra and Courtney Love and profiled award-winner Juergen Teller.


Gus Van Sant bought the film rights to Sarah and commissioned J.T. to write a screenplay about a school shooting that provided the seed for the 2003 film Elephant (for which J.T. received an associate-producer credit). [7] LeRoy was credited as associate producer for the 2004 film adaptation of The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things, directed by and starring Asia Argento. It was released in spring 2006.

In 2005 LeRoy was credited as a contributing scriptwriter for House of Boys (2009), a Luxembourgian-German drama film that depicts a love story set in Amsterdam in 1984, starring Layke Anderson, Stephen Fry and Udo Kier, and produced by Delux Productions.


Literary supporters[edit]

In 1994, LeRoy got in touch with novelist Dennis Cooper by faxing a request through Cooper's agent, Ira Silverberg. He struck up a telephone friendship with Cooper, who introduced him to the writer Bruce Benderson, through whom he contacted novelist Joel Rose, writer Laurie Stone, editor Karen Rinaldi, and agent Henry Dunow. He also got in touch with poet Sharon Olds, Mary Karr and Mary Gaitskill, among others.

LeRoy thus built a core of literary supporters, engaging in lengthy, intimate phone conversations and correspondence with them. Throughout the 1990s, LeRoy rarely appeared in public. Then in 2001, a person claiming to be LeRoy began appearing in public, usually decked out in wig and sunglasses.

Peter Carlson wrote in The Washington Post, "The San Francisco Chronicle called the LeRoy affair 'the greatest literary hoax in a generation'. But this fascinating interview reveals that the real story was far more complex and interesting." In Lemon Magazine, head writer Robert Bundy wrote an editorial entitled "Yes Virginia, There Is A JT LeRoy", in the style of Francis P. Church's classic 1897 article "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus", which defended the belief in Santa Claus. Bundy argued that LeRoy exists "because a touching expression of longing, suffering, love, and endurance is not disqualified simply because it issues from a construct. He exists because if words and stories resonate and move the reader, then it matters not that the hand writing them signed another's name."

Hans Eisenbeis, in the MinneapolisSaint Paul newspaper The Rake, wrote, "I don't know what all the fuss is about. In the business, it's called a pseudonym, and the fact that J.T. LeRoy has been writing and publishing under that name for more than a decade ought to be track record enough to establish his (or her) credentials... It's an interesting mystery, but seems to me sort of irrelevant to whether the work written by that person is publishable or not."

Dennis Cooper and many literary supporters were angered by JT Leroy. "But some who were sucked in to LeRoy's 2 a.m. phone calls and pleas for emotional and artistic support have expressed outrage since the hoax was revealed. "It's not cute. It's not irrelevant. It's a cruel con, straight up, and the whole writers' community suffered for it," wrote Susie Bright, the San Francisco author and feminist "sex-positive" crusader, on her blog. "I'm sure there are examples of hoaxes that don't leave such a trail of used people." Another San Francisco author and activist, Michelle Tea ("Rent Girl"), a former sex worker, has said: "Laura Albert is a traitor to writing itself, specifically to memoir. ... It's such a slap to the artists who really are toiling away to create meaning from the hardships of their live," Tea said. "It turns the redemptive quality of a lot of writing into a total farce."[18]

Celebrity supporters[edit]

In early 2001, Garbage singer Shirley Manson mentioned reading Sarah in her band's online journal.[19] Manson then received LeRoy's manuscript for The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things and they became friends. At the time, Manson was writing and recording the band's third album, beautifulgarbage, and wrote a song about LeRoy called "Cherry Lips (Go Baby Go!)". Manson later referenced LeRoy and his friend Speedie in the title song from the band's fourth effort, Bleed Like Me.

Personal appearances[edit]

The controversial subject matter in LeRoy's work created substantial journalistic interest in the author, and various reporters and book critics sought out his identity. LeRoy, citing extreme shyness, refused to appear in public without being disguised in a wig, hat, and sunglasses.[20] LeRoy would infrequently speak in public and once in Milan he hid under the table during his own book reading.

