Jackson County, Illinois

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Jackson County, Illinois
Jackson County Courthouse in Murphysboro from west.jpg
Map of Illinois highlighting Jackson County
Location in the U.S. state of Illinois
Map of the United States highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
Founded 1816
Named for Andrew Jackson
Seat Murphysboro
Largest city Carbondale
Area
 • Total 602 sq mi (1,559 km2)
 • Land 584 sq mi (1,513 km2)
 • Water 18 sq mi (47 km2), 3.0%
Population
 • (2010) 60,218
 • Density 103/sq mi (40/km2)
Congressional district 12th
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5
Website www.jacksoncounty-il.gov

Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois with a population of 60,218 at the 2010 census.[1] Its county seat is Murphysboro,[2] and its most populous city is Carbondale, home to the main campus of Southern Illinois University. The county was incorporated on January 10, 1816 and named for Andrew Jackson and Brownsville became the first county seat.

Jackson County is included in the Carbondale-Marion, IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt".

History[edit]

Human occupation of Jackson County began about 11,500 years ago. Extensive documentation of the area's indigenous peoples has been conducted and is ongoing. Exploration from the European explorers began with the Joliet-Marquette exploration along the Mississippi River. It was not until the 18th and 19th century when pioneer farmers began to settle in the area's inexpensive land along the Mississippi River and in the forested Shawnee hills with its one-hundred-foot trees.

As early as 1810 William Boone and his indentured servant Peter mined coal from the banks along Big Muddy River. This was Illinois' first coal mine. By 1813, Conrad Will, namesake of Will County, conducted a large salt extraction operation using slave labor on the banks of the Big Muddy River, south of today's Murphysboro. As this was in the "free" Northwest Territory, Will had to have a legal exemption to own slaves. Jackson County, Illinois 9th county, was organized in 1816, having been carved out of Randolph County, Illinois on the north and Johnson County, Illinois on the South. It was named for Andrew Jackson, who had just defeated the British Army at the Battle of New Orleans.[3] Brwonsville, located near Will's salt works, was established as the county seat. When the court house burned in 1843 Jackson County's citizens voted to move the county seat to a more central location. Murphysboro, located on land owned by Dr. John and Elizabeth (Jenkins) Logan, became the second county seat in September 1843. It was named after William C. Murphy, one of the three Commissioners appointed to select the site.

Civil War Major General John A. Logan, Dr. John and Elizabeth Logan's son, was born in what is now Murphysboro on February 9, 1826. During the Civil War he moved to Carbondale located about 10 miles east of his birth place. He lived there until moving to Chicago in 1871. During his residence in Carbondale, he took part in a Memorial Day observation at that city's Woodlawn Cemetery. In 1868, Logan, as Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic, issued General Order No. 11 which established Memorial Day as a national holiday.[4]

In 1925 the great Tri-State Tornado ripped through Jackson County on March 18, leaving devastation in its path. The villages of Gorham and DeSoto and the city of Murphysboro were hit especially hard.

The county courthouse is in downtown Murphysboro. The current reinforced concrete courthouse replaced earlier brick structures and was built during 1927-28.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 602 square miles (1,560 km2), of which 584 square miles (1,510 km2) is land and 18 square miles (47 km2) (3.0%) is water.[6] The average elevation is around 400 feet (120 m), except near the Mississippi River.

The first coal mine in Illinois was opened on the south bank of the Big Muddy River near the present-day Route 127 Bridge.

Climate and weather[edit]

Murphysboro, Illinois
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.9
 
 
39
21
 
 
3
 
 
45
24
 
 
4.3
 
 
55
33
 
 
4.5
 
 
66
42
 
 
4.8
 
 
76
52
 
 
4.8
 
 
84
61
 
 
3.4
 
 
88
66
 
 
3.9
 
 
87
63
 
 
3.1
 
 
80
55
 
 
2.9
 
 
69
43
 
 
4.6
 
 
55
35
 
 
3.7
 
 
44
26
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[7]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Murphysboro have ranged from a low of 21 °F (−6 °C) in January to a high of 88 °F (31 °C) in July, although a record low of −25 °F (−32 °C) was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 113 °F (45 °C) was recorded in August 1930. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.91 inches (74 mm) in January to 4.78 inches (121 mm) in May.[7]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Demographics[edit]

2000 census age pyramid for Jackson County, skewed by Southern Illinois University
Historical population
Census Pop.
18201,542
18301,82818.5%
18403,56695.1%
18505,86264.4%
18609,58963.6%
187019,634104.8%
188022,50514.6%
189027,80923.6%
190033,87121.8%
191035,1433.8%
192037,0915.5%
193035,680−3.8%
194037,9206.3%
195038,1240.5%
196042,15110.6%
197055,00830.5%
198061,52211.8%
199061,067−0.7%
200059,612−2.4%
201060,2181.0%
Est. 201658,870[8]−2.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790-1960[10] 1900-1990[11]
1990-2000[12] 2010-2013[1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 60,218 people, 25,538 households, and 12,621 families residing in the county.[13] The population density was 103.1 inhabitants per square mile (39.8/km2). There were 28,578 housing units at an average density of 48.9 per square mile (18.9/km2).[6] The racial makeup of the county was 77.8% white, 14.3% black or African American, 3.2% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.6% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.0% of the population.[13] In terms of ancestry, 26.0% were German, 14.5% were Irish, 10.6% were English, and 5.7% were American.[14]

