|Elevation||79 m (259 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Jabuka (Cyrillic: Јабука) is a village situated in the Pančevo municipality, in the South Banat District, Vojvodina province, Serbia. The village numbers 6,181 people (census 2011) and has a Serb majority and the largest ethnic Macedonian population in Serbia by percentage.
The Serbian and Macedonian place names mean apple. The Hungarian name (official name Torontálalmás from 1898 to 1918) meant apple of Torontál. The German name (official name Apfeldorf from March 1943 to September 1944) meant apple's village.A legend tells about Serbian fishermen who settled nearby an apple tree. The legend has been published for the first time in 1912. There is no deed or other evidence of founding by first settlers.
In the seventies of the 20th century, a team of the Archaeological Institute of Belgrade carried out extensive excavations on the communal area. The scientists found objects and tracks of a temporary settlement of Neolithic (Vinča and Starčevo cultures), Chalcolithic (Baden culture) and Iron periods.
The communal area was a part of Temeşvar Eyalet in Ottoman Empire since 1552, after the Treaty of Požarevac a part of Habsburg's Banat, since 1765 of the military frontier (Austrian Empire) and then it belonged to the Torontál county of Austria-Hungary. After World War I was that area a part of provisional Torontalsko-tamiške županja (Treaty of Trianon), in 1922 of Belgrade oblast and since 1929 of the Danube Banovina in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In the time after World War II its belonged to the Srez Pančevo of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The communal area of Jabuka was a part of the administrative region of the Pančevo municipality from all these centuries to the present.
In December of 1764, a military commission of Viennese Hofkriegsrat registered 88 Rascian people who lived in 69 more or less habitable houses.From 1765 to 1945, it was mostly populated by Germans, and some Romanians lived there as well. In 1921, the population of the village numbered 3,265 inhabitants, including 2,819 Germans, 348 Romanians, 73 Hungarians, 20 Serbs and Croats, 2 Slovenes, 2 Russians, and 1 Englishman. After the defeat of Axis Powers, in 1944, one part of German population left from the region, together with defeated German army. The remaining Germans of the village were sent after local imprisonment to internment camp in Knićanin that existed until 1948. Some of the Germans died in this camp from starvation, cold, and disease. Some were shot or tortured. 423 German civilians from Jabuka did not survive the prison camp. After prison camps were dissolved (in 1948), the remaining German population left Yugoslavia because of economic reasons.
In the time period after World War II the village was settled with families that originated from all parts of Yugoslavia. Most of the settlers were from Macedonia, many of them originating from Kriva Palanka Municipality. In 1948, the majority of inhabitants were Macedonians (2,806 or 63.88%).
The name Stratište (Serbian Cyrillic Стратиште) means place of scaffold. This inaccurate term paraphrases a location of executions by shooting. Political prisoners of National Socialism and Communism have been killed on this location during World War II in Yugoslavia. Special commands of Wehrmacht and German Police killed there more than 5,000 Serbian Jews and Romani people over a period of October to November 1941 and Yugoslavian people from June to September 1944.Danube Swabian members of the regional paramilitary formation Deutsche Mannschaft killed there 146 prisoners from Bor on 30 September 1944.Special commands of Yugoslav Partisans killed there 36 German prisoners from Jabuka and 72 Yugoslavian prisoners in October and November 1944.There is a memorial which has been built in 1980 and it is 4 km away from the village.
The main occupation of the people is in agriculture, as with many other local settlements. However, many of the inhabitants also work in the factories of the neighbouring city of Pančevo. Since 1894, there is an industrial starch factory on the communal area.
Given that Jabuka was mostly populated with Macedonians, much of the cultural life of the village reflects these people's cultural traditions. Macedonians living in the village are united by the cultural organisation Jabuka. In 1961 the cultural center Kočo Racin was founded in the village. Every year the national holiday Ilinden is celebrated. Since 2008 the festival Tavče Gravče has been also celebrated in the village. President Gjorge Ivanov visited the Macedonian community in September 2011. In the same year a school book in Macedonian language has been introduced. In 2001, local Romani people have formed the association Crni Biseri (Black Pearls).