In an interview with The Guardian on January 4, 2006, LeRoy noted that he was "Twenty-three, er ... 24", when he would have been 25 years old. LeRoy also asked a question about Wiffleball, even though his author's bios claimed that he enjoyed playing it. The writer of the article, Laura Barton, quickly received an email from the LeRoy camp attempting to reposition his remarks.[21]


2005: the Beachy article and its fallout[edit]

Author Stephen Beachy wrote in the October 10, 2005 issue of New York magazine suggesting that LeRoy and his associate, Speedie, were personas adopted by musician Laura Albert.[22] The following year, Laura Albert gave an extensive cover-story interview—her first—with Nathaniel Rich of The Paris Review, detailing her own troubled history and her personal experiences with abuse, abandonment, institutionalization, sex work, gender identity, and her need, since childhood, to create alternate personae (chiefly over the telephone) as a psychological survival mechanism, through which she could articulate her own ideas and feelings.[23] In November 2010, Laura Albert appeared at The Moth to tell her story on video.

On November 11, 2005, Women's Wear Daily wrote that the editors of The New York Times Magazine killed an article LeRoy had written after Beachy's article questioning his identity was published.

The Washington Post's David Segal picked up the New York magazine story and wrote, "[LeRoy] appears to be one of the great literary hoaxes of our day, and it fooled a whole lot of people as well as the media, including The New York Times, which last year ran a lengthy profile of LeRoy".[24][25]

2006: JT LeRoy blog: "the hoax edition"[edit]

On January 6, 2006 JT LeRoy posted a blog entry titled "the Hoax edition"[26] which cited an article in The Guardian that took a kind stance over the hoax issue stating that "identity is irrelevant." Also included were T-shirt prints which made light of the hoax, reading "I am the real JT LeRoy" and including an artistic image of the author's blonde wig and sunglasses. Also on the blog entry were promotional references to the film The Heart is Deceitful Above All Things, DVD cover art and opening dates, and a Sundance Film Festival viewing.

The New York Times articles and reactions[edit]

Three days after the blog entry, a New York Times article by Warren St. John, published on January 9, 2006, gave evidence that the person appearing in public as JT LeRoy was Savannah Knoop, half-sister of Geoffrey Knoop.[27]

St. John's follow-up article, published by the Times on February 7, 2006, carried the headline, "Figure in JT LeRoy Case Says Partner Is Culprit", an investigative interview with Geoffrey Knoop. In this article, Knoop states,"that he had come forward out of concern for his son, family members and others affected by what he called an all-consuming web of deceit. He said he and Ms. Albert separated in December, in large part because of stress caused by the deception." Knoop also stated of Albert, "For her, it's very personal. It's not a hoax. It's a part of her." He further stated that he and Albert had separated in December 2005 and were then involved in a custody dispute over their son; however, their case has never entered the courts and no request has been filed by Knoop for sole custody. Knoop also expressed his belief that Albert would never publicly admit to writing as LeRoy.

Rolling Stone: Billy Corgan and "the Magic Kingdom"[edit]

The November 29, 2007 Rolling Stone (#1040) featured an article about JT LeRoy by Guy Lawson in which it was stated that the guitarist Billy Corgan had been privy to what Albert was doing since 2002 and that this felt to him "... like being inside the Magic Kingdom".

Girl boy girl[edit]

In 2008, Savannah Knoop published Girl Boy Girl: How I Became JT LeRoy, a memoir about the six years she spent as LeRoy.[28]


While many authors have taken pen names for various reasons (anonymity, protection of privacy), the persona that Albert and her friends created raised criticism from those who took her novels to be autobiographical.[citation needed] Albert later declared, "No audience for any work of art needs to worry about being fooled. Art is the opportunity to change the way you think, which means you can never be fooled – you either have that experience or you don't."[29]

Many of JT LeRoy's supporters were led to believe by Laura Albert that "JT" was HIV positive. "JT"'s former literary agent, Ira Silverberg, is quoted in the New York Times as saying, "To present yourself as a person who is dying of AIDS in a culture which has lost so many writers and voices of great meaning, to take advantage of that sympathy and empathy, is the most unfortunate part of all of this. A lot of people believed they were supporting not only a good and innovative and adventurous voice, but that we were supporting a person."[30] This is what distinguishes "JT LeRoy" from being simply a pen name or pseudonym.

Knoop's personal appearances presented LeRoy's public with a glimpse of the object of their interest. Albert has been criticized for allegedly calling for attention to JT LeRoy by associating the character with HIV, but there is no evidence that HIV was significant in LeRoy's public persona. As Knoop explained, the ongoing HIV-positive storyline was deleted at the time that she entered the picture as a physical LeRoy impersonator. In a September 2008 interview, Knoop recalled the change in storyline to Gavin Gavin Browning of The Village Voice:

Browning: "There were inconsistencies. In the late '90s, HIV was part of JT's story. But that got dropped. Were you ever challenged about that?"

