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Jacob Javits
Portrait of Javits
Javits in 1966
United States Senator
from New York
In office
January 9, 1957 – January 3, 1981
Preceded byHerbert Lehman
Succeeded byAl D'Amato
58th Attorney General of New York
In office
January 1, 1955 – January 9, 1957
GovernorW. Averell Harriman
Preceded byNathaniel L. Goldstein
Succeeded byLouis Lefkowitz
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 21st district
In office
January 3, 1947 – December 31, 1954
Preceded byJames H. Torrens
Succeeded byHerbert Zelenko
Personal details
Jacob Koppel Javits

(1904-05-18)May 18, 1904
New York City, U.S.
DiedMarch 7, 1986(1986-03-07) (aged 81)
West Palm Beach, Florida, U.S.
Resting placeLinden Hills Jewish Cemetery, New York City, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Other political
Marjorie Joan Ringling
(m. 1933; div. 1936)
(m. 1947)
RelationsJacob Emden (ancestor)
Eric M. Javits (nephew)
Alma materColumbia University (BA)
New York University (LLB)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1942–1946
Rank Lieutenant colonel
UnitChemical Corps
Battles/warsWorld War II

Jacob Koppel Javits (/ˈævɪts/ JAV-its; May 18, 1904 – March 7, 1986)[1] was an American lawyer and politician. During his time in politics, he represented the state of New York in both houses of the United States Congress. A member of the Republican Party, he also served as the state's Attorney General.[2] Generally considered a liberal Republican, he was often at odds with his own party. A supporter of labor unions, the Great Society, and the civil rights movement, he played a key role in the passing of civil rights legislation. An opponent of the Vietnam War, he drafted the War Powers Resolution in 1973.

Born to Jewish parents, Javits was raised in a tenement on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. He graduated from the New York University School of Law and established a law practice in New York City.[3] During World War II, he served in the United States Army's Chemical Warfare Department. Outraged by the corruption of Tammany Hall, Javits joined the Republican Party and supported New York Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and served in that body until 1954. In the House, Javits supported President Harry S. Truman's Cold War foreign policy and voted to fund the Marshall Plan. He defeated Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. in the 1954 election for Attorney General of New York,[4] and defeated Democrat Robert F. Wagner Jr. in the 1956 U.S. Senate election.

In the Senate, Javits supported much of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society programs and civil rights legislation, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. He voted for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution but came to question Johnson's handling of the War in Vietnam. To rein in presidential war powers, Javits sponsored the War Powers Resolution. Javits also sponsored the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, which regulated defined-benefit private pensions.[5] In 1980, Javits lost the Republican Senate primary to Al D'Amato, who campaigned to Javits's right. Nonetheless, he ran in the general election as the Liberal Party nominee. He and Democratic nominee Elizabeth Holtzman were defeated by D'Amato. Javits died of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in West Palm Beach, Florida in 1986.

Early life


Javits was born to Jewish parents, Ida (née Littman) and Morris Javits, a descendant of the 18th-century rabbi Jacob Emden who was known as the Ya'avetz, which was later anglicized to Javits. Javits grew up in a teeming Lower East Side tenement,[3] and when not in school, he helped his mother sell dry goods from a pushcart in the street and learned parliamentary procedure at University Settlement Society of New York.[6][4] Javits graduated in 1920 from George Washington High School, where he was president of his class. He worked part-time at various jobs while he attended night school at Columbia University,[2] then in 1923 he enrolled in the New York University Law School from which he earned his LLB in 1926. He was admitted to the bar in June 1927 and joined his brother Benjamin Javits, who was nearly ten years older, as partner to form the Javits and Javits law firm. The Javits brothers specialized in bankruptcy and minority stockholder suits and became quite successful. In 1933, Javits married Marjorie Joan Ringling, daughter of Alfred Theodore "Alf" Ringling of Ringling Brothers Circus fame. They had no children and divorced in 1936. In 1947, he married Marion Ann Borris with whom he had three children. Deemed too old for regular military service when World War II began, Javits was commissioned in early 1942 as an officer in the U.S. Army's Chemical Warfare Service, where he served throughout the war and reached the rank of lieutenant colonel.

