Jacob Appelbaum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Jacob Appelbaum
Jacob Appelbaum-IMG 9320.jpg
Jacob Appelbaum at the Congress on Privacy & Surveillance (2013) of the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).
Born (1983-04-01) April 1, 1983 (age 33)
Residence Germany
Citizenship US
Fields Computer security
Institutions University of Washington,[1]
Eindhoven University of Technology,[2]
Known for

Jacob Appelbaum (born April 1, 1983) is an American independent journalist, computer security researcher, artist, and hacker. He has been employed by the University of Washington, and was a core member of the Tor project,[5] a free software network designed to provide online anonymity. Appelbaum is also known for representing WikiLeaks.[6] He has displayed his art in a number of institutions across the world and has collaborated with artists such as Trevor Paglen and Ai Weiwei.[7] His journalistic work has resulted in a number of books as well as publication in Der Spiegel. Appelbaum has repeatedly been targeted by US law enforcement agencies, who obtained a court order for his Twitter account data, detained him at the US border after trips abroad, and seized his laptop and several mobile phones.

Appelbaum was among several people to gain access to former NSA contractor Edward Snowden's top secret documents released in 2013.[8] He has been contributing extensively as a journalist to the publication of those documents.[9][10][11][12] On December 28, 2013, at the Chaos Communication Congress,[13][14] he presented documents revealed by Snowden[not in citation given], showing that the NSA can turn iPhones into eavesdropping tools and has developed devices to harvest electronic information from a computer even if not online. The devices are listed in the NSA ANT catalog, published in part by Der Spiegel[10] and almost in full by LeakSource.[15]

Appelbaum, under the handle "ioerror", was an active member of the Cult of the Dead Cow hacker collective from 2008[5] to 2016.[16] He was the co-founder of the San Francisco hackerspace Noisebridge with Mitch Altman. He worked for Kink.com[17] and Greenpeace,[18] and volunteered for the Ruckus Society and the Rainforest Action Network.[4]

The Tor Project and several other organizations ended their association with Appelbaum in June 2016 following several allegations of sexual abuse;[19][20][21][22][23] Appelbaum denied the accusations.[24] One woman, whose interaction with Applebaum has been presented in the press as the most well-documented example of abuse, hotly contested allegations that Applebaum abused her and questioned the validity of other allegations against him.[25][26] Various activists and others have publicly supported Applebaum, asserting that extrajudicial social reactions to the allegations were overly extreme, and had violated Appelbaum's fundamental rights, resulting in a witch-hunt.[27][28][29]

Early life and education[edit]

Appelbaum tested out of high school.[30][clarification needed] In a wide-ranging interview with Rolling Stone magazine in 2010, Appelbaum revealed that "I come from a family of lunatics... [a]ctual, raving lunatics." He stated that his mother "is a paranoid schizophrenic. She insisted that Jake had somehow been molested by his father while he was still in the womb". He was taken away from his mother by his aunt when he was 6. Two years later, he was placed in a children's home in Sonoma County. At age 10, his indigent father was awarded custody of him. Having been introduced to computer programming by a friend's father, Appelbaum said, saved his life. "The Internet is the only reason I'm alive today."[4]

As of September 1, 2015, Appelbaum is a Ph.D. student studying under Tanja Lange and Daniel J. Bernstein at the Eindhoven University of Technology.[2]



One of several Autonomy Cubes on display.

Appelbaum has taken part in a number of art-projects, both together with dissident-artists Ai Weiwei and Trevor Paglen, and on his own.[7] His art often straddles the border between art and technology and has given rise to projects such as Panda to Panda (P2P) and the Autonomy Cube.[7] Appelbaum is also a photographer and has exhibited his art in a solo show at NOME.[31]

He was an artist in residence for the art group monochrom in 2006.[32]


He appeared with Julian Assange on Episode 8 & 9 of World Tomorrow, "Cypherpunks".[33][34]

He is a contributor to Julian Assange's 2012 book Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet along with Andy Müller-Maguhn and Jérémie Zimmermann.

