Jabuka

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Jabuka
Јабука
Village
Coat of arms of Jabuka
Coat of arms
Jabuka is located in Serbia
Jabuka
Jabuka
Location of Jabuka within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°56′35″N 20°35′35″E / 44.94306°N 20.59306°E / 44.94306; 20.59306Coordinates: 44°56′35″N 20°35′35″E / 44.94306°N 20.59306°E / 44.94306; 20.59306
Country Serbia
Province Vojvodina
District South Banat
Elevation 79 m (259 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Jabuka 6,181
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 26201
Area code(s) +381(0)13
Car plates PA

Jabuka (Cyrillic: Јабука) is a village situated in the Pančevo municipality, in the South Banat District, Vojvodina province, Serbia. The village numbers 6,181 people (census 2011) and has a Serb majority and the largest ethnic Macedonian population in Serbia by percentage.

Name[edit]

The Serbian and Macedonian place names mean apple. The Hungarian name (official name Torontálalmás from 1898 to 1918) meant apple of Torontál. The German name (official name Apfeldorf from March 1943 to September 1944) meant apple's village. A legend tells about Serbian fishermen who settled nearby an apple tree. The legend has been published for the first time in 1912. There is no deed or other evidence of founding by first settlers.[1][2]

Geography[edit]

Jabuka is located on flat and fertile plains nearby the Tamiš river at 44°56′35″N 20°35′35″E / 44.94306°N 20.59306°E / 44.94306; 20.59306, approximately 11 km NW of Pančevo and 27 km NE of Pančevo bridge to Belgrade.

History[edit]

Entry to the village

In the seventies of the 20th century, a team of the Archaeological Institute of Belgrade carried out extensive excavations on the communal area. The scientists found objects and tracks of a temporary settlement of Neolithic (Vinča and Starčevo cultures), Chalcolithic (Baden culture) and Iron periods.[3]

The communal area was a part of Temeşvar Eyalet in Ottoman Empire since 1552, after the Treaty of Požarevac a part of Habsburg's Banat, since 1765 of the military frontier (Austrian Empire) and then it belonged to the Torontál county of Austria-Hungary. After World War I was that area a part of provisional Torontalsko-tamiške županja (Treaty of Trianon), in 1922 of Belgrade oblast and since 1929 of the Danube Banovina in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In the time after World War II its belonged to the Srez Pančevo of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The communal area of Jabuka was a part of the administrative region of the Pančevo municipality from all these centuries to the present.

Demographic history[edit]

In December 1764, a military commission of Viennese Hofkriegsrat registered 88 Rascian people (Austrian German: Serbs) who lived in 69 more or less habitable houses.[4]

In 1858, the parson Silvester Jablonsky wrote into the fragmentary history book of the Catholic parish community: a glorious appearance of the sky was visible during most of the summer time.[5][6]

In 1921, the population of the village numbered 3,265 inhabitants, including 2,819 Germans, 348 Romanians, 73 Hungarians, 20 Serbs or Croats, 2 Slovenes, 2 Russians and 1 Englishman.[7][8]

The resident Katharina Richardt (1905–1940) was a domestic worker in the household of a respected and honorable Belgrad's family of Jewish descendent from January 1924 to October 1925.[9][10]

On 4 January 1932, the resident Stephan Scharinger (Serbian: Stefan Šaringer; at least school caretaker) was found hanged in his quarter after waterboarding with a bucket by some residents in the schoolyard who came from Inn Katitsch in the night of 31 December 1931 to 1 January 1932. A long-standing rumor in the village suspected him of sexual abuse of his daughter. But further on, the same residents threatened and harassed Maria Šaringer (Serbian: марија Шарингер, 1907–1953) and the Serbian family of Aleksandr Janković she lived with. The then 20-year-old woman became pregnant in 1926. The problem was not her illegitimate child growing up as an adopted child in the village by a family of Hungarian origin by name. She was a danger for a German resident and the reputation of his family. In 1933, the Serbian family had to emigrate from the village because of increasing discrimination.[11][12][13][14][15]

