|Nickname(s): "Cuna de la peruanidad" (Birthplace of Peruvian-ness)|
|Region||Jaén Futura Región|
|Established||Independency June 4, 1821|
|• Mayor||Walter Prieto Maitre|
|• Total||537,25 km2 (20,743 sq mi)|
|Elevation||729 m (2,392 ft)|
|• Estimate (2015)||93,631|
|• Density||2.5/km2 (6.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PET (UTC-5)|
Jaén is a city which is the capital of the Jaén Province in the Cajamarca Region in Peru, located in the high jungle of northern Peru. It is the seat of the Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of St. Francis Xavier, also known as Apostolic Vicariate of Jaén en Peru.
Jaen has a warm climate, all year round. It is one of the warmest cities in Peru, but does have frequent and refreshing showers.
Jaén is also known as Land of the Brave Bracamoros. We can see evidence of their culture in Hermogenes Mejía Solf museum located in the same city.
In the valley of Jaén there lies the great archaeological site Montegrande, with the presence of mounds and pottery styles of Pre-Chavin cultures and the Turuco, immense pre-Columbian cemetery located in Bellavista, Ingatambo in Pomahuaca. Similar sites are located in the valleys of Chamaya, Shumba, Tabaconas, Chinchipe and Utcubamba.
In 2010, two ancient pyramid complexes were discovered near the town of Jaen. The largest mound, over an acre at its base, was found by Peruvian archaeologist, Quirino Olivera. He found evidence of massive stone constructions. Walls were up to three feet thick. Also he found ramps and other constructions stretching back to at least 800 BC, or maybe 2,000 BC.
Early Ceremonial Architecture dating to 800-100 B.C. was also discovered in the Ceja de Selva. This was at Huayurco, Jaén Region, and it was studied by archaeologist Ryan Clasby.
The Incas attempted to bring the Jivaro under their influence, but were defeated. The Incas called the Jivaro 'Pakamoros' or 'Bracamoros' from the Quechua words 'paka', meaning 'red', and 'muro' meaning 'painted'. This was in reference to the Jivaro custom of painting their face and chest with the red dye of annatto seeds, for ceremonies and battle.
The chronicler Pedro Cieza de León says that the Inca king Huayna Capac attempted to conquer the Bracamoros (Indians), as they called the Jivaros, but was defeated and fled. The historian Cabello de Balboa claims that Huáscar or rather his brother Huanca Auqui, envying the success of Atahualpa in Quijos, he sent Pakamuros up against two expeditions.
Jijón and Caamaño (historians) describe the Bracamoros (or Pakamuros) as Jivaro Indians of strong physical characteristics and an independent, warlike and enterprising spirit. They were a major concern to the Incas, who repeatedly tried - but failed - to subdue them. Instead, by peaceful means, they exerted a notable influence through the present-day Jaén Province and the rest of the north-eastern region.
Age of Discovery and Conquest of Jaén
The first of the Spanish Conquistadors to venture into this part of north-east Peru was Captain Pedro Vergara, who is considered the discoverer for the Spaniards of the region of the tribe of the Bracamoros (Pakamuros), and the Yahuarsongo, in an area of a hundred leagues, succeeding in subjugating the tribes through relentless and savage military campaigning.
This Jaén de Bracamoros grew into an important center of outreach and missionary work, and was appointed the capital of the district by the Council of the Indies.
The most important industry at the time were metal workshops, where tools such as machetes and axes, which were vital in a region where you had to continually cut down trees and branches, were forged.
Jaén during Independence
On June 4, 1821, a public meeting was held in Jaen's main square, which included delegates from the city and surrounding districts, including Chirinos, San Ignacio, Colasay and Topenda. At the meeting, those attending declared the independence of Jaén de Bracamoros from the Royal Audience of Quito and Spain. This was then ratified by the Governor, D. Juan Antonio Checa. This act earned Jaen the title of Cuna de Peruanidad ('Birthplace of Peruvian-ness').