He regards Tor as a "part of an ecosystem of software that helps people regain and reclaim their autonomy. It helps to enable people to have agency of all kinds; it helps others to help each other and it helps you to help yourself. It runs, it is open and it is supported by a large community spread across all walks of life."[35]

Appelbaum at a talk at 30C3 in Hamburg (2013).

In August 2013, Appelbaum delivered Edward Snowden's acceptance speech after he was awarded the biannual Whistleblower Prize by a group of NGOs at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities.[36][37]

In September 2013, he testified before the European Parliament, mentioning that his partner had been spied on by men in night-vision goggles as she slept.[38]

Appelbaum talks at the protest march, Freedom not fear, in Berlin (2013).

In December 2013, Appelbaum told Berliner Zeitung that he believes he was under surveillance and that somebody broke into his Berlin apartment and used his computer.[39]

Appelbaum was a member of the outside volunteer technical advisory board of the Freedom of the Press Foundation until June 8, 2016.[40]

Technology and activism[edit]

In 2005, Appelbaum gave two talks at the 22nd Chaos Communication Congress,[41] Personal Experiences: Bringing Technology and New Media to Disaster Areas, and A Discussion About Modern Disk Encryption Systems. The former covered his travels to Iraq—crossing the border by foot, the installing of Internet satellites in Kurdistan, and his visit of New Orleans post-Hurricane Katrina. The latter talk discussed the legal and technical aspects of full disk encryption. At the 2006 23rd Chaos Communication Congress, he gave a talk with Ralf-Philipp Weinmann titled Unlocking FileVault: An Analysis of Apple's Encrypted Disk Storage System.[42][43] The duo subsequently released the VileFault free software program which broke Apple's FileVault security. Appelbaum represented Julian Assange for Wikileaks in a keynote address at the 2010 HOPE conference. FBI agents intended to detain him after his talk but organizers had slipped him in disguise out of an alternative exit.[4]

Appelbaum has also collaborated on several other high-profile research projects, including the cold boot attack,[44][45] SSL certificate authorities[46] and smart parking meters.[47]

Appelbaum was a Debian Developer from September 16, 2013 to June 18, 2016.[48]

Allegations of sexual abuse and responses[edit]

In March 2015, Appelbaum was suspended from his position at the Tor Project for ten days due to an alleged harassment incident.[49][50][51]

On May 25, 2016, Appelbaum stepped down from his position at Tor;[52][53][54] this was announced on June 2 by the non-profit in a terse statement.[55] On June 4, Shari Steele, the Executive Director of the Tor project, published a much longer statement, noting that although prior allegations of sexual abuse regarding Appelbaum were consistent with "rumors some of us had been hearing for some time," that "...the most recent allegations are much more serious and concrete than anything we had heard previously."[5][56]

Also on June 4, a website appeared with anonymous accounts of mistreatment by Appelbaum.[57] Security engineer Leigh Honeywell came forward on June 7 to publicly relate the website's stories with her relationship with Appelbaum, in which she described Appelbaum ignoring a safeword and becoming violent.[58] On June 15, Alison Macrina (the director of the Library Freedom Project) and Isis Agora Lovecruft publicly announced that the website's anonymous accounts of sexual abuse, under the pseudonyms of "Sam" and "Forest," respectively, were their own.[20]

An anonymously leaked letter that the Tor Project's human resources manager had written to Appelbaum in conjunction with his March 2015 suspension for unprofessional conduct was published on June 7.[50][51][59]

In response to the allegations the Cult of the Dead Cow ended their association with Appelbaum on June 7,[60][61] and the Freedom of the Press Foundation removed him from their volunteer technical advisory board on June 8.[19][62] Noisebridge announced on June 10 that co-founder Appelbaum had triggered their Anti-Harassment policy and is "no longer welcome in our community, either in its physical or online spaces,"[20][21] and on June 17 the Chaos Computer Club announced that he was not welcome.[22] On June 18 his status as a Debian GNU/Linux project developer was revoked, and shortly thereafter Linux Australia considered barring him.[23] On June 20 Linux Australia (at which he had been a keynote speaker in 2012) deferred on placing any restrictions on Appelbaum until the facts of the matter became clearer.[63] On July 1 after widespread consultation and feedback Linux Australia barred Appelbaum from future events.[64]