Knoop: "No. I think that HIV was dropped right around the time I started impersonating him. HIV wasn't part of the story that I was playing, but there were little details. I would wear long sleeves, and there were scars. HIV was part of the trajectory, and then it was just dropped."[31]

Many have assumed Asia Argento knew the real identity of JT LeRoy because she worked intimately with both components of "JT LeRoy" (Laura Albert and Savannah Knoop) in the adaptation of "The Heart is Deceitful." That wasn't the case although Albert has stated it was in her Paris Review interview. After many years of relative silence, Asia Argento criticized "JT"/Laura Albert and Savannah Knoop in an interview with the The Guardian. She stated, “A way I thought I could get rid of the resentment was to just not talk about it. It is something I cannot forgive. Believe me it’s hard to carry this burden. I would be very grateful if one day this stops in me. I couldn’t do movies as a director for 10 years. Because I’ve been fooled. I’m a fool! How could I not see it? It made me feel worthless to be honest. I didn’t have a lot of self esteem after that. It took me a long time to rebuild it. I was lost. So forgiveness … it’s a beautiful thing, of saints and martyrs, but I can’t let it go. I was fucking manipulated, it’s time for me to say that.”[32]

Fiction as therapy[edit]

Although Laura Albert initially maintained her silence about her own personal history, a negative backlash nevertheless tarnished LeRoy's reputation early in 2006. The attacks focused on Albert's credibility to speak on the issues which had supposedly impacted LeRoy, such as being transgender, a victim of child abuse, a prostitute, and formerly homeless.

The question of whether a traumatic childhood (abuse and sexual assault) should justify the "JT LeRoy" scandal is controversial. “I think the tension of this story has to do with the ethics around what Laura Albert and company did to get ahead,” writes Marjorie Sturm, maker of 'The Cult Of JT LeRoy.' “First off, the JT LeRoy enterprise was not just Laura Albert. It involved her mother, her sister, her sister-in-spirit [Savannah Knoop], and her partner/mate of many years [Geoff Knoop]. Were they all mentally ill? Or were they profiting and living off it? Was JT LeRoy just ‘bubbling out of her consciousness’ when she formed a corporation to hide JT’s money? When she actively promoted JT and drew in celebrities? Even if we give Laura Albert the benefit of the doubt and say JT was a coping mechanism, does that give her the right to abuse, lie, and exploit others?”[32]

The role of Dr. Terrence Owens[edit]

Dr. Terrence Owens, a therapist at the McAuley Adolescent Unit of St. Mary's Medical Center in San Francisco, was credited by LeRoy for motivating him to write. LeRoy claimed Owens encouraged writing between sessions to maintain continuity of thought, saying that LeRoy's accounts would help to train a class of prospective social workers. Those writings eventually made their way into the collection of short stories in 1998. The fact that the books were dedicated to Owens always validated "JT"'s existence and helped perpetuate the fraud, albeit unwittingly. He, too, only had a phone relationship with "JT." [33] Recently, Dr. Owens spoke to the media and said that he never gave permission to be tape recorded, and those illegal recordings are part of the documentary, "Author." [34]

Comparisons to other pseudonym cases[edit]

The JT LeRoy case has been frequently compared with the contemporaneous controversy involving the author James Frey, despite the difference that Frey's work was published as a memoir and apparently had an only a limited number of pages that were fabrication, while Albert's work was marketed as 'autobiographical fiction' of JT LeRoy. Albert contests that "JT LeRoy's" work is fiction because it was labelled fiction on the jacket cover, despite the fact that "JT LeRoy" gave countless interviews, phone calls, and email in the voice of "JT LeRoy" as well as had her sister-in-law impersonate "JT LeRoy' in public. There have been many comparisons to Armisted Maupin's "The Night Listener' and the case of Anthony Godby Johnson. "When Armistead Maupin’s The Night Listener came out in 2000, many noted the similarities between its story and that of JT LeRoy’s. The Night Listener was a fictionalized account of the case of Anthony Godby Johnson. Johnson was supposedly a teenager with AIDS who had endured an incredibly abusive childhood until he was adopted, at 11, by a “social worker” named Vicki. In the early nineties, he contacted the writer Paul Monette, who was himself dying of AIDS and who connected Tony to editors. After reading Tony’s memoir, Maupin asked to be put in touch with Tony and began a long telephone friendship. But nobody had ever met Tony in person, and it was noted how similar his voice was to that of his adoptive mother, Vicki, the only person who would claim to have seen him. Like LeRoy, Tony built a network of writers and celebrities, created a Website, and touched the hearts of an adoring public. Although his editors and agents defended him, eventually people began to suspect he was a fraud. After Maupin’s novel renewed interest in the case, the holes in Tony’s story were made devastatingly clear in Tad Friend’s 2001 New Yorker article “Virtual Love.”[35]