The resident Stefan Metha (German of Vlach origin; Romanian-German) became first leader of local echelon of paramilitary Deutsche Mannschaft and Peter Speidel his deputy a few years later. Josef Jerger, leader of the regional Einsatzstaffel Hermann Göring (operation echelon Hermann Göring) of Danube Swabian's Deutsche Mannschaft had distant relatives in the village.[16][17][18]

On 10 October 1943, Franz Richardt, Josef Neder and Franz Lischitz, young members of the SS Freiwilligen Gebirgsjäger Division Prinz Eugen strictly refused their further participations in a reprisal in the area around Sarajevo. They were shot and killed because of their command denials. The resident Friedrich Scharinger (Serbian: Fridrih Šaringer) became at first a member of Banater Staatswache in August 1941 with main watch service at Cervena magazine and temporary use at Svilara of Pančevo, then member of SS Freiwilligen Gebirgsjäger Division Prinz Eugen since April 1942 (horsekeeper at Pferde-Corps) and deserted in January 1945 in the area around Karlovac. The resident Josef Nedwetzky of Czech origin, a member of the Deutsche Mannschaft and voluntary executioner of 18 innocent civilians (reprisal) from Pančevo in April 1941, was tortured and hanged by OZNA in October 1944 at Svilara and his daughter was killed as Second-rate official on 14 November 1944. In 1944, one part of German population left from the region, together with defeated German army. The remaining Germans of the village were sent to local imprisonments which existed until 1948. After prison camps were dissolved, many of German population left Yugoslavia because of economic reasons.[19][20][21]

In the time period after World War II the village was settled with families that originated from all parts of Yugoslavia. Most of the settlers were from Macedonia, many of them originating from Kriva Palanka Municipality. In 1948, the majority of inhabitants were Macedonians (2,806 or 63.88%).[22][23]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
19484,392—    
19816,453+46.9%
20026,312−2.2%

Topographic history[edit]

On 9 May 1768, Joseph II wrote an impression of the structural condition of the village during his inspection of the new part of southern military frontier into his diary: Jabuka is the worst of them all. At the instigation of Viennese Hofkriegsrat and after approval of the financing by Viennese Hofkammer the village was new created and built up until 1774. There is a historical plan of the new village which is kept at the Austrian National Archives. At the beginning of the 19th century, cotton was planted on a trial basis in the northern Jabuka area but it was stopped because of long-term profitability reasons. In 1808, Archduke Ludwig opened a fruit plant nursery which existed until 1873. There is an impression of the old village and the plant nursery (German Obstgarten Plantage) which is recorded on the map of the Franciscan land survey from the early 19th century at the National Archives of Austria. In 1905, cadastral maps of the village were recorded which are kept at the National Archives of Hungary. In 1910, the village consisted of 675 buildings, 478 made of stones or bricks, 147 made of air dried bricks or clay with stone or brick foundation and 50 made of timber or other materials. 627 buildings had roofs made of tiles, slate or sheet metal and 48 made of thatched reeds or straw.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Orthodox church Saint Elijah

From 1959 to 1960, the old Roman Catholic Church was demolished due to dilapidated and damp foundations. A part of the dry bricks was used for construction and renovation of new and old houses of the village. The Church was built from 1771 to 1774 in neoclassical stile and renovated from 1829 to 1833. On 14 November 1833, a deed of renovation history was sealed in a niche on the ground in front of the altar during the consecration ceremony. After the demolition of the last remains of the foundation walls, the historical deed was handed over by the governmental authorities of the village to the Diocese of Zrenjanin. The church was dedicated to Saint Leopold and stood on the place on which the modern school extension including sports hall is now. The extension was opened in school year 1961/62.[32][33]