In June 2016, Appelbaum's Berlin apartment was defaced in English and German with words directly referencing the allegations.[65]

Support of Appelbaum[edit]

On June 6, Appelbaum issued a statement denouncing the allegations as part of a concerted strategy to damage his reputation.[24][66][67][68][excessive citations] Applebaum's attorney stated that legal options were being evaluated.[25]

On 10 June, Jill Bähring, a woman previously described as an anonymous victim, cast doubt on the abuse allegations. Bahring had been described as an unidentified woman who was distressed after having been groped by Appelbaum in a hotel bar. But in a statement released by Gizmodo journalist William Turton, Bähring accused the four witnesses to the interaction, who had reported alleged abuse, of “willingly” misinterpreting her experience at the hotel. “I recall that night clearly, and my story is entirely different,” she wrote.[25][69]

In her statement, Bähring wrote:

"Reading this highly distorted version of my experience, which is being used as one of the “bulletproof examples” of Jacob’s alleged misbehavior, I can’t help but wonder. Wonder about all the stories that have been published the last days. Wonder not only about mob justice on twitter, caused by rumors and speculation, but also about the accounts repeated by those who call themselves journalists. Wonder about how many other stories have been willingly misinterpreted. Wonder about the witnesses in all these stories, who coincidentally always seem to consist of the same set of people. Wonder about their motive to speak on my behalf without my consent." [26][69][70]

On 17 June 2016, activists, journalists and legal professionals supporting Appelbaum signed a document defending his right to due process, and deploring the story's treatment by social media.[27][28][29]

Surveillance, airport detention and Wikileaks investigation[edit]

Since 2009, Appelbaum claims to have suffered extreme surveillance that affected himself and his close relations.[71] In interviews, he has stated that he has generally experienced relief from the U.S. surveillance living in Germany.[72] Appelbaum has described various aggressive surveillance events, and implies they are related to his work with Wikileaks, to his privacy activism and relationships with other privacy activists, notably reporters linked to Edward Snowden.[71] In December 2013, Appelbaum said he suspected the U.S. government of breaking into his Berlin apartment.[8]

While traveling, Appelbaum has been detained at airports and had his electronic equipment seized several times.[73][74][75][76]

In 2010, the US Department of Justice obtained a court order compelling Twitter to provide data associated with the user accounts of Appelbaum, as well as several other individuals associated with Wikileaks. While the order was originally sealed, Twitter successfully petitioned the court to unseal it, permitting the company to inform its users that their account information had been requested.[11][77]

Personal life[edit]

Appelbaum is an atheist[78] of Jewish background and identifies himself as queer, "though he refers to at least a dozen female lovers in nearly as many countries".[4] He also is an anarchist[4] and enjoys photography.[79]

