Elam in Kansas City Confidential (1952)
|Born||William Scott Elam
November 13, 1920
Miami, Arizona, U.S.
|Died||October 20, 2003
Ashland, Oregon, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Jean L Hodgert
(1937–61; her death) 2 daughters
(1961–2003; his death) 1 son
William Scott Elam, known as Jack Elam (November 13, 1920 – October 20, 2003), was an American film and television actor best known for his numerous roles as villains in Western films and, later in his career, comedies (sometimes spoofing his villainous image). His most distinguishing physical quality was his lazy left eye. Before his career in acting, he took several jobs in finance and served two years in the United States Navy during World War II.
Jack Elam died in 2003 of congestive heart failure, leaving behind two daughters and one son.
Elam was born in Miami in Gila County in south central Arizona, to Millard Elam and Alice Amelia Kirby. His mother died in 1922 when Jack was two years old. By 1930, he was living with his father, older sister Mildred, and their stepmother, Flossie Varney Elam.
He grew up picking cotton and lost the sight in his left eye during a boyhood accident when he was stabbed with a pencil at a Boy Scout meeting. He was a student at both Miami High School in Gila County and Phoenix Union High School in Maricopa County, graduating from there in the late 1930s.
Elam attended Santa Monica Junior College in California. After that, he worked as a bookkeeper at the Bank of America in Los Angeles and as an auditor for the Standard Oil Company. In World War II, he served two years in the United States Navy and subsequently became an independent accountant in Hollywood; one of his clients was movie mogul Samuel Goldwyn. At one time, he was the manager of the Bel Air Hotel in Los Angeles.
In 1949, Elam made his debut in She Shoulda Said No!, an exploitation film where a chorus girl's marijuana smoking ruins her career and drives her brother to suicide. He appeared mostly in westerns and gangster films playing villains.
Elam made multiple guest star appearances in many popular Western television series in the 1950s and 1960s, including Gunsmoke, The Rifleman, Lawman, Bonanza, Cheyenne, Have Gun Will Travel, Zorro, The Lone Ranger, The Rebel, F Troop and Rawhide. In 1961, Elam played a slightly crazed character in an episode of The Twilight Zone entitled "Will the Real Martian Please Stand Up?."
In 1963, Elam got a rare chance to play the good guy, Deputy U.S. Marshal and reformed gunfighter J. D. Smith, in the ABC/Warner Brothers series, The Dakotas, a television western that ran for only nineteen episodes. He played George Taggart, a gunslinger-turned-marshal in the NBC/WB western series, Temple Houston, with Jeffrey Hunter in the title role. Elam got this part after James Coburn declined the role; the series ran for only twenty-six weeks.
In 1966, Jack Elam co-starred with Clint Walker in the western The Night of the Grizzly. In 1968, Elam had a cameo in Sergio Leone's celebrated spaghetti western Once Upon a Time in the West, where he played one of a trio of gunslingers sent to kill Charles Bronson's character. Elam spent a good part of the scene trying to trap an annoying fly in his gun barrel. In 1969, he was given his first comedic role, in Support Your Local Sheriff!, which was followed two years later by Support Your Local Gunfighter, both opposite James Garner, after which he found his villainous parts dwindling and his comic roles increasing. (Both films were also directed by Burt Kennedy, who saw Elam's potential as a comedian and would direct him a total of 15 times in features and television.) In between those two films, he also played a comically cranky old coot opposite John Wayne in Howard Hawks's Rio Lobo (1970). In 1979, he was cast as the Frankenstein monster in the CBS sitcom Struck by Lightning, but the show was cancelled after only three episodes.
In 1985, Elam played Charlie in The Aurora Encounter. During production, Elam developed what would become a lifelong relationship with an 11-year-old boy named Mickey Hays, who suffered from progeria. As shown in the documentary I Am Not a Freak viewers see how close Elam and Hays really were. Elam said, "You know I've met a lot of people, but I've never met anybody that got next to me like Mickey."
In 1986, Elam also co-starred on the short-lived comedy series Easy Street as Alvin "Bully" Stevenson, the down-on-his-luck uncle of Loni Anderson's character, L. K. McGuire. In 1988, Elam co-starred with Willie Nelson in the movie Where The Hell's That Gold?
In 1994, Elam was inducted into the Hall of Great Western Performers of the National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum.
In a wry and oft repeated comment on Hollywood superficiality, attributed first to Hugh O'Brian, Elam classified the stages of a moderately successful actor's life, as defined by the way a film director refers to the actor suggested for a part. (He said this on a George Plimpton ABC documentary about the making of Rio Lobo; Ricardo Montalbán would later use the recitation numerous times, with his own name, in speeches.)
- Stage 1: "Who is Jack Elam?"
- Stage 2: "Get me Jack Elam."
- Stage 3: "I want a Jack Elam type."
- Stage 4: "I want a younger Jack Elam."
- Stage 5: "Who is Jack Elam?"
Personal life and death
He was married twice, first to Jean Elam from 1937 to her death in 1961 and second, Margaret Jennison from 1961 until his death in 2003. Elam had two daughters, Jeri Elam and Jacqueline Elam, and a son, Scott Elam. Elam died in Ashland, Oregon, of congestive heart failure, a month before he would have turned 83.
Partial filmography and television work
- Other sources cite 1916 and 1918. The year 1920 is stated on both his birth and death certificates. Arizona Certificate of Live Birth for William Scott Elam
- "Jack Elam at westernclippings.com". Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Douglas Martin (October 23, 2003). "Jack Elam, Lazy-Eyed Movie Villain, Is Dead". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-11-27.
- Paul Wadey (October 23, 2003). "Jack Elam Archetypal villain in film and TV westerns". The Independent. Retrieved 2009-11-27.
- Billy Hathorn, "Roy Bean, Temple Houston, Bill Longley, Ranald Mackenzie, Buffalo Bill, Jr., and the Texas Rangers: Depictions of West Texans in Series Television, 1955 to 1967", West Texas Historical Review, Vol. 89 (2013), p. 106
- "I Am Not a Freak" (1987) at the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2009-11-27.
- garson. "The Five Stages of an Actor's Career - Quote Investigator".
- "Crowds Gather to Inaugurate Montalbán Theatre". http://www.startrek.com. 5 November 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
- McCormack, Tiffany. "Jack Elam". The Oregon Encyclopedia.
- Mahar, Ted. (October 4, 1998) The Oregonian. A Sampling of Elams Movies. Page L10.
- 1920 November 13; Arizona Certificate of Live Birth for William Scott Elam
- 1920 United States Census, Arizona, Gila County, Miami
- 1924 September 7; Arizona Original Certificate of Death for Alice Amelia Kerby Elam
- 1930 United States Census, Arizona, Gila County, Miami
- 2003 October 20; Oregon Certificate of Death for Jack Elam