James Webb Space Telescope
Full scale James Webb Space Telescope model at South by Southwest in Austin
|Names||Next Generation Space Telescope
James Webb Space Telescope
|Operator||NASA / ESA / CSA / STScI|
|Mission duration||5 years (design)
10 years (goal)
|Launch mass||6,500 kg (14,300 lb)|
|Dimensions||20.197 m × 14.162 m (66.26 ft × 46.46 ft) (sunshield)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||October 2018|
|Rocket||Ariane 5 ECA|
|Launch site||Kourou ELA-3|
|Reference system||Sun–Earth L2|
|Periapsis||374,000 km (232,000 mi)|
|Apoapsis||1,500,000 km (930,000 mi)|
|Diameter||6.5 m (21 ft)|
|Focal length||131.4 m (431 ft)|
|Collecting area||25 m2 (270 sq ft)|
|Wavelengths||from 0.6 µm (orange)
to 28.5 µm (mid-infrared)
|Band||S-band (TT&C support)
Ka band (data acquisition)
|Bandwidth||S-band up: 16 kbit/s
S-band down: 40 kbit/s
Ka band down: up to 28 Mbit/s
James Webb Space Telescope insignia
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), previously known as Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), is a part of NASA's ongoing Flagship program. It is under construction and scheduled to launch in October 2018. The JWST will offer unprecedented resolution and sensitivity from long-wavelength (orange-red) visible light, through near-infrared to the mid-infrared (0.6 to 27 micrometers). While Hubble has a 2.4-meter (7.9 ft) mirror, the JWST features a larger and segmented 6.5-meter-diameter (21 ft 4 in) primary mirror and will be located near the Earth–Sun L2 point. A large sunshield will keep its mirror and four science instruments below 50 K (−220 °C; −370 °F).
JWST's capabilities will enable a broad range of investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology. One particular goal involves observing some of the most distant events and objects in the Universe, such as the formation of the first galaxies. These types of targets are beyond the reach of current ground and space-based instruments. Another goal is understanding the formation of stars and planets. This will include direct imaging of exoplanets.
In gestation since 1996, the project represents an international collaboration of about 17 countries led by NASA, and with significant contributions from the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. It is named after James E. Webb, the second administrator of NASA, who played an integral role in the Apollo program.
The JWST has a history of major cost overruns and delays. The first realistic budget estimates were that the observatory would cost $1.6 billion and launch in 2011. NASA has now scheduled the telescope for a 2018 launch. In 2011, the United States House of Representatives voted to terminate funding, after about $3 billion had been spent and 75% of its hardware was in production. Funding was restored and capped at $8 billion. As of winter 2015–2016[update], the telescope remained on schedule for an October 2018 launch and within the 2011 revised budget.
NASA has described JWST as the science successor of the Hubble Space Telescope, but not a replacement, because the capabilities are not identical. JWST rose out of a rising desire, in the late 1980s and 1990s, to see high redshift objects, typically both older and farther away. The result was a desire to extend the life of HST until the next generation telescope could go online, and increased study of designs that would specialize in high-redshift astronomy such as the Hi-Z concept and the early Next Generation Space Telescope designs. This led to a radically altered design operating farther, colder, bigger, and deeper into the infrared than its predecessor and unlike what has been seen before among the typically smaller short-lived infrared space observatories. (see Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, etc.)
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Mission
- 4 Development and construction
- 5 Spacecraft Bus
- 6 Images
- 7 After-launch deployment
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The JWST originated in 1996 as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). In 2002 it was renamed after NASA's second administrator (1961–1968) James E. Webb (1906–1992), noted for playing a key role in the Apollo program and establishing scientific research as a core NASA activity. The JWST is a project of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the United States space agency, with international collaboration from the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.
The telescope has an expected mass about half of Hubble Space Telescope's, but its primary mirror (a 6.5 meter diameter gold-coated beryllium reflector) will have a collecting area about five times as large (25 m2 vs. 4.5 m2). The JWST is oriented toward near-infrared astronomy, but can also see orange and red visible light, as well as the mid-infrared region, depending on the instrument. The design emphasizes the near to mid-infrared for three main reasons: High-redshift objects have their visible emissions shifted into the infrared, cold objects such as debris disks and planets emit most strongly in the infrared, and this band is difficult to study from the ground or by existing space telescopes such as Hubble.
The JWST will operate near the Earth-Sun L2 (Lagrange) point, approximately 930,000 mi (1,500,000 km) beyond the Earth. By way of comparison, Hubble orbits 340 miles (550 km) above Earth's surface, and the Moon is roughly 250,000 miles (400,000 km) from Earth. This distance makes post-launch repair or upgrade of the JWST hardware virtually impossible. Objects near this point can orbit the Sun in synchrony with the Earth, allowing the telescope to remain at a roughly constant distance and use a single sunshield to block heat and light from the Sun and Earth. This will keep the temperature of the spacecraft below 50 K (−220 °C; −370 °F), necessary for infrared observations. The prime contractor is Northrop Grumman.
