Jackie Ormes

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Jackie Ormes
Jackie Ormes holding a Patty-Jo doll.
Born Zelda Mavin Jackson
August 1, 1911
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Died December 26, 1985(1985-12-26) (aged 74)
Chicago, Illinois
Nationality American
Area(s) Cartoonist
Notable works
Torchy Brown in Dixie to Harlem
Patty Jo 'n' Ginger
Torchy in Heartbeats (originally titled Torchy Brown Heartbeats) and accompanying Torchy Togs (paper doll cutouts).
Awards National Association of Black Journalists Hall of Fame

Jackie Ormes (August 1, 1911 – December 26, 1985) is known as the first African American woman cartoonist and created the Torchy Brown comic strip and the Patty-Jo 'n' Ginger panel.


Early life and career[edit]

Jackie Ormes was born Zelda Mavin Jackson[1] on August 1, 1911,[2] in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to parents William Winfield Jackson and Mary Brown Jackson.[3] Her father William, the owner of a printing company and movie theater proprietor, was killed in an automobile accident in 1917.[3] This resulted in the then six-year old Jackie and her younger sister Dolores in the care of their aunt and uncle for a brief period of time.[3] Eventually, Jackie's mother remarried and the family relocated to the nearby suburb of Monongahela. Ormes described the suburb in a 1985 interview for the Chicago Reader as "spread out and simple. Nothing momentous ever happens here". It would be in Monongahela that she would attend high school until graduating in 1930.[3][4]

Ormes drew and wrote throughout high school. It was during this period that she wrote a letter to the editor of the Pittsburgh Courier,[5] a weekly African-American newspaper that was published on Saturdays. The then-editor, Robert Van, wrote back. This correspondence led to her first writing assignment- covering a boxing match. Her coverage of future matches led her becoming an avid fan of the sport.[4]

Ormes started in journalism as a proofreader for the Pittsburgh Courier[4]. She also worked as an editor and as a freelance writer, writing on police beats, court cases and human interests topics.[3] While she enjoyed "a great career running around town, looking into everything the law would allow, and writing about it", what we really wanted to do was draw.[4]


Ormes's first comic strip, Torchy Brown in Dixie to Harlem, first appeared in the Pittsburgh Courier in 1937.[4] In addition to the Courier,[4] Torchy Brown was syndicated to fourteen other black newspapers. The strip,starring Torchy Brown,[6] was a humorous depiction of a Mississippi teen who found fame and fortune singing and dancing in the Cotton Club. Torchy's journey from Mississippi to New York City mirrored the journey of many African-Americans who ventured northward during the Great Migration.[7] It was through Torchy Brown that Ormes became the first African-American woman to produce a syndicated comic strip.[8] The strip would run until 1940. The reason for the strip's abrupt end is uncertain, but it is presumed to be due to an end in her contract.[3]

Ormes moved to Chicago in 1942, and soon began writing occasional articles and, briefly, a social column for The Chicago Defender, one of the nation's leading black newspapers, a weekly at that time. For a few months at the end of the war, her single panel cartoon, Candy, about an attractive and wisecracking housemaid, appeared in the Defender.

By August 1945, Ormes's work was back in the Courier, with the advent of Patty-Jo 'n' Ginger, a single-panel cartoon which ran for 11 years.[9] It featured a big sister-little sister set-up, with the precocious, insightful and socially/politically-aware child as the only speaker and the beautiful adult woman as a sometime pin-up figure and fashion mannequin.[10]

In 1950, the Courier began an eight-page color comics insert, where Ormes re-invented her Torchy character in a new comic strip, Torchy in Heartbeats.[11] This Torchy was a beautiful, independent woman who finds adventure while seeking true love. Ormes expressed her talent for fashion design as well as her vision of a beautiful black female body in the accompanying Torchy Togs paper doll cut outs. The strip is probably best known for its last episode in 1954, when Torchy and her doctor boyfriend confront racism and environmental pollution.Ormes used Torchy in Heartbeats as a sounding board for several big issues of the time. In a 1985 interview for Chicago Reader she claimed she was " anti-war-I was anti-everything-that's-smelly". Torchy presented an image of a black woman who, in contrast to the contemporary stereotypical media portrayals, was confident, intelligent, and brave.[4]