There is a football club named OFK Jugoslavija in the village. It was founded in 1935 and its club colors are Blue and White.Since 1959, there is a handball club (Rukometni Klub) named RK Jabuka.
- Akiko Shimizu, Die deutsche Okkupation des serbischen Banats 1941-1944 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der deutschen Volksgruppe in Jugoslawien. Regensburger Schriften aus Philosophie, Politik, Gesellschaft und Geschichte. Band 5, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8258-5975-4, p. 188-189.
- Samu Borovszky, Magyarország vármegyéi és városai. Torontal vármegye, Budapest 1912, p. 124.
- Simo Mladenovski, Banatsko selo Jabuka, Skopje 1988, p. 19-24.
- Erik Roth, Die planmäßig angelegten Siedlungen im Deutsch-Banater Militärgrenzbezirk 1765-1821, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-486-54741-0, p. 347.
- Opšta državna statistika, Definitivni rezultati popisa stanovništva od 31 januara 1921 godine, Sarajevo 1932, p.354-355.
- Savezni zavod za statistiku, Konačni rezultati popisa stanovništva od 15 Marta 1948 godine, Knjiga IX, Belgrade 1954, p. 338.
- Simo Mladenovski, Banatsko selo Jabuka, Skopje 1988, p. 88-90.
- Serbien und Montenegro. Raum und Bevölkerung, Geschichte, Sprache und Literatur, Kultur, Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft, Recht, Vienna and Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8258-9539-4, page 276. Retrieved on 2017-01-02.
- Walter Manoschek, „Serbien ist judenfrei“ - Militärische Besatzungspolitik und Judenvernichtung in Serbien 1941/42, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-486-55974-5, p. 91, 98-101.
- Lajčo Klajn: The Past in Present Times. The Yugoslav Saga, Lanham/Maryland 2007, ISBN 978-0-7618-3647-6, page 87. Retrieved on 2017-01-02.
- Randolph L. Braham, The Politics of Genocide. The Holocaust in Hungary. Volume 1, Columbia University Press, New York City 1981, ISBN 0-231-05208-1, p. 336.
- Christine Mergel, Josef Jerger, Stefan Metha and Mathias Ulrich, Bildband der Ortsgemeinde Jabuka Torontalalmas Apfeldorf, Ludwigshafen 1990, p. 314.
- Kako su komunisti streljali 72 pilota, article by Blic, Retrieved on 2017-01-02.
- Simo Mladenovski, Banatsko selo Jabuka, Skopje 1988, p. 60-66. Milan Todorović, Ladislav Feldeši: Stratište kod Pančeva: grobnica deset hiljada rodoljuba, Pančevo 1985. Nebojša Tomašević, Treasures of Yugoslavia: An encyclopedic touring guide, Belgrade 1982, p. 429; Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, ISBN 978-86-87881-04-4, Pančevo 2011, p. 80.
- Official Website by Jabuka Starch Industry of Pančevo (English), Retrieved on 2017-01-06.
- Jabuka e sinonim za makedoncite vo Vojvodina, article on the Website by Utrinski vesnik (Macedonian), Retrieved on 2017-01-03.
- Makedonska kuka za makedoncite vo Jabuka (Pančevo), article on the Website by Makedonska nacija (Macedonian), Retrieved on 2017-01-03.
- President Ivanov pays visit to the Macedonian community in Jabuka, Serbia, article on the Official Website by the President of the Republic of Macedonia (English), Retrieved on 2017-01-03.
- Official Website by OFK Jugoslavija Jabuka on Facebook (Serbian), Retrieved on 2017-01-06.
- Official Website by RK Jabuka (Serbian), Retrieved on 2017-01-04.
- Simo Mladenovski, Banatsko selo Jabuka, Skopje 1988.
- Dr Slobodan Ćurčić, Naselja Banata - geografske karakteristike, Novi Sad 2004.
- Ljubiša Ivanovski, Jabuka kroz vekove, Pančevo 2011.
- Jabuka on the Official Website by the Municipality of Pančevo (Serbian)
- Website by the local community of Jabuka (Mesna zajednica) on Facebook (Serbian)
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