In 2012 he moved to Berlin,[71] where he works under a freelance visa;[72] he has stated that he doesn't want to go back to the USA because he doesn't feel safe there[80] and in interviews he has provided specific examples of experiences that left him feeling unsafe.[71] Appelbaum also notes strong German privacy protections as reasons for preferring to live in Germany, as opposed to the United States.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Tor Project: Core People". Tor. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Jacob Appelbaum on Twitter". 
  3. ^ "Noisebridge user page". Noisebridge. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Rich, Nathaniel (1 December 2010). "The American Wikileaks Hacker". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 3 July 2014. An anarchist street kid raised by a heroin- addict father, he dropped out of high school, taught himself the intricacies of code and developed a healthy paranoia along the way. 
  5. ^ a b c Farivar, Cyrus (June 5, 2016). "Tor developer Jacob Appelbaum quits after "sexual mistreatment" allegations". Ars Technica. Conde Nast. Retrieved June 5, 2016. 
  6. ^ McCullagh, Declan (17 July 2010). "Wikileaks editor skips NYC hacker event". CNET News. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
    McCullagh, Declan (16 July 2010). "Feds look for Wikileaks founder at NYC hacker event". CNET News. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
    Singel, Ryan (19 July 2010). "Wikileaks Reopens for Leakers". Wired. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c Poitras, Laura (2015-06-09). "'The Art of Dissent'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-05-25. 
  8. ^ a b "Snowden ally Appelbaum claims his Berlin apartment was invaded". Deutsche Welle. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  9. ^ Spiegel Online: NSA Secret Toolbox: ANT Unit Offers Spy Gadgets for Every Need - Spiegel Online
  10. ^ a b Spiegel Online: Interactive Graphic: The NSA's Spy Catalog - SPIEGEL ONLINE
  11. ^ a b Democracy Now!: Parte 2: William Binney, Daniel Ellsberg, Jacob Appelbaum falam sobre WikiLeaks e Vigilância | Democracy Now!
  12. ^ "Democracy Now! Newscast for April 20, 2012". Retrieved 2016-07-04. 
  13. ^ Democracy Now!: Jacob Appelbaum: Futuristic-Sounding "Radar Wave Devices" Can Help NSA Monitor Your Computer Usage | Democracy Now!
  14. ^ CBS News: NSA can spy on offline computers wirelessly, says security expert - CBS News
  15. ^ LeakSource: NSA’s ANT Division Catalog of Exploits for Nearly Every Major Software/Hardware/Firmware | LeakSource
  16. ^ Veggie, Deth (6 June 2016). "CULT OF THE DEAD COW Statement on Jacob Appelbaum / ioerror" (Press release). Cult of the Dead Cow. Retrieved 2016-06-08. 
  17. ^ Hartwell, Lane (10 June 2007). "‘So Who Wants to F**k a Robot?’". Wired.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  18. ^ Appelbaum, Jacob (22 June 2004). "Geeks Love Trees, Too". Greenpeace – Weblog. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  19. ^ a b Trevor, Timm. "Statement on Jacob Appelbaum". Freedom of the Press Foundation. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  20. ^ a b c Cameron, Dell; Larson, Selena (2016-06-15). "2 more people publicly allege sexual misconduct by Jacob Appelbaum". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 2016-06-15. 
  21. ^ a b "Noisebridge Statement on Jacob Appelbaum". Noisebridge Blog. Retrieved 16 June 2016. 
  22. ^ a b Turton, William (2016-06-17). "Jacob Appelbaum Banned From Prominent Hacker Conference Following Sexual Assault Allegations". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  23. ^ a b "Security expert Appelbaum no longer part of Debian". ITWire. 2016-06-18. Retrieved 2016-07-02. 
  24. ^ a b Yadron, Danny (2016-06-06). "Digital privacy activist Jacob Appelbaum denies colleagues' assault allegations". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-07-12. 
  25. ^ a b c Cameron, Dell; O'Neill, Patrick Howell (2016-06-10). "Woman refutes claims that Jacob Appelbaum sexually harassed her". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 2016-07-12. 
  26. ^ a b Statement by Jill Bähring regarding Jacob Appelbaum