Patti-Jo Dolls[edit]

Ormes contracted with the Terri Lee doll company in 1947 to produce a play doll based on her little girl cartoon character.[12] The Patty-Jo doll was on the shelves in time for Christmas and was the first American black doll to have an extensive upscale wardrobe. As in the cartoon, the doll represented a real child, in contrast to the majority of dolls that were mammy and Topsy-type dolls. The dolls were popular with both black and white children.[4] In December 1949, Ormes's contract with the Terri Lee company was not renewed, and production ended. Patty-Jo dolls are now highly sought collectors' items.


Jackie Ormes married accountant Earl Holmes in 1936.[13] The couple initially moved to Salem, Ohio so Earl could be close to his family. But Ormes was not happy there, and they eventually moved back to Chicago. The pair had one child, Jaqueline, who died of a brain aneurysm at age 3. Ormes would remain married to Earl until his death in 1976.[13]

She retired from cartooning in 1956, although she continued to create art, including murals, still lifes and portraits until rheumatoid arthritis made this impossible.[4] She contributed to her South Side Chicago community by volunteering to produce fundraiser fashion shows and entertainments. She was also on the founding board of directors for the DuSable Museum of African American History. Ormes was a passionate doll collector, with 150 antique and modern dolls in her collection, and she was active in Guys and Gals Funtastique Doll Club, a United Federation of Doll Clubs chapter in Chicago. She died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Chicago on December 26, 1985.[2][13][14] Ormes was posthumously inducted into the National Association of Black Journalists Hall of Fame in 2014.[15]


  1. ^ Wolk, Douglas (March 30, 2008). "Origin Story". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 18, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Zelda Ormes". United States Social Security Death Index. Retrieved March 19, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Ormes, Zelda "Jackie" (1911-1985) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". www.blackpast.org. Retrieved 2016-12-04. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith, Jessie Carney (2003). Notable Black American Women Vol. III. Detroit: Gale. pp. 455–456. ISBN 0-7876-6494-4. 
  5. ^ "Jackie Ormes". Lambiek Comiclopedia. September 5, 2008. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. 
  6. ^ Markstein, Don (2010). "Torchy Brown". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on May 18, 2014. 
  7. ^ Brunner, Edward (2007). ""Shuh! Ain't Nothin' about it": the dynamics of success in Jackie Ormes's Torchy Brown.". MELUS. 32: 23 – via Biography in Context. 
  8. ^ Cavna, Michael (January 31, 2014). "RIP, Morrie Turner: Cartoonists say farewell to a friend, a hero, a Wee Pals pioneer". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 18, 2014. 
  9. ^ Onion, Rebecca (August 13, 2013). "Fifty Years Before Boondocks There Was Patty-Jo 'n' Ginger". Slate. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. 
  10. ^ Norris, Kyle (July 29, 2008). "Comics Crusader: Remembering Jackie Ormes". NPR. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. 
  11. ^ Green, Karen (August 1, 2008). "Black and White and Color". Comixology.com. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. 
  12. ^ Cronin, Brian (May 9, 2014). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #470". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c Pitts, Vanessa (n.d.). "Ormes, Zelda "Jackie" (1911-1985)". Blackpast.org. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. 
  14. ^ Heise, Kenan (January 3, 1986), "Jackie Ormes, 68, drew comic strip 'Torchy'", Chicago Tribune, retrieved August 27, 2016, She died Thursday in Michael Reese Medical Center. 
  15. ^ Boyd, Herb (January 23, 2014). "Cartoonist Zelda Ormes inducted into NABJ Hall of Fame". New York Amsterdam News. Archived from the original on March 26, 2014. 


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