Jacinth

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Red zircon from Gilgit, Pakistan

Jacinth /ˈæsɪnθ/[1] or hyacinth /ˈhəsɪnθ/[2] is a yellow-red to red-brown variety of zircon used as a gemstone.[3]

In Exodus 28:19, one of the precious stones set into the hoshen (the breastplate worn by the High Priest of Israel) is called, in Hebrew, leshem, which is often translated into English as "jacinth".[4] The true identity of this stone has been a source of confusion since at least the first century; the modern identification of leshem with jacinth seems to have been popularised by Martin Luther, who may in turn have been following a fourth-century tradition.[5]

In Revelation 21:20, one of the foundation stones of the New Jerusalem is hyacinth (Greek: hyakinthos).[6] However, Strong's Concordance and Thayer's Greek Lexicon describe this as a stone of the colour of the hyacinth plant, i.e. dark blue.[7] The stone intended may be the sapphire.[8] In Revelation 9:17, the word appears in adjective form (hyakinthinous, "hyacinthine");[9] this, again, is thought to be descriptive of a blue or purple colour, with no reference to the modern jacinth stone.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "jacinth". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ "hyacinth". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  3. ^ "Hyacinth". Gemdat.org. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  4. ^ Exodus 28:19 – Parallel Translations. Bible Hub. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  5. ^ Walton, Steven A. (2001). "Theophrastus on Lyngurium: Medieval and Early Modern Lore from the Classical Lapidary Tradition". Annals of Science. 58 (4). p. 371. doi:10.1080/000337900110041371.
  6. ^ "Revelation 20:21 – Greek Text Analysis". Bible Hub. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  7. ^ "5192. huakinthos". Bible Hub. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  8. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hyacinth (mineral)" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ Revelation 9:17 – Greek Text Analysis". Bible Hub. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  10. ^ Smith, William (1872). Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. II. MacDonald Publishing Company. p. 1192.