Major JWST components:
- The Mirrors (Gold-plated beryllium)
- 18 primary mirror segments
- Secondary mirror
- Tertiary mirror
- Fine Steering Mirror
- Sun shield
- Spacecraft Bus
- Electrical Power Subsystem (Solar panels, etc. to power whole spacecraft)
- Attitude Control Subsystem
- Communication Subsystem (radio communication with Earth)
- Command and Data Handling Subsystem (the "brains" of the spacecraft)
- Propulsion Subsystem (fuel tanks, rockets, etc controlled by Attitude control subsystem)
- Thermal Control Subsystem (maintains temperature of the bus (the bus is on the "hot side" not to be confused with mirror sun-shield the bus is in front of this and not shielded by it)
- Ariane 5 launch system (gets it into space)
Three major sections of the JWST include:.
- Optical Telescope Element (OTE), mirror and its structure, etc.
- Spacecraft Element (SE), which includes the Spacecraft Bus and Sunshield
- Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), which holds the instruments and other systems
Launch and mission length
Launch is scheduled for October 2018 on an Ariane 5 rocket. Its nominal mission time is five years, with a goal of ten years. JWST needs to use propellant to maintain its halo orbit around L2, which provides an upper limit to its designed lifetime, and it is being designed to carry enough for ten years. The planned five year science mission begins after a 6-month commissioning phase. An L2 orbit is meta-stable so it requires station-keeping or an object will drift away from this orbital configuration.
(see also Orbital station-keeping)
The desire for a large infrared space telescope traces back decades; in the United States the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility was planned while the Space Shuttle was in development and the potential for infrared astronomy was acknowledged at that time. Compared to ground telescopes, space observatories were free from atmospheric absorption of infrared light; this would be a whole "new sky" for astronomers.
The tenuous atmosphere above the 400 km nominal flight altitude has no measurable absorption so that detectors operating at all wavelengths from 5µm to 1000µm can achieve high radiometric sensitivity.— S. G. McCarthy & G. W. Autio, 1978
However, infrared telescopes have an Achilles heel—they need to stay extremely cold, and the longer the wavelength of infrared, the colder they need to be. If not, the background heat of the device itself overwhelms the detectors, making it effectively blind. This can be overcome by careful spacecraft design, in particular by placing the telescope in dewar with an extremely cold substance, such as liquid helium. This has meant most infrared telescopes have a lifespan limited by their coolant, as short as a few months, maybe a few years at most. In 1985 the Space Shuttle Infrared Telescope (IRT) was launched with the advantage that the helium dewar that kept it cold could be refilled after the mission; however, much of the longer-wavelength data was corrupted in part by heat emissions from the Space Shuttle. It has been possible to maintain a temperature low enough through the design of the spacecraft to enable near-infrared observations without a supply of coolant, such as the extended missions of Spitzer or NEOWISE. Another examples is Hubble's NICMOS instrument, which started out using a block of nitrogen ice that depleted after a couple years, but was then converted to a crycooler that worked continuously. The James Webb Space Telescope is designed to cool itself without a dewar, using a combination of sun-shield and radiators with the mid-infrared instrument using an additional crycooler.
The telescope's delays and cost increases can be compared to the Hubble Space Telescope. When it formally started in 1972, what came to be known as Hubble had a then estimated development cost of $300 million (or about $1 billion in 2006 constant dollars), but by the time it was sent into orbit in 1990, the cost was about four times that. In addition new instruments and servicing missions increased the cost to at least $9 billion by 2006.
In contrast to other proposed observatories, most of which have already been canceled or put on hold, including Terrestrial Planet Finder (2011), Space Interferometry Mission (2010), Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (2011), and the International X-ray Observatory (2011), MAXIM (Microarcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission), SAFIR (Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory), SUVO (Space Ultraviolet-Visible Observatory), SPECS (Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure), the JWST is the last big NASA astrophysics mission of its generation to be built.
|Selected space telescopes and instruments|
|Human eye||—||0.39–0.75 μm||0.007 m||Blood|
|IRT||1985||1.7-118 μm||0.15 m||Helium|
|ISO||1995||2.5-240 μm||0.60 m||Helium|
|Hubble STIS||1997||0.115–1.03 μm||2.4 m||Passive|
|Hubble NICMOS||1997||0.8-2.4 μm||2.4 m||Nitrogen, later cryo-cooler|
|Spitzer||2003||3–180 μm||0.85 m||Helium|
|Hubble WFC3||2009||0.2–1.7 μm||2.4 m||Passive + Thermo-electric |
|Herschel||2009||55–672 μm||3.5 m||Helium|
|JWST||Planned||0.6–28.5 μm||6.5 m||Passive + Cryo-cooler (MIRI)|
A review of the program released in August 2011 stated that the cost for the telescope and 5 years of operations will be $8.7 billion, with a planned launch in 2018. Of that price, about $800 million is for the five years of operations.