In 1901, the small Orthodox church was built. Before completion of the church, the Orthodox residents (369 Vlachs and 13 Serbs in 1890) had to go to the churches of the competent parish communities in Sefkerin or Pančevo. The Church is dedicated to Saint Demetrius. In 2011, the construction of the big Orthodox Church started, which was mostly financed by donations. The first mass was celebrated in August 2014. The church is consecrated to Saint Elijah. The new sacral building of the village is opposite the primary school Gotse Delchev in the center of the village.[34][35][36][37][38]

Stratište Memorial[edit]

It is a place which lies behind a former dam that was built between 1928 and 1934 by the French company Société de Construction des Batignolles and is no more existing since a very long time. The name Stratište (Serbian Cyrillic Стратиште) means place of scaffold. This term paraphrases a location of executions by shooting. Political prisoners of National Socialism and Communism have been killed on this location during World War II in Yugoslavia. Special commands of Wehrmacht and German Police killed at least 5,000 Serbian Jews (majority) and Romani people (minority) from October to November 1941 and Yugoslav people from June to September 1944. Danube Swabian members of the regional paramilitary formation Deutsche Mannschaft killed there 146 of about 2,500 prisoners from Bor after overnight stay at Svilara of Pančevo on 30 September 1944 although they had already killed 53 of them on the industrial site during the late evening of stay on 29 September. The 146 prisoners were brutally caught after their panic-stricken and hopeless escape attempt. Special commands of Yugoslav Partisans killed there 36 German prisoners from Jabuka and 72 Yugoslav prisoners in October and November 1944. 34 of 36 German prisoners were young Second-rate officials of the local national socialist organization of Danube Swabians and the First-rate officials were Anton Strasser and Franz Müller. The responsible Yugoslav captain of Special commands was Svetko Rupić. In some books are higher total numbers mentioned, but in the case of the ten to twelve thousand victims stated, there are no cited documents published that they were national socialist victims only. These publications are mainly criticized in the German-speaking countries. There is a memorial by Nebojša Delja which has been built in 1980 and it is 4 km away from the village.[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]

Economy[edit]

The main occupation of the people is in agriculture, as with many other local settlements. However, many of the inhabitants also work in the factories of the neighbouring city of Pančevo. There is an industrial starch factory on the municipal area.[48]

Culture[edit]

Given that Jabuka was mostly populated with Macedonians, much of the cultural life of the village reflects these people's cultural traditions. In 1961, the cultural center Kočo Racin was founded in the village. Every year the national holiday Ilinden is celebrated. Since 2008, the festival Tavče Gravče has been also celebrated in the village.[49]

In 2001, local Romani people have formed the association Crni Biseri (Black Pearls). In 2007, some residents founded the cultural and artistic society KUD Vasil Hadžimanov.[50][51]

Sports[edit]

There is a football club named OFK Jugoslavija in the village. It was founded in 1935 and its club colors are Blue and White.Since 1998, there is a handball club (Rukometni Klub) named RK Jabuka.[52][53]

Image Gallery[edit]