Political career


In his youth Javits had watched his father work as a ward heeler for Tammany Hall, and he had experienced firsthand the corruption and graft associated with that notorious political machine. Tammany's operations repulsed Javits so much that he forever rejected the city's Democratic Party and in the early 1930s joined the Republican-Fusion Party and The New York Young Republican Club,[7] which was supporting the mayoral campaigns of Fiorello H. La Guardia. After the war, he became the chief researcher for Jonah Goldstein's unsuccessful 1945 bid for mayor on the Republican-Liberal-Fusion ticket. Javits's hard work in the Goldstein campaign showed his potential in the political arena and encouraged the small Manhattan Republican Party to nominate him as their candidate for the Upper West Side's Twenty-first Congressional District (since redistricted) seat during the heavily-Republican year of 1946. Although the Republicans had not held the seat since 1923, Javits campaigned energetically and won. He was a member of the freshman class, along with John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts and Richard M. Nixon of California. He served from 1947 to 1954, when he resigned his seat to take office as New York State Attorney General.

Javits in 1955

During his first two terms in the House, Javits often sided with the Truman administration. For example, in 1947 he supported Harry Truman's veto of the Taft-Hartley Bill, which he declared to be antiunion. A strong opponent of discrimination, Javits also endorsed legislation against the poll tax in 1947 and 1949, and in 1954, he unsuccessfully sought to have enacted a bill banning segregation in federally-funded housing projects. Unhappy with the witch hunt atmosphere in Washington during the Cold War, he publicly opposed continuing appropriations for the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1948. Always a staunch supporter of Israel, Javits served on the House Foreign Affairs Committee during all four of his terms and supported congressional funding for the Marshall Plan and all components of the Truman Doctrine.

In 1954, Javits ran for New York State Attorney General against a well-known and well-funded opponent, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. Javits's vote-getting abilities carried the day, and he was the only Republican to win a statewide office that year. As attorney general, Javits continued to promote his liberal agenda by supporting such measures as anti-bias employment legislation and a health insurance program for state employees.[8]

U.S. Senator

Javits as a U.S. Senator

In 1956, Javits ran for U.S. Senator from New York to succeed the retiring incumbent Democrat Herbert H. Lehman. His Democratic opponent was the popular Mayor of New York, Robert F. Wagner Jr.[4] In the early stages of that campaign Javits vigorously and successfully denied charges that he had once sought support from members of the American Communist Party during his 1946 race for Congress.[9] He went on to defeat Wagner by nearly half a million votes. Although his term began on January 3, 1957, he delayed taking his seat in the U.S. Senate until January 9, the day the New York State Legislature convened, to deny Democratic Governor W. Averell Harriman the opportunity to appoint a Democratic Attorney General. Thus, on January 9, the Republican majority of the State Legislature elected Louis Lefkowitz to fill the office for the remainder of Javits's term.[10]

Upon taking office, Javits resumed his role as the most outspoken Republican liberal in Congress.[11] For the next 24 years, the Senate was Javits's home. His wife had no interest in living in Washington, D.C., which she considered a boring backwater and so for over two decades Javits commuted between New York and Washington nearly every week to visit his "other" family and conduct local political business. In foreign affairs, he backed the Eisenhower Doctrine for the Middle East and pressed for more foreign military and economic assistance.[8] Javits was re-elected in 1962 and 1968.

Javits voted in favor of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957,[12] 1960,[13] 1964,[14] and 1968,[15] as well as the 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution,[16] the Voting Rights Act of 1965,[17] and the confirmation of Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court.[18] He endorsed Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs. To promote his views on social legislation, he served on the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee for twenty years, most of that time as the second-ranking minority member. Javits initially backed Johnson during the early years of America's involvement in the Vietnam War[4] and supported, for example, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964 but later turned against it. Also in 1964, Javits joined David Rockefeller to launch the non-profit International Executive Service Corps, which was