  27. ^ a b Riegel, Tobias (13 June 2016). "Die Presse und der Pranger" [The press and the pillory]. neues deutschland (in German). Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  28. ^ a b Alphonso, Don (13 June 2016). "Aktivistinnen rufen zum Ende der Hetzjagd gegen Appelbaum auf" [Women activists call for an end to the witch-hunt against Jacob Appelbaum]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  29. ^ a b After abuse allegations: Activists defend Jacob Appelbaum, Newday Media Agency, June 13, 2016
  30. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20110219135907/http://crypto.nsa.org/f-21/blogger-in-the-lions-den.html
  31. ^ "NOME presents Jacob Appelbaum’s first solo show". Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  32. ^ monochrom.at: retrieved June 2016
  33. ^ "Assange 'The World Tomorrow' — Ep 8: Cypherpunks Part 1". Digitaljournal.com. 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  34. ^ "Assange Episode 8: Cypherpunks, stumbling block in the way of total surveillance — RT News". Rt.com. 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  35. ^ "Interview uncut: Jacob Appelbaum | The Verge Forums". Theverge.com. 2013-03-11. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  36. ^ Detlef Borchers (2013-07-23). "Whistleblower-Preis für Edward Snowden". Heise online. Archived from the original on 2013-07-25. Retrieved 2013-07-25. 
  37. ^ Edward Snowden: Die Wahrheit auszusprechen, hat Whistleblower ihre Freiheit gekostet - the acceptance speech in English and German, Die Zeit, 3. September 2013
  38. ^ NSA Hearing European Parliament. YouTube. 2013-09-05. Event occurs at 2:23:01. Retrieved 2016-07-12. 
  39. ^ "Snowden ally Appelbaum claims his Berlin apartment was invaded". Deutsche Welle. AFP. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 2016-07-12. 
  40. ^ Trevor, Timm (2016-06-08). "Statement on Jacob Appelbaum". Freedom of the Press Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-08. 
  41. ^ "22nd Chaos Communication Congress: Jacob Appelbaum". Untrusted connection. 
  42. ^ "Unlocking FileVault: An analysis of Apple's encrypted disk storage system". Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  43. ^ Jade, Charles (December 2006). "FileVault or VileFault?". Ars Technica. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  44. ^ Markoff, John (22 February 2008). "Researchers Find Way to Steal Encrypted Data". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  45. ^ Halderman, J. Alex; Schoen, Seth D.; Captain Sassypants; Clarkson, William; Paul, William; Calandrino, Joseph A.; Feldman, Ariel J.; Appelbaum, Jacob; Felten, Edward W. (July 2008). Lest We Remember: Cold Boot Attacks on Encryption Keys. 17th USENIX Security Symposium. San Jose, CA. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved 2016-07-12. 
  46. ^ Krebs, Brian (30 December 2008). "Researchers Hack Internet Security Infrastructure". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  47. ^ McCullagh, Declan (30 July 2009). "Hackers: We can bypass San Francisco e-parking meters". CNET News. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  48. ^ https://nm.debian.org/public/person/error
  49. ^ Greenberg, Andy (6 June 2016). "Tor Developer Jacob Appelbaum Resigns Amid Sex Abuse Claims". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  50. ^ a b Bernstein, Joseph (10 June 2016). "Sources: Tor Project Board Knew Of Allegations Against Jacob Appelbaum For Over A Year". BuzzFeed. BuzzFeed Inc. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  51. ^ a b Gierow, Hauke (8 June 2016). "Appelbaum wurde bereits 2015 von Tor suspendiert". Golem.de (in German). Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  52. ^ "Jacob Appelbaum leaves the Tor Project". The Tor Project, Inc. 2016-06-02. Retrieved 2016-06-04. 
  53. ^ Smith, Jack, IV (2016-06-04). "Jacob Appelbaum, Digital Rights Activist, Leaves Tor Amid Sexual Misconduct Allegations". Tech.Mic. Retrieved 2016-06-05. 
  54. ^ Steele, Shari (2016-06-04). "Statement". The Tor Project, Inc. Retrieved 2016-06-05. 
  55. ^ Cimpanu, Catalin (2016-06-06). "Jacob Appelbaum Leaves Tor Project amid Multiple "Sexual Misconduct" Accusations: Tor Project leadership distances itself from Appelbaum as the "sexual misconduct" accusations gain more ground". Softpedia. Retrieved 2016-06-05. 