Of the 25,538 households, 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.6% were non-families, and 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 29.1 years.[13]

The median income for a household in the county was $32,169 and the median income for a family was $50,787. Males had a median income of $42,747 versus $31,244 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,294. About 17.4% of families and 28.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.1% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.[15]

Economy[edit]

Much of the county's economic situation is dependent upon Southern Illinois University Carbondale and the city of Carbondale. A rapidly developing city, it is part of the Metro Lakeland area consisting mainly of the major communities of Carbondale, Marion, Herrin, and Carterville. The outer regions of the Metro include Murphysboro, the rest of Jackson County, the rest of Williamson County, Perry County, and Saline County. Jackson County is also located near the Shawnee Hills Wine Trail. Once a small business, the wine trail has evolved into a booming tourist attraction.

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Villages[edit]

Census-designated place[edit]

Ghost towns[edit]

Townships[edit]

Jackson County is divided into sixteen townships:

Politics[edit]

Presidential Elections Results[16]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 44.1% 10,843 47.3% 11,634 8.7% 2,140
2012 40.9% 9,864 55.3% 13,319 3.8% 921
2008 37.8% 9,687 59.5% 15,248 2.7% 682
2004 43.3% 11,190 55.4% 14,300 1.3% 336
2000 42.5% 9,823 51.0% 11,773 6.5% 1,494
1996 33.7% 7,422 55.5% 12,214 10.8% 2,375
1992 28.2% 6,899 54.7% 13,373 17.0% 4,162
1988 45.7% 9,687 53.5% 11,334 0.8% 164
1984 52.6% 13,609 46.7% 12,105 0.7% 182
1980 44.1% 10,505 43.2% 10,291 12.7% 3,033
1976 42.1% 10,152 53.6% 12,940 4.3% 1,030
1972 48.4% 12,393 51.4% 13,146 0.2% 55
1968 46.5% 9,134 45.1% 8,856 8.5% 1,667
1964 36.6% 7,013 63.4% 12,165
1960 55.3% 10,568 44.6% 8,527 0.1% 17
1956 58.7% 10,526 41.2% 7,391 0.1% 10
1952 57.7% 10,193 42.2% 7,457 0.1% 24
1948 53.8% 8,288 45.0% 6,939 1.2% 181
1944 59.6% 10,002 40.1% 6,735 0.3% 54
1940 55.2% 11,980 44.2% 9,600 0.6% 128
1936 50.4% 10,363 48.5% 9,971 1.0% 212
1932 43.1% 7,636 54.9% 9,730 2.0% 349
1928 60.8% 9,180 38.6% 5,836 0.6% 86
1924 49.3% 6,424 36.1% 4,707 14.6% 1,899
1920 60.0% 8,003 34.3% 4,575 5.8% 769
1916 54.1% 8,356 43.9% 6,780 2.0% 311
1912 35.5% 2,780 42.4% 3,323 22.1% 1,730
1908 53.1% 4,016 41.6% 3,149 5.3% 403
1904 56.3% 3,984 33.2% 2,350 10.5% 742
1900 51.0% 4,054 46.8% 3,723 2.2% 177
1896 50.9% 3,879 47.7% 3,631 1.4% 110
1892 46.9% 3,031 44.2% 2,858 8.8% 571

Jackson County has had a distinctive political history owing to the combination of its typically “Southern” Southern Illinois culture with the presence in recent times of a strong student body in Carbondale. In its early years Jackson County was solidly Democratic: no Republican was to carry the county until Benjamin Harrison – despite losing the 1892 election – won it from Grover Cleveland. For the following seven decades Jackson County turned solidly Republican: only Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first 1932 election won a majority, and the only other Democrat plurality was that of Woodrow Wilson in 1912 when the Republican Party was mortally divided.

The 1964 election saw Jackson County turn strongly Democratic due to the growth of student opposition to the conservative Republican nominee Barry Goldwater, and this student liberalism was sufficient eight years later to make Jackson County the only county in Illinois to vote for George McGovern over Richard Nixon, and one of five to vote for McGovern in 1972 and Alf Landon in 1936.[a] Ronald Reagan did carry Jackson County in both his 1980 and 1984 triumphs, but he remains the last Republican to carry the county, although in common with the rest of Southern Illinois Mitt Romney and Donald Trump made substantial gains on previous GOP performances.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The other counties supporting both Landon and McGovern are Deuel County in McGovern’s home state of South Dakota, Middlesex and Norfolk in Massachusetts, and Washtenaw County in Michigan.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 167. 
  4. ^ Eclebarger, Gary, Black Jack Logan: An Extraordinary Life in Peace and War
  5. ^ White, Jesse. Origin and Evolution of Illinois Counties. State of Illinois, March 2010. [1]
  6. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  7. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Murphysboro, Illinois". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  8. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 6, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 6, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 6, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  14. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  15. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  16. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 19 March 2018. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 37°47′N 89°23′W / 37.79°N 89.38°W / 37.79; -89.38