Jakarta metropolitan area
Jakarta Metropolitan Area
|• Metro||6,342.7 km2 (2,448.9 sq mi)|
|• Metro density||4,990/km2 (12,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)|
|Area codes||(62)21, (62)251|
|Vehicle sign||A, B, F|
|Nominal||USD 228,398 billion |
|PPAP||USD 724,200 billion (1st in Indonesia|
|Highest elevation 3,019 m/9,905 ft (Mount Pangrango, in Bogor Regency)|
The Jakarta Metropolitan Area, known locally as Jabodetabek, Jabodetabekjur, or Jabodetabekpunjur (an acronym of Jakarta–Bogor–Depok–Tangerang–Bekasi–Puncak–Cianjur), is the most populous metropolitan area in Indonesia. It includes the national capital Jakarta as the core city as well as five satellite cities and four regencies. The original term "Jabotabek" dated from the late 1970s and was revised to "Jabodetabek" in 1999 when "De" (for "Depok") was inserted into the name following its formation. The term "Jabodetabekpunjur" or "Jabodetabekjur" was legalised on the Presidential Regulation Number 54 of 2008.
The area comprises Jakarta and parts of West Java and Banten provinces, specifically the three regencies Bekasi Regency and Bogor Regency in West Java, and Tangerang Regency in Banten. The area also included Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang city. The name of the region is taken from the first two (or three) letters of each city's name: Jabo(de)tabek from Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi.
The population of Jakarta metropolitan area, with an area of 6,343 km2 (2,449 sq mi), was 31.6 million according to the Indonesia 2015 Inter-Census, making it the most populous region in Indonesia, as well as the second most populous urban area in the world after Tokyo. The population share of Jakarta metropolitan area to national population increased from 6.1% in 1961 to 11.26% in 2010.
The region is the center of government, culture, education, and economy of Indonesia. It has pulled many people from throughout Indonesia to come, live and work. Its economic power makes Jakarta metropolitan area the country's premier center for finance, manufacture and commerce.
The region was established in 1976 through Presidential Instruction No. 13 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population of the capital city. Indonesia's government established the Jabotabek Cooperation Body (Badan Kerjasama Pembangunan) of the joint secretariat of Government of DKI Jakarta and West Java province.
The generic term Greater Jakarta refers to the urban region surrounding Jakarta, it is not specific to any official or administrative designations. On the contrary, dependent on context, it may refer to the built-up area around Jakarta.
Among the inhabitants, approximately 10.135 million lived in Jakarta in January 2014; about 8.84 million in the five cities of Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang; and about 11.115 million in the three regencies (Bekasi Regency, Tangerang Regency and Bogor Regency). The population is steadily increasing due to migration from other parts of Indonesia. The proportion of core city (Jakarta) population to the total population of metropolitan area also declined significantly. In 2010, the population of Jakarta was only 35.5% of the total population of Jakarta metropolitan area, continuing the trend of decline from 54.6% in 1990 to 43.2% in 2000. And there has been a shift of arrival-destination for incoming migrants, from Jakarta city to other cities in the Jakarta metropolitan area. Today about 20% of Indonesia's urban population is concentrated in the Jakarta metropolitan area.
|South Tangerang City||Banten||147.19||1,290,322||1,538,970||10,456|
|Depok City||West Java||200.29||1,738,570||2,099,989||10,485|
|Bekasi City||West Java||210.49||2,334,871||2,708,721||12,869|
|Bogor Regency||West Java||2,663.83||4,771,932||5,463,849||2,051|
|Bogor City||West Java||118.50||950,334||1,046,579||8,832|
|Bekasi Regency||West Java||1,224.88||2,630,401||3,235,556||2,642|
- Census final 2010, Intermediate-Census 2015; Badan Pusat Statistik - Indonesia.
- Indonesia: Table of all administrative divisions, Citypopulation.de
Nowadays, the role of the Jakarta metropolitan area in the national economy is still dominant although the decentralization policy has been implemented since Reformasi in 1998. The region accounts for 25.52% of total national gross domestic product and 42.8% to the total GDP of Java Island in 2010. Central Jakarta, South Jakarta and Bekasi have respectively accounts for 4.14%; 3.78% and 2.11% of total national GDP. There are three dominant sectors which have high contribution to the total Jakarta metropolitan area's GDP comprising: industrial sector (28.36%), financial sector (20.66%) as well as trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (20.24%). Based on the contribution of each sector to the total national GDP in 2010, Jakarta metropolitan area contributed 41.87% for finance sector, 33.1% for construction and building, as well as 30.86% for transportation.