Articles[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Samu Borovszky, Magyarország vármegyéi és városai. Torontal vármegye, Budapest 1912, p. 124.
  2. ^ Akiko Shimizu, Die deutsche Okkupation des serbischen Banats 1941-1944 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der deutschen Volksgruppe in Jugoslawien. Regensburger Schriften aus Philosophie, Politik, Gesellschaft und Geschichte. Band 5, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8258-5975-4, p. 188-189.
  3. ^ Simo Mladenovski, Banatsko selo Jabuka, Skopje 1989, p. 19-24.
  4. ^ Erik Roth, Die planmäßig angelegten Siedlungen im Deutsch-Banater Militärgrenzbezirk 1765-1821, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-486-54741-0, p. 347. German biography and bibliography of Erik Roth on Academia.edu, retrieved on 2018-01-11.
  5. ^ Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Heimatbuch der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Fragments of Historia Domus (History of the parish), Ludwigshafen 1990, Original book at the Archive of the Diocese of Zrenjanin.
  6. ^ Schematismus Cleri Dioecesis Csanádiensis, Temesvar 1858, p. 126 (Catholic Parish of Jabuka), Online edition by National Library of Austria.
  7. ^ Opšta državna statistika, Definitivni rezultati popisa stanovništva od 31 januara 1921 godine, Sarajevo 1932, p.354-355.
  8. ^ Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, Qubesoft, Pančevo 2011, ISBN 978-86-87881-04-4.
  9. ^ Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Heimatbuch der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf (List of all inhabitants and partially named ancestors, House No. 629), Self-Publishing, Ludwigshafen 1990.
  10. ^ Michael and Elfriede Adelhardt, Ortssippenbuch Jabuka Apfeldorf (Book of local clans), Self-publishing, Karlsruhe 2004.
  11. ^ Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Original in German; PDF), retrieved on 2017-11-07
  12. ^ European Convention on Human Rights (Original in English; PDF) retrieved on 2017-11-07
  13. ^ Simo Mladenovski, Banatsko selo Jabuka, NIO Studenski zbor, Skopje 1989.
  14. ^ Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Heimatbuch der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Self-publishing, Ludwigshafen 1990.
  15. ^ Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Bildband der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Self-publishing, Ludwigshafen 1992, p. 314.
  16. ^ Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, Pančevo 2011, p. 41.
  17. ^ Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Heimatbuch der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Ludwigshafen 1990.
  18. ^ Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, Pančevo 2011.
  19. ^ Josef Nedwetzky in German original footage (film length 0:30 seconds) on YouTube, retrieved on 2017-12-27.
  20. ^ Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Heimatbuch der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Ludwigshafen 1990.
  21. ^ Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, Pančevo 2011.
  22. ^ Savezni zavod za statistiku, Konačni rezultati popisa stanovništva od 15 Marta 1948 godine, Knjiga IX, Belgrade 1954, p. 338.
  23. ^ Simo Mladenovski, Banatsko selo Jabuka, Skopje 1988, p. 88-90.
  24. ^ Felix Milleker, Geschichte der Banater Militärgrenze 1764-1873, Wittigschlager Pančevo 1925, p. 49.
  25. ^ Map of Jabuka in 1774, Plan G I h 3 of the Maps and Plan Collection by National Archives of Austria and the Institute of Military History Budapest on the Website of Hungarian Cultural Heritage Portal, retrieved on 2018-02-20.
  26. ^ Vaterländische Blätter für den österreichischen Kaiserstaat, Volume 1, Vienna 1810, p. 191 on Google Books.
  27. ^ Carl Bernhard von Hietzinger, Statistik der Militärgrenze, Volume 2, Vienna 1820, page 92 on Google Books.
  28. ^ Franz Vaníček, Specialgeschichte der Militärgrenze, Volume 4, Vienna 1875, p. 280 on Google Books.
  29. ^ Historical Map of Franciscan Land Survey (1806-1869), Retrieved on 2018-01-03.
  30. ^ Cadastre maps Jabuka (Hungarian Almás), Retrieved on 2018-01-03.