Elena Ferrante is a famous Italian mysterious pseudonym who was revealed, but comparison's to "JT LeRoy also fall short because there was no one masquerading nor as The New Yorker puts its, "a trick, as the false identity of the writer JT LeRoy was a trick, a performance consciously created to fool readers and to drum up interest in LeRoy’s supposedly autobiographical books."[36]

What makes "JT LeRoy" a unique case compared to other pseudonym cases are the personal relationships that were established with people who felt they were interacting with an HIV positive, abused, homeless, recovering drug addict. The hurt and betrayal from the deception was large. "Albert’s attorneys in the case argued that JT LeRoy was simply a pseudonym. But pseudonyms don’t cause that kind of pain."[37]

Film option and lawsuit[edit]

Antidote International Films, Inc., and its president Jeffrey Levy-Hinte announced plans for a film adaptation of Sarah to be directed by Steven Shainberg. According to The New York Times, when Shainberg "learned who had truly written 'Sarah' an inspiration came to him to make a 'meta-film', a triple-layered movie that would blend the novel with the lives of its real and purported authors in a project he took to calling 'Sarah Plus'."[38] The New York Times also reported that this new project "required the rights to Laura Albert's story, rights that she in no uncertain terms refused to grant."[39] Levy-Hinte stated, "that the lawsuit was less about getting his money back than about sticking up for fair dealing and telling the truth. I’m kind of a person of principle. I wasn’t willing to simply walk away and take a loss with no apology or reasonable explanation.”"[40]

In June 2007 Antidote sued Laura Albert for fraud, claiming that a contract signed with JT LeRoy to make a feature film of Sarah was null and void.[6] ABC News questioned whether Antidote's lawyer "may have misfired by comparing Albert to Shakespeare in an attempt to claim that authorship matters. 'You think Shakespeare would be Shakespeare if he didn't write it – whoever Shakespeare really is?' he asked."[41] On June 22 a Manhattan jury found Albert liable in monetary damages for the tort of fraud because she had signed her nom de plume to the movie contract. She was ordered to pay $110,000 to Antidote, covering the option contract, as well as an extra $6,500 in punitive damages.[42] In reporting the verdict on June 23, Alan Feuer noted in The New York Times, "He [Jeffrey Levy-Hinte] went on to say that if Ms. Albert, who never made a fortune from her literary works, could not afford to pay the judgment, he might have to consider laying claim to the rights to her past and future books."[43] On July 31, 2007, the court ordered Albert to pay an additional $350,000 in legal fees to Antidote.[39] After having appealed, the damages awarded were reduced by settlement with Antidote in 2009, and Laura Albert retained the rights to her books and her life story.[44][45]

In August 2008, the Authors Guild released an amicus brief in regard to the trial verdict, supporting Albert and opposing the jury's decision, stating that the decision "will have negative repercussions extending into the future for many authors. The right to free speech, and the right to speak and write anonymously are rights protected by our Constitution, and the district court's decision which holds that Laura Albert's use of pseudonym breached the Option and Purchase Agreement, is one that will have a chilling effect upon authors wishing to exercise their right to write anonymously". They went on to request that the court reverse the decision in regards to a breach of contract.[46]

Obviously, the Jury and the Court did not agree. As explained by Filmmaker magazine, "Antidote v. Albert has succeeded in extending the 21st century’s most fascinating literary hoax into a whole new discursive realm. While some have argued that the case is about the right of an author to create a pseudonym for him or herself (and Antidote has proposed that it’s just about the non-ability of a fictitious person to enter into legal agreements), the verdict is a step towards defining the responsibilities of the alter-ego. In an age in which many if not most people employ fictitious identities in everything from puffed-up dating profiles to Second Life avatars, Antidote v. Albert seeks to identify the responsibilities of identity — even a fictitious one."[47]

In popular culture[edit]

Since the hoax was revealed, references to JT LeRoy and the books have continued to turn up in popular culture, such as episodes of Law & Order and Smash, and the Brazilian rock musical JT, Um Conto de Fadas Punk ("JT, A Punk Fairy Tale").