  56. ^ Beuth, Patrick (June 5, 2016). "Abuse allegations against Jacob Appelbaum". Die Zeit. Retrieved June 5, 2016. 
  57. ^ Turton, William (2016-06-07). "Eyewitnesses Recount Tor Developer Jacob Appelbaum’s Unwanted Sexual Advances". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2016-06-09. 
  58. ^ Larson, Selena (7 June 2016). "Security engineer goes public about Appelbaum: ‘I felt afraid and violated’". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 14 June 2016. 
  59. ^ "Jacob Appelbaum Suspension". fearlessblogging.com. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  60. ^ Grauer, Yael (10 June 2016). "Security News You Might Have Missed: Twitter Hacks And Snowden Concerns". Forbes. Retrieved 14 June 2016. 
  61. ^ Holland, Martin (8 June 2016). "Nach Missbrauchsvorwürfen: Cult of the Dead Cow trennt sich von Jacob Appelbaum" [After molestation allegations: Cult of the Dead Cow separates from Jacob Appelbaum]. heise online (in German). Retrieved 14 June 2016. 
  62. ^ Turton, William. "Jacob Appelbaum Has Allegedly Engaged in Sexual Misconduct for Over a Decade". Gizmodo. Retrieved 11 June 2016. 
  63. ^ Varghese, Sam (2016-06-22). "Linux Australia adopts wait-and-see approach on Appelbaum". ITWire. Retrieved 2016-07-02. 
  64. ^ Blemings, Hugh (2017-07-01). "[Linux-aus] Clarifying our position". linux.org.au. Retrieved 2016-07-03. 
  65. ^ Winterbauer, Stefan (13 June 2016). "Jacob Appelbaum und Gina-Lisa Lohfink: Sex als Ware und Waffe im Netz und in den Medien" [Jacob Appelbaum and Gina-Lisa Lohfink: Sex as a commodity and weapon on the net and in the media]. Meedia (in German). Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  66. ^ Turton, William (2016-06-06). "Tor Developer Jacob Appelbaum Resigns, Denies Sexual Assault Claims". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2016-07-12. 
  67. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (6 June 2016). "Breaking silence, ex-Tor developer decries "vicious and spurious allegations"". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  68. ^ Price, Rob (2016-06-06). "Tor Project activist says 'the accusations of criminal sexual misconduct against me are entirely false'". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016-07-12. 
  69. ^ a b Turton, William (2016-06-09). "Jill Bahring: I Was Not Assaulted by Jacob Appelbaum". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2016-07-12. 
  70. ^ Statement of Jill Bähring released to Document Cloud, Contributed by: William Turton, Gizmodo.com.
  71. ^ a b c d Nadja Vancauwenberghe, "Jacob Appelbaum: Revolutionary times", Exberliner, September 22, 2014
  72. ^ a b John Lubbock, "Jacob Appelbaum's Utopia", Vice News, October 6, 2013
  73. ^ Democracy Now!: "We Don’t Live in a Free Country": Jacob Appelbaum on Being Target of Widespread Gov’t Surveillance | Democracy Now!
  74. ^ Mills, Elinor (31 July 2010). "Researcher detained at US border, questioned about Wikileaks". CNET News. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  75. ^ Jardin, Xeni (12 January 2011). "Wikileaks volunteer detained and searched (again) by US agents". Boing Boing. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  76. ^ Fontain, Paul (27 October 2011). "Jacob Appelbaum Detained At Keflavík Airport". Grapevine. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  77. ^ McCullagh, Declan (7 January 2011). "DOJ sends order to Twitter for Wikileaks-related account info". CNET News. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  78. ^ "Jacob Appelbaum (Part 1/2) Digital Anti-Repression Workshop - April 26, 2012". Retrieved 28 June 2013. Like, for me, as an atheist, bisexual, Jew, I'm gonna go on, uh - oh and Emma Goldman is one of my great heroes and I really think that anarchism is a fantastic principle by which to fashion a utopian society even if we can't get there. 
  79. ^ "Jacob Appelbaum". The World Justice Project. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  80. ^ https://gnunet.org/tor2013tum-video video of a talk at the TU Munich from 24. Juli 2013 (statement at approx. 0:05:00)

External links[edit]