Jaen has a great deal of potential as a tourism destination, owing to the large number of natural and archaeological attractions accessible from the city. However, it has not traditionally been a popular visitor destination, mainly on account of its distance from large population centres, being a five-hour drive from Chiclayo, the erstwhile nearest airport, and 18 hours by bus from Lima.
Those people that have stayed overnight have overwhelmingly been nationals, with only 2% being overseas visitors.
Since September 2016, though, there have been daily direct flights between Jaen and Lima, operated by LAN Peru, so it is expected that visitor numbers will increase markedly, as Jaen's Shumba Airport is now the closest access point to the region of Amazonas, with its marquee attractions of Kuelap Fortress, Karajia and Gocta Falls.
Jaen itself has a number of attractions in and around the city:
- The Plaza de Armas, is modern, but pleasant, with greenery and a fountain.
- The Cathedral, overlooking the Plaza de Armas, is also modern in design. It contains a stature of the Lord of Huamantanga, the patron saint of the city, among other works of art.
- Hermogenes Mejia Solf Regional Museum offers a collection of the region's archaeology and ethnology, located a short distance outside Jaen city.
- The Botanical Garden with more than 600 varieties of regional plants, on the outskirts of the city.
- Gotas de Agua is a private Equatorial Dry Forest reserve, 7 km (4 miles) from the city, offering excellent birding.
- Almendral Hot Springs, whose water is rich in health-giving sulphur and iron, is 25 km (16 miles) from the city.
- Huamantanga Forest, three hours to the west, is the source of the Amoju River and a small ecological paradise, hosting a wide diversity of orchids, birds such as the Cock-of-the-Rock, and mammals such as the Spectacled Bear, among many others.
- Cutervo National Park, the oldest protected area in Peru, is located 50 km (31 miles) to the south of Jaen. At between 2,200 meters (7,218 ft) and 3,500 meters (11,483 ft) above sea level, the micro-climate ensures almost constant moisture, and a flora rich in epiphytes. It is also one of the few locations where the endangered Oilbird - the only nocturnal, flying, fruit-eating bird in the world - can be found.
- A number of scenic waterfalls, typical of High Jungle landscapes - including La Bella Encantadora, La Momia, San Andres, Velo de la Novia, La Yunga, Calabozo, and Chorro Blanco - are within reach of Jaen.
According to the INEI its growth rate for 81–93 years was 2.3 and its estimated 1999 population was 85,021 inhabitants, with a population density of 139.6 hab/km2. Two important features of its population, which is only 30.8% rural and 42.6% under 15 years.
By the end of 2012 a population of 170,000 inhabitants was estimated, without including the sector of Fila Alta.
- Perú: Población estimada al 30 de junio y tasa de crecimiento de las ciudades capitales, por departamento, 2011 y 2015. Perú: Estimaciones y proyecciones de población total por sexo de las principales ciudades, 2012-2015 (Report). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. March 2012. Retrieved 2015-06-03.
- Conferencia Episcopal Peruana, Jurisdicciones eclesiáticas-
- Top Discoveries of 2010 Archaeological Institute of America
- Peru rewrites history books once more with ancient archaeological find enperublog.com
- ATV (2016-09-30). "Presidente Kuczynski inaugura el primer vuelo Lima-Jaén". ATV. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
- "Jaen - Gateway to Chachapoyas, Montegrande, Huamantanga Forest, Gotas de Agua". Peru North. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
- "Museo Hermógenes Mejia Solf - Jaén Perú - Museo de Jaén - Museo Provincia de Jaén - Museo Regional de Jaén - Museo Jaén Perú, Museo de Jaén, Jaén Perrú, Cultura Amazónica". www.museohermogenesmejiasolf.com. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
- "About Huembo". conservationbirding.org. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
- pakabraca (2013-08-12). "Bosques del Señor de Huamantanga – Jaén". Jaén... Tierra de los Bravos Pakamuros. Retrieved 2016-10-14.