On 17 December 2015 Arianespace and European Space Agency signed a contract for the JWST to be launched in October 2018 using an Ariane 5 ECA with a cryogenic upper stage from Arianespace's ELA-3 launch complex at ESA's Guiana Space Centre located near Kourou, French Guiana.
The 18th and final primary mirror segment was installed on February 3, 2016 and technicians will now install the other optics and conduct tests on all the assembled components.
|2002||named JWST, 8 to 6 m|
Early development work for a Hubble successor between 1989 and 1994 led to the Hi-Z telescope concept, a fully baffled[Note 1] 4-meter aperture infrared telescope that would recede to an orbit at 3 AU. This distant orbit would have benefited from reduced light noise from zodiacal dust. Other early plans called for a NEXUS precursor telescope mission.
In the "faster, better, cheaper" era in the mid-1990s, NASA leaders pushed for a low-cost space telescope. The result was the NGST concept, with an 8-meter aperture and located at L2, estimated to cost $500 million. In 1997, NASA worked with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Ball Aerospace, and TRW to conduct technical requirement and cost studies, and in 1999 selected Lockheed Martin and TRW for preliminary design concepts.
Cost growth revealed in spring 2005 led to an August 2005 re-planning. The primary technical outcomes of the re-planning were significant changes in the integration and test plans, a 22-month launch delay (from 2011 to 2013), and elimination of system-level testing for observatory modes at wavelength shorter than 1.7 micrometers. Other major features of the observatory were unchanged. Following the re-planning, the program was independently reviewed in April 2006. The review concluded the program was technically sound, but that funding phasing at NASA needed to be changed. NASA re-phased its JWST budgets accordingly.
In the 2005 re-plan, the life-cycle cost of the project was estimated at about US$4.5 billion. This comprised approximately US$3.5 billion for design, development, launch and commissioning, and approximately US$1.0 billion for ten years of operations. ESA is contributing about €300 million, including the launch, and the Canadian Space Agency about $39M Canadian.
In January 2007, nine of the ten technology development items in the program successfully passed a non-advocate review. These technologies were deemed sufficiently mature to retire significant risks in the program. The remaining technology development item (the MIRI cryocooler) completed its technology maturation milestone in April 2007. This technology review represented the beginning step in the process that ultimately moved the program into its detailed design phase (Phase C). By May 2007, costs were still on target. In March 2008, the project successfully completed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR). In April 2008, the project passed the Non-Advocate Review. Other passed reviews include the Integrated Science Instrument Module review in March 2009, the Optical Telescope Element review completed in October 2009, and the Sunshield review completed in January 2010.
In April 2010, the telescope passed the technical portion of its Mission Critical Design Review (MCDR). Passing the MCDR signified the integrated observatory can meet all science and engineering requirements for its mission. The MCDR encompassed all previous design reviews. The project schedule underwent review during the months following the MCDR, in a process called the Independent Comprehensive Review Panel, which led to a re-plan of the mission aiming for a 2015 launch, but as late as 2018. By 2010, cost over-runs were impacting other programs, though JWST itself remained on schedule.
By 2011, the JWST program was in the final design and fabrication phase (Phase C). As is typical for a complex design that cannot be changed once launched, there are detailed reviews of every portion of design, construction, and proposed operation. New technological frontiers have been pioneered by the program, and it has passed its design reviews. In the 1990s it was unknown if a telescope so large and low mass was possible.
Assembly of the hexagonal segments of the primary mirror, which was done via robotic arm, began in November 2015 and was completed in February 2016.
Construction of JWST was completed in November 2016.
Cost and schedule issues
|1997||2007||0.5 Billion USD|
|1999||2007 to 2008||1|
|2010||2015 to 2016||6.5|
A 2006 article in the journal Nature noted a study in 1984 by the Space Science Board, which estimated that a next generation infrared observatory would cost $4 billion (about $7 billion in 2006 dollars). In June 2011, it was reported that the Webb telescope will cost at least four times more than originally proposed, and launch at least seven years late. Initial budget estimates were that the observatory would cost $1.6 billion and launch in 2011. NASA has now scheduled the telescope for a 2018 launch. A 2013 estimate put the cost of development and five years of operation at $8.835 billion.
Some scientists have expressed concerns about growing costs and schedule delays for the Webb telescope, which competes for scant astronomy budgets and thus threatens funding for other space science programs. A review of NASA budget records and status reports by journalists noted that the JWST is plagued by many of the same problems that have plagued several other major NASA projects. Mistakes included: underestimates of the telescope's cost that failed to budget for expected technical glitches, and failure to act on warnings that budgets were being exceeded, thus extending the schedule and increasing costs further.