Prime business and commercial centers is "Golden Triangle" in central Jakarta. There are country's premier financial center, SCBD, Mega Kuningan, Rasuna Epicentrum as well as along Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jalan M.H. Thamrin, Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto and Jalan HR Rasuna Said. Jakarta's Golden Triangle also known to expatriates and local populates as a lifestyle center of the metropolis. There are countless high end boutiques, fine restaurants, coffee shops and malls. Kelapa Gading is the newest business district, lifestyle center and residential areas, located in the north-eastern part of Jakarta city. It has several bars and entertainment places that open up until late night.
The development of large scale residential areas and industrial parks in the Jakarta metropolitan area has been induced by infrastructure development, especially toll roads and railways. The Jakarta metropolitan area has been built industrial estate in the outskirts, mainly in Cikarang, home to a dozen industrial estates with more than 2,500 industrial companies. Cikarang industrial estate occupied a total land area of about 11,000 hectares and became the largest concentration of manufacturing activities in Southeast Asia. Many foreign companies are located in Cikarang industrial estate, such as from Japan, Korea, China, United States and Singapore.
The region is partly defined by the areas from which people commute into the city. All municipality and regencies has access of toll road and rail service. At present public transport in Greater Jakarta consists of TransJakarta BRT, KRL Jabodetabek commuter rail, and Jakarta MRT. Other transit systems that are currently under construction are Jakarta LRT, Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link, and LRT Jabodebek. Jakarta LRT is expected to be operational by late 2019, and LRT Jabodebek by March 2021.
The Jakarta metropolitan area area has two major airports, Soekarno Hatta International Airport, commonly known as Cengkareng Airport (CGK) and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport (chiefly domestic). Pondok Cabe Airport in South Tangerang, owned by the state oil company Pertamina, is used for civilian and military airport.
- Bogor - Jakarta Kota line, the busiest commuter railroad in Jabotabek. It has six major terminals at Bogor Station (Bogor), Depok Station (Depok), Depok Baru Station (Depok), Manggarai Station (South Jakarta) (Main Transfer Point), Gambir Station (Central Jakarta) and finally at Jakarta Kota Station.
- Bogor - Jatinegara loop line. It has seven major terminal at Bogor Station (Bogor), Depok Station (Depok), Depok Baru Station (Depok), Manggarai Station, (South Jakarta) (Main Transfer Point), Tanah Abang Station (Central Jakarta), Duri Station (West Jakarta), and finally at Jatinegara Station (East Jakarta).
- Bekasi - Jakarta Kota line, the second busiest commuter railroad in Jabotabek. It has four major terminals at Bekasi station in Bekasi City, Jatinegara Station (East Jakarta), Manggarai Station in South Jakarta (Main Transfer Point), and finally at Jakarta Kota Station.
- Nambo - Depok line. It has two major terminal at Nambo Station (Bogor Regency) and Depok Station (Depok).
- Rangkasbitung - Tanah Abang line. It has five major terminals at Rangkasbitung Station (Lebak Regency), Maja Station (Lebak Regency), Parung Panjang railway station (Bogor Regency), Serpong railway station (South Tangerang City), and finally at Tanah Abang Station (Central Jakarta).
- Tanjung Priok - Jakarta Kota. It has two major terminal at Tanjung Priok Station (North Jakarta) and Jakarta Kota Station (North Jakarta).
- Tangerang - Duri line. It has two major terminals at Tangerang railway station (Tangerang City) and Duri Station (West Jakarta).
Visit KRL Commuter Jabodetabek website for lines and schedule information (in Indonesian)
Jakarta MRT is a rapid transit system in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. Before Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit was opened, the Jakarta metropolitan area was the world's largest metropolitan areas without a grade-separated rapid transit system.
The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service (known as Busway) was developed throughout Jakarta and has 12 corridors (active) and three corridors (planned). The system connects Bekasi, Depok, and Tangerang with three routes connecting Jakarta with Bekasi vice versa, namely Harapan Indah - Pasar Baru, West Bekasi - Bunderan HI, and East Bekasi - Tanjung Priok. While for Depok, only one route is currently active: Margonda - Manggarai. In addition to the main corridors, the feeder buses of Transjakarta serves commuters from satellite cities, such as Bumi Serpong Damai and Bintaro Jaya (South Tangerang) as well as Kemang Pratama, Grand Galaxy City and Cibubur (Bekasi).
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