Filmmaker Michael Arias claimed JT LeRoy for his inspiration in translating Taiyo Matsumoto's manga Sunny.[48] At a 2013 symposium with filmmaker J. J. Abrams in New York, actress and writer Lena Dunham said that JT LeRoy "co-opted my imagination for a full year of my life. [...] It was pretty remarkable. And then you also go, 'This person isn't who they claim to be, but they still wrote this book that captured all of our imaginations, so then why does the identity of the author even matter when you're reading fiction and engaging with it in a really personal way?'"[49] That same year, Laura Albert told Interview magazine, “You know, JT LeRoy does not exist. But he lives. That’s what a famous film historian once said about Bugs Bunny."[50] Another interviewer insisted, "Albert had ingeniously hacked the literary establishment."[29] In March 2014 the San Francisco Chronicle reported that the Academy of Friends Oscar Party in San Francisco invited JT LeRoy – played by gender-fluid fashion model Rain Dove Dubilewski – to walk the runway as part of its HIV/AIDS fundraiser.[51] Documentaries about JT LeRoy include Author: The JT LeRoy Story (2016) directed by Jeff Feuerzeig, The Cult of JT LeRoy (2015) directed by Marjorie Sturm, and The Ballad of JT LeRoy (2014) directed by Lynn Hershman Leeson. Writing about having curated a recent photographic exhibition that included Mary Ellen Mark's 2001 portrait of JT LeRoy for Vanity Fair, Chuck Mobley of San Francisco Camerawork insisted, "There were a lot of moral judgments being made (by educated people who should know better) that were exhausting and simplistic. [...] The grievances aired seemed petty and obscured a far more fascinating and intellectually stimulating story."[52] Many others have felt differently,"When Albert’s fraud was finally exposed (after she wrecked the credibility of several publications, book companies, a film studio—plus many gullible readers) the reaction was justifiably angry and strong."[53]



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  2. ^ Antidote Int’l Films, Inc. v. Bloomsbury Publ’g, PLC, 496 F. Supp. 2d 362 (S.D.N.Y. July 31, 2007)
  3. ^ "JT LEROY -". Dissident USA. 
  4. ^ Dennis Harvey (2015-03-07). "'The Cult of JT LeRoy' Review: A Fascinating Deconstruction of a Fraud". Variety. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
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  7. ^ a b "The Boy Who Cried Author". Vanity Fair. 2014-01-02. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
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  13. ^ LeRoy, JT. Sarah. Bloomsbury USA (June 9, 2000) ISBN 1-58234-146-X.
  14. ^ LeRoy, JT. The Heart is Deceitful Above All Things. Bloomsbury USA Hardcover (June 9, 2001) ISBN 1-58234-142-7 Paperback (June 1, 2002) ISBN 1-58234-211-3.
  15. ^ LeRoy, JT. Harold's End. Last Gasp (January 30, 2005) ISBN 0-86719-614-9. Originally in McSweeney's Quarterly Concern Issue 7. Italian translation La fine di Harold by Martina Testa. Fazio Editore 2003. ISBN 88-8112-387-8.
  16. ^ LeRoy, JT. Labour. Last Gasp USA (March 31, 2007) ISBN 978-0-86719-654-2.
  17. ^ LeRoy, JT (ed). Da Capo Best Music Writing 2005: The Year's Finest Writing on Rock, Hip-hop, Jazz, Pop, Country & More. Da Capo Press (October 30, 2005) ISBN 0-306-81446-3
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  19. ^ "Strange little birds". Garbage. 
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  28. ^ This is the woman who played the man who became a transsexual and fooled the world for six years, The Guardian, November 2, 2008
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  31. ^ Browning, Gavin (September 30, 2008). "Interview With a Confidence Woman: Savannah Knoop on Being JT LeRoy". Village Voice. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  32. ^ a b Steve Rose. "JT LeRoy unmasked: the extraordinary story of a modern literary hoax | Film". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  33. ^ "Figure in JT Leroy Case Says Partner Is Culprit". The New York Times. February 7, 2006. 
  34. ^ "Asia Argento and Others Are Angry About Being in JT LeRoy Documentary". The New York Times. September 12, 2016. 
  35. ^ "Who is JT LeRoy? The True Identity of a Great Literary Hustler". Nymag.com. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  36. ^ Cobb, Jelani (2016-10-03). "The "Unmasking" of Elena Ferrante". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  37. ^ Lo Sharkey (2014-06-20). ""Cult" Not "Author" Is the JT LeRoy Documentary You Should Watch | Em & Lo". Emandlo.com. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
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  41. ^ ""Jurors: LeRoy Hoax Was Fraud, Not Fiction"". ABC News. June 22, 2007. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  42. ^ Westfeldt, Amy (June 23, 2007). "Jury: Novel Bought by Company Fraudulent". Associated Press.
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