  31. ^ Magyar Király Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, A magyar szent korona országainak 1910. évi népszámlálása, Budapest 1912, Volume 42, p. 369 on the Website of Hungarian Cultural Heritage Portal, retrieved on 2018-01-09.
  32. ^ Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, Qubesoft, Pančevo 2011 ISBN 978-86-87881-04-4, p. 56.
  33. ^ Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Heimatbuch der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Ludwigshafen 1990, p. 151.
  34. ^ Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, Qubesoft, Pančevo 2011 ISBN 978-86-87881-04-4, p. 56.
  35. ^ Magyar Király Statisztikai Hivatal, A magyar korona országainak helységnévtára, Budapest 1892, p. 606 (369 Vlachs and 13 Serbs) on the Website of Hungarian Cultural Heritage Portal, retrieved on 2018-01-08.
  36. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie für 1877, Vienna 1877, p. 828 on Google Books.
  37. ^ Report on the consecration by RTV Pančevo on YouTube, retrieved on 2017-12-25.
  38. ^ Official Website by Osnovna škola Jabuka, retrieved on 2017-12-25.
  39. ^ Tomislav Beker and Biljana Regoje, Pančevački i južnobanatski Jevreji u holokaustu, Šalom Tora, Pančevo 2012, ISBN 978-86-916511-0-7.
  40. ^ Serbien und Montenegro. Raum und Bevölkerung, Geschichte, Sprache und Literatur, Kultur, Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft, Recht, Vienna and Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8258-9539-4, page 276. Retrieved on 2017-01-02.
  41. ^ Walter Manoschek, „Serbien ist judenfrei" - Militärische Besatzungspolitik und Judenvernichtung in Serbien 1941/42, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-486-55974-5, p. 91 (p. 99, note 211), 98-101.
  42. ^ Report on shootings in Pancevo of 4 November 1941 (German) on the Website NS-Archiv by Jürgen Langowski, retrieved on 2017-12-19.
  43. ^ Lajčo Klajn: The Past in Present Times. The Yugoslav Saga, University Press of America, Lanham 2007, ISBN 978-0-7618-3647-6, page 87. Retrieved on 2017-01-02.
  44. ^ Randolph L. Braham, The Politics of Genocide. The Holocaust in Hungary. Volume 1, Columbia University Press, New York City 1981, ISBN 0-231-05208-1, p. 335-359. Interview for his research with Josef Žsivaj (pseudonym of Iosif Clivaj), brother of the second husband Heinrich Čivaj of Theresia Richardt (7 November 1909, Jabuka, Serbia – 27 July 1993, Vienna, Austria). Daniel Blatman, Die Todesmärsche 1944/45: Das letzte Kapitel des nationalsozialistischen Massenmords, Rowohlt, Reinbek 2012, ISBN 978-3-644-01911-9, p. 110, based on the interpretation by Randolph L. Braham.
  45. ^ Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Heimatbuch der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Ludwigshafen 1990, p. 319 and 381. Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Bildband der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Ludwigshafen 1992, p. 314.
  46. ^ Kako su komunisti streljali 72 pilota, article by Blic, Retrieved on 2017-01-02.
  47. ^ Milan Todorović, Ladislav Feldeši: Stratište kod Pančeva: grobnica deset hiljada rodoljuba, Istorijski Arhiv, Pančevo 1985. Simo Mladenovski, Banatskoto selo Jabuka, Skopje 1986, p. 60-66. Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, Qubesoft, Pančevo 2011 ISBN 978-86-87881-04-4, p. 80. Nebojša Tomašević, Treasures of Yugoslavia: An encyclopedic touring guide, Yugoslaviapublic, Belgrade 1982, p. 429. Website about Nebojša Delja, retrieved on 2017-12-19.
  48. ^ Official Website by Jabuka Starch Industry of Pančevo (in English), Retrieved on 2017-01-06.
  49. ^ Makedonska kuka za makedoncite vo Jabuka (Pančevo), article on the Website by Makedonska nacija (in Macedonian), Retrieved on 2017-01-03.
  50. ^ Notification about DRUŠTVO ROMA CRNI BISERI JABUKA on Bisnode, retrieved on 2017-11-07.
  51. ^ KUD Vasil Hadžimanov on Facebook and Notification on Bisnode, retrieved on 2018-01-08.
  52. ^ Official Website by OFK Jugoslavija Jabuka on Facebook (in Serbian), Retrieved on 2017-01-06.
  53. ^ Notification about RK Jabuka on Bisnode, retrieved on 2017-12-11.

Weblinks[edit]

  • Jabuka on the Official Website by the Municipality of Pančevo (in Serbian)