NASA, ESA and CSA have collaborated on the telescope since 1996. ESA's participation in construction and launch was approved by its members in 2003 and an agreement was signed between ESA and NASA in 2007. In exchange for full partnership, representation and access to the observatory for its astronomers, ESA is providing the NIRSpec instrument, the Optical Bench Assembly of the MIRI instrument, an Ariane 5 ECA launcher, and manpower to support operations. The CSA will provide the Fine Guidance Sensor and the Near-Infrared Imager Slitless Spectrograph plus manpower to support operations.
- Participating countries
Proposed U.S. withdrawal
On 6 July 2011, the United States House of Representatives' appropriations committee on Commerce, Justice, and Science moved to cancel the James Webb project by proposing an FY2012 budget that removed $1.9bn from NASA's overall budget, of which roughly one quarter was for JWST. This budget proposal was approved by subcommittee vote the following day; however, in November 2011, Congress reversed plans to cancel the JWST and instead capped additional funding to complete the project at $8 billion.
The committee charged that the project was "billions of dollars over budget and plagued by poor management". The telescope was originally estimated to cost $1.6bn but the cost estimate grew throughout the early development reaching about $5bn by the time the mission was formally confirmed for construction start in 2008. In summer 2010, the mission passed its Critical Design Review with excellent grades on all technical matters, but schedule and cost slips at that time prompted Maryland US Senator Barbara Mikulski to call for an independent review of the project. The Independent Comprehensive Review Panel (ICRP) chaired by J. Casani (JPL) found that the earliest possible launch date was in late 2015 at an extra cost of $1.5bn (for a total of $6.5bn). They also pointed out that this would have required extra funding in FY2011 and FY2012 and that any later launch date would lead to a higher total cost. Because the runaway budget diverted funding from other research, the science journal Nature described the James Webb as "the telescope that ate astronomy". However, termination of the project as proposed by the House appropriation committee would not have provided funding to other missions, as the JWST line would have been terminated with the funding leaving astrophysics (and the NASA budget) entirely.
The American Astronomical Society issued a statement in support of JWST in 2011, as did Maryland US Senator Barbara Mikulski. A number of editorials supporting JWST appeared in the international press during 2011 as well.
Public displays and outreach
A large telescope model has been on display at various places since 2005: in the United States at Seattle, Washington; Colorado Springs, Colorado; Greenbelt, Maryland; Rochester, New York; Manhattan, New York; and Orlando, Florida; and elsewhere at Paris, France; Dublin, Ireland; Montreal, Canada; Hatfield, United Kingdom; and Munich, Germany. The model was built by the main contractor, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems.
In May 2007, a full-scale model of the telescope was assembled for display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall, Washington D.C. The model was intended to give the viewing public a better understanding of the size, scale and complexity of the satellite, as well as pique the interest of viewers in science and astronomy in general. The model is significantly different from the telescope, as the model must withstand gravity and weather, so is constructed mainly of aluminum and steel measuring approximately 24×12×12 m (79×39×39 ft) and weighs 5.5 tonnes (12,000 lb).
The model was on display in New York City's Battery Park during the 2010 World Science Festival, where it served as the backdrop for a panel discussion featuring Nobel Prize laureate John C. Mather, astronaut John M. Grunsfeld and astronomer Heidi Hammel. In March 2013, the model was on display in Austin, Texas for SXSW 2013.
The JWST's primary scientific mission has four key goals: to search for light from the first stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe after the Big Bang, to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, to understand the formation of stars and planetary systems and to study planetary systems and the origins of life. These goals can be accomplished more effectively by observation in near-infrared light rather than light in the visible part of the spectrum. For this reason the JWST's instruments will not measure visible or ultraviolet light like the Hubble Telescope, but will have a much greater capacity to perform infrared astronomy. The JWST will be sensitive to a range of wavelengths from 0.6 (orange light) to 28 micrometers (deep infrared radiation at about 100 K (−170 °C; −280 °F)).
The JWST will be located near the second Lagrange point (L2) of the Earth-Sun system, which is 1,500,000 kilometers (930,000 mi) from Earth, directly opposite to the Sun. Normally an object circling the Sun farther out than Earth would take longer than one year to complete its orbit, but near the L2 point the combined gravitational pull of the Earth and the Sun allow a spacecraft to orbit the Sun in the same time it takes the Earth. The telescope will circle about the L2 point in a halo orbit, which will be inclined with respect to the ecliptic, have a radius of approximately 800,000 kilometers (500,000 mi), and take about half a year to complete. Since L2 is just an equilibrium point with no gravitational pull, a halo orbit is not an orbit in the usual sense: the spacecraft is actually in orbit around the Sun, and the halo orbit can be thought of as controlled drifting to remain in the vicinity of the L2 point. This requires some station-keeping: around 2–4 m/s per year from the total budget of 150 m/s. Two sets of thrusters comprise the observatory's propulsion system.
JWST is the formal successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and since its primary emphasis is on infrared observation, it is also a successor to the Spitzer Space Telescope. JWST will far surpass both those telescopes, being able to see many more and much older stars and galaxies. Observing in the infrared is a key technique for achieving this, because it better penetrates obscuring dust and gas, allows observation of dim cooler objects, and because of cosmological redshift. Since water vapor and carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere strongly absorbs most infrared, ground-based infrared astronomy is limited to narrow wavelength ranges where the atmosphere absorbs less strongly. Additionally, the atmosphere itself radiates in the infrared, often overwhelming light from the object being observed. This makes space the ideal place for infrared observation.
The more distant an object is, the younger it appears: its light has taken longer to reach human observers. Because the universe is expanding, as the light travels it becomes red-shifted, and these objects are therefore easier to see if viewed in the infrared. JWST's infrared capabilities are expected to let it see all the way to the very first galaxies forming just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang.
Infrared radiation can pass more freely through regions of cosmic dust that scatter radiation in the visible spectrum. Observations in infrared allow the study of objects and regions of space which would be obscured by gas and dust in the visible spectrum, such as the molecular clouds where stars are born, the circumstellar disks that give rise to planets, and the cores of active galaxies.
Relatively cool objects (temperatures less than several thousand degrees) emit their radiation primarily in the infrared, as described by Planck's law. As a result, most objects that are cooler than stars are better studied in the infrared. This includes the clouds of the interstellar medium, brown dwarfs, planets both in our own and other solar systems, comets and Kuiper belt objects.
Ground support and operations
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), located in Baltimore, Maryland on the Homewood campus of Johns Hopkins University, has been selected as the Science and Operations Center (S&OC) for JWST. In this capacity, STScI will be responsible for the scientific operation of the telescope and delivery of data products to the astronomical community. Data will be transmitted from JWST to the ground via NASA's Deep Space Network, processed and calibrated at STScI, and then distributed online to astronomers worldwide. Similar to how Hubble is operated, anyone, anywhere in the world, will be allowed to submit proposals for observations. Each year several committees of astronomers will peer review the submitted proposals to select the programs to observe in the coming year. The authors of the chosen proposals will typically have one year of private access to the new observations, after which the data will become publicly available for download by anyone from the online archive at STScI.
Most of the data processing on the telescope is done by conventional single-board computers. The conversion of the analog science data to digital form is performed by the custom-built SIDECAR ASIC (System for Image Digitization, Enhancement, Control And Retrieval Application Specific Integrated Circuit). NASA stated that the SIDECAR ASIC will include all the functions of a 9 kg (20 lb) instrument box in a 3 cm package and consume only 11 milliwatts of power. Since this conversion must be done close to the detectors, on the cool side of the telescope, the low power use of this IC will be crucial for maintaining the low temperature required for optimal operation of the JWST.
Development and construction
In 2002, NASA awarded the $824.8 million prime contract for the NGST, now renamed the James Webb Space Telescope, to TRW. The design called for a descoped 6.1-meter (20 ft) primary mirror and a launch date of 2010. Later that year, TRW was acquired by Northrop Grumman in a hostile bid and became Northrop Grumman Space Technology.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, is leading the management of the observatory project. The project scientist for the James Webb Space Telescope is John C. Mather. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems serves as the primary contractor for the development and integration of the observatory. They are responsible for developing and building the spacecraft element, which includes both the spacecraft bus and sunshield. Ball Aerospace has been subcontracted to develop and build the Optical Telescope Element (OTE). Northrop Grumman's Astro Aerospace business unit has been contracted to build the Deployable Tower Assembly (DTA) which connects the OTE to the spacecraft bus and the Mid Boom Assembly (MBA) which helps to deploy the large sunshields on orbit. Goddard Space Flight Center is also responsible for providing the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). A solar panel converts sunlight into electrical power that recharge batteries needed to operate the other subsystems, as well as the science instruments. It produces about 2,000 watts.
The observatory attaches to the Ariane 5 rocket via a launch vehicle adapter ring which could be used by a future spacecraft to grapple the observatory to attempt to fix gross deployment problems. However, the telescope itself is not serviceable, and astronauts would not be able to perform tasks such as swapping instruments, as with the Hubble Telescope.
To make observations in the infrared spectrum, the JWST must be kept very cold (under 50 K (−220 °C; −370 °F)), otherwise infrared radiation from the telescope itself would overwhelm its instruments. Therefore, it uses a large sunshield to block light and heat from the Sun, Earth, and Moon, and its position near the Earth–Sun L2 point keeps all three bodies on the same side of the spacecraft at all times. Its halo orbit around L2 avoids the shadow of the Earth and Moon, maintaining a constant environment for the sunshield and solar arrays. The sunshield is made of polyimide film, has membranes coated with aluminum on one side and silicon on the other.
The sunshield is designed to be folded twelve times so it will fit within the Ariane 5 rocket's 4.57 m × 16.19 m shroud. Once deployed at the L2 point, it will unfold to 21.197 m × 14.162 m. The sunshield was hand-assembled at Man Tech (NeXolve) in Huntsville, Alabama before it was delivered to Northrop Grumman in Redondo Beach, California for testing.
JWST's primary mirror is a 6.5-meter-diameter gold-coated beryllium reflector with a collecting area of 25 m2. This is too large for existing launch vehicles, so the mirror is composed of 18 hexagonal segments, which will unfold after the telescope is launched. Image plane wavefront sensing through phase retrieval will be used to position the mirror segments in the correct location using very precise micro-motors. Subsequent to this initial configuration they will only need occasional updates every few days to retain optimal focus. This is unlike terrestrial telescopes like the Keck which continually adjust their mirror segments using active optics to overcome the effects of gravitational and wind loading, and is made possible because of the lack of environmental disturbances of a telescope in space.
JWST's optical design is a three-mirror anastigmat, which makes use of curved secondary and tertiary mirrors to deliver images that are free of optical aberrations over a wide field. In addition, there is a fast steering mirror, which can adjust its position many times per second to provide image stabilization.
Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. is the principal optical subcontractor for the JWST program, led by prime contractor Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, under a contract from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in Greenbelt, Maryland. Eighteen primary mirror segments, secondary, tertiary and fine steering mirrors, plus flight spares have been fabricated and polished by Ball Aerospace based on beryllium segment blanks manufactured by several companies including Axsys, Brush Wellman, and Tinsley Laboratories.
The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is a framework that provides electrical power, computing resources, cooling capability as well as structural stability to the Webb telescope. It is made with bonded graphite-epoxy composite attached to the underside of Webb's telescope structure. The ISIM holds the four science instruments and a guide camera.
- Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam) is an infrared imager which will have a spectral coverage ranging from the edge of the visible (0.6 micrometers) through the near infrared (5 micrometers). NIRCam will also serve as the observatory's wavefront sensor, which is required for wavefront sensing and control activities. NIRCam was built by a team led by the University of Arizona, with Principal Investigator Marcia Rieke. The industrial partner is Lockheed-Martin's Advanced Technology Center located in Palo Alto, California.
- Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRSpec) will also perform spectroscopy over the same wavelength range. It was built by the European Space Agency at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands. The leading development team is composed of people from Airbus Defence and Space, Ottobrunn and Friedrichshafen, Germany, and the Goddard Space Flight Center; with Pierre Ferruit (École normale supérieure de Lyon) as NIRSpec project scientist. The NIRSpec design provides 3 observing modes: a low-resolution mode using a prism, an R~1000 multi-object mode and an R~2700 integral field unit or long-slit spectroscopy mode. Switching of the modes is done by operating a wavelength preselection mechanism called the Filter Wheel Assembly, and selecting a corresponding dispersive element (prism or grating) using the Grating Wheel Assembly mechanism. Both mechanisms are based on the successful ISOPHOT wheel mechanisms of the Infrared Space Observatory. The multi-object mode relies on a complex micro-shutter mechanism to allow for simultaneous observations of hundreds of individual objects anywhere in NIRSpec's field of view. The mechanisms and their optical elements were designed, integrated and tested by Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH of Oberkochen, Germany, under contract from Astrium.
- Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) will measure the mid-infrared wavelength range from 5 to 27 micrometers. It contains both a mid-IR camera and an imaging spectrometer. MIRI was developed as a collaboration between NASA and a consortium of European countries, and is led by George Rieke (University of Arizona) and Gillian Wright (UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Edinburgh, part of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)). MIRI features similar wheel mechanisms as NIRSpec which are also developed and built by Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH under contract from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg. The completed Optical Bench Assembly of MIRI was delivered to Goddard in mid-2012 for eventual integration into the ISIM. The temperature of the MIRI must not exceed 6 Kelvin: a helium gas mechanical cooler sited on the warm side of the environmental shield provides this cooling.
- Fine Guidance Sensor and Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (FGS/NIRISS), led by the Canadian Space Agency under project scientist John Hutchings (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada), is used to stabilize the line-of-sight of the observatory during science observations. Measurements by the FGS are used both to control the overall orientation of the spacecraft and to drive the fine steering mirror for image stabilization. The Canadian Space Agency is also providing a Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) module for astronomical imaging and spectroscopy in the 0.8 to 5 micrometer wavelength range, led by principal investigator René Doyon at the University of Montreal. Because the NIRISS is physically mounted together with the FGS, they are often referred to as a single unit, but they serve entirely different purposes, with one being a scientific instrument and the other being a part of the observatory's support infrastructure.
The infrared detectors for the NIRCam, NIRSpec, FGS, and NIRISS modules are being provided by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (formerly Rockwell Scientific Company). The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) and Command and Data Handling (ICDH) engineering team uses SpaceWire to send data between the science instruments and the data-handling equipment.
Spacecraft Bus is the primary support component of the James Webb Space Telescope, that hosts a multitude of computing, communication, propulsion, and structural parts, bringing the different parts of the telescope together. It is the spacecraft bus of the James Webb Space Telescope. Along with the Sunshield, forms the Spacecraft Element of the space telescope. The other two major elements of the JWST are the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) and the Optical Telescope Element (OTE). Region 3 of ISIM is also inside the Spacecraft Bus; region 3 includes ISIM Command and Data Handling subsystem and the MIRI cryocooler.
The structure of the Spacecraft Bus must support the 6.5 ton space telescope, while it itself weighs 350 kg (about 772 lb, 55.1 stones). It is made primarily of graphite composite material. It was assembled in the U.S. State of California by 2015, and after that it had to be integrated with the rest of the space telescope leading up to its planned 2018 launch. The bus can provide pointing of one-arcsecond and isolates vibration down to two (2) milliarcseconds. (arcseconds are a unit of angle, see Minute of arc)
The spacecraft bus is on the sun-facing "warm" side and operates at a temperature of about 300 k. Everything on the Sun facing side must be able to handle the thermal conditions of JWST's halo orbit, which has one side continuous sunlight and the other in shades by the spacecraft sunshield.
Another important aspect of the Spacecraft Bus is the central computing, memory storage, and communications equipment. The processor and software direct data to and from the instruments, to the solid-state memory core, and to the radio system which can send data back to Earth and receive commands. The computer also controls the pointing and moment of the spacecraft, taking in sensor data from the gyroscopes and star tracker, and sending the necessary commands to the reaction wheels or thrusters depending.
- Electrical Power Subsystem
- Attitude Control Subsystem
- Communication Subsystem
- Command and Data Handling Subsystem (C&DH)
- Command Telemetry Processor
- Solid State Recorder (SSR)
- Propulsion Subsystem
- Thermal Control Subsystem
The spacecraft bus has 2 star trackers, six reaction wheels, and the propulsion systems (fuel tank and thrusters). Two major tasks are pointing the telescope and performing station keeping for its meta-stable L2 halo orbit. It does have batteries which are lithium-ion type. The batteries use the Sony 18650 hard carbon cell technology. The batteries are designed to endure spaceflight, and should sustain 18 thousand charge-discharge cycles.
The computing systems include a solid-state data memory storage with a capacity of 58.9 GB. The memory storage is called the Solid State Recorder (SSR) and is part of the Command and Data Handling Subsystem. A software simulation of the SSR was developed for testing purposes. This is called the JIST SSR simulator, and was used to test flight software with SpaceWire and MIL-STD-1553 communication, as it relates to the SSR. A Excalibur 1002 Single Board Computer ran the test software. The SSR test software an extension of the JIST software which is called JWST Integrated Simulation and Test core.
The communications dish which can point at Earth is attached to the bus. There is Ka-band and S-band radio communication. The Common Command and Telemetry System is based on Raytheon ECLIPSE system. The telescope is designed to communicate with NASA's Deep Space Communication Network. The main Science and Operations Center will is the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) which is in the U.S. state of Maryland.
As of 2012 the propulsion system uses 16 MRE-1 thrusters which can provide 1 pounds of thrust each. They are mono-propellent thrusters designed survive the unique thermal conditions JWST including extended periods of direct sunlight and light reflected from the Sunshield. There is another set of thrusts called the Secondary Combustion Augmentation Thrusters;there are four of these thrusters and have 8 pounds of thrust each. Whereas the smaller thrusters are intended for aiding in precision pointing, the bigger thrusters are planned to be used for station keeping to maintain the telescopes halo orbit. The MRE-1 use hydrazine as a monoproellant and the larger SCAT thrusters are bi-propllant. The SCAT also use hydrazine (N2H4), but also uses dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as an oxidizer as the two fuels for its two-propellant design.
- SCAT (Secondary Combustion Augmented Thrusters)
- 4 Bi-propellant rocket engines (2 primary, 2 backup)
- Runs on hydrazine (N2H4) and nitrogen tetroxide(N2O4) rocket fuel
- Dual Thruster Modules (DTMs); MRE-1 Monopropellant Rocket Engines
- There 8 DTM each with two engines for a total of 16 engines
- This thrust er is a mono-propellant design
There is also a tank with helium gas for use as a pressurant.
Overall the SCAT thrusters are used for bigger moments and the DTMs for smaller ones.
Like the rest of Webb, including the exposed Beryllium mirrors, it is designed to endure the expected level of micro-meteoroid impacts.
JWST also reaction wheels for attitude control, which are spinning wheels that allow the orientation to be changed without necessarily using propellant to change momentum. JWST has six reaction wheels. The reaction wheels can only provide a certain amount of change in angular momentum. There is set of small thrusters that can be used in conjunction with reaction wheels, which are also limited, but by the amount of propellant on board. To detect changes in direction JWST uses Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope (HRG). HRG are expected to be more reliable than the gas-bearing Gyroscopes that were a reliability issue on HST, but they cannot point as finely which is overcome by the JWST fine guidance mirror. The problem with HST gyroscopes was eventually tracked down: Engineers determined that the gyro failures were caused by corrosion of electric wires powering the motor that was initiated by oxygen-pressurized air used to deliver the thick suspending fluid. HST got all-new gyros in 2009 assembled using pressurized nitrogen and it is expected they will more reliable.
The spacecraft structure provides state of the art capabilities to support the James Webb Space Telescope's first light mission— A Webb Telescope spacecraft manager as quoted by Composites World
Thermal systems on the bus include the Deployable Radiator Shade Assemblies. There are two, the vertical and horizontal (with respect to the coordinate system of the spacecraft bus) called DRSA-V and DRSA-H, for vertical and horizontal respectively. The membrane that makes of the DRSA is a coated Kapton membrane. Other thermal elements on the outside are small radiator for the battery and there is also narrow lower-fixed radiators shades also made of coated Kapton membrane. The coating of the membrane is silicon and VPA. Also, other areas of the outside are covered with JWST multi-layer insulation (MLI).
In 2014 Northrop Grumman began construction of several spacecraft bus components including the gyroscopes, fuel tanks, and solar panels. One milestone for the spacecraft on 5/25/16 when the Spacecraft's panel integration was completed. The overall spacecraft bus structure was completed by October 2015. The spacecraft bus was assembled at facilities in Redondo Beach, California in the United States. Although the Bus will operate in the weightless environment of outer space, during launch it must survive the equivalent of 45 tons. The structure can support 64 times its own weight. The completed spacecraft bus was powered on for first time in early 2016.
From 2016 to 2018, there are installations and tests for the telescope and the telescope plus the instruments, followed by shipping to NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas where end-to-end optical testing in a simulated cryo-temperature and vacuum space environment will occur. Then all the parts will be shipped to Northrop Grumman for final assembly and testing, then to French Guiana for launch.— Webb telescope Technical Manager @ NASA Goddard
The spacecraft bus will be assembled with the Spacecraft Element and the other parts in California.
For launch, the spacecraft bus is attached to the Ariane 5 on a "Cone 3936 plus ACU 2624 lower cylinder and clamp-band". It is contained launch fairing 4.57 meter (15 ft) and 16.19 (53.1 ft) of usable interior length.
JWST uses type of gyroscope known as a Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope (HRG). This design has no bearings, rubbing parts, or flexible connections. This is not a traditional mechanical gyroscope, instead an HRG has a quartz hemisphere vibrating that vibrates at its resonant frequency in a vacuum. Electrodes detect changes if the spacecraft moves to collect the desired information, and the design is predicted to have mean time before failure of 10 million hours. Gyroscopes failed on several occasions on the Hubble Space Telescope and had to be replaced several times, however, these were a different design called a gas-bearing gyroscope which do have certain benefits but as mentioned did experience some long-term reliability issues. JWST will have six gyroscopes but only two are required for pointing. JWST does not need quite as precise pointing because it has Fine Steering Mirror that helps counter small motions of the telescope.
The JWST telescope still has spinning reaction wheels, which can be adjusted to point the telescope without using propellant. The gyroscopes are sensors that provide information, while the reaction wheels are devices that physically change the orientation of the spacecraft. JWST has both reaction wheels and gyroscopes, which work together with the others systems to keep the telescope in the right orbit and pointed in the desired direction.
In 2007 NASA said JWST will also have a docking ring which would be attached to the telescope. This did not mean it was fully serviceable, but would provide some ability to improve a problem situation.
However, what if you have a bad day when you put this thing a million miles out and everything folds out except for an antenna ... it gets stuck? Or a solar panel doesn't fold out completely, and you say, 'gee, I wish we could send an astronaut just to give it a kick'?"— NASA on adding a docking ring to JWST
Examples of unplanned in-space repair jobs include the Skylab thermal shield in the 1970s, the re-activation of Salyut 7 space station in the 1980s, and the correction of JWST's predecessor the Hubble Space Telescope in the 1990s after an error with its primary mirror was discovered. (See also STS-61)
- High-Definition Space Telescope
- Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope
- List of largest infrared telescopes
- List of largest optical reflecting telescopes
- List of space observatories
- New Worlds Mission (proposed occulter for the JWST)
- Physical cosmology
- James Webb Space Telescope timeline
- Satellite bus
- Attitude control
- Spacecraft design
- Solar panels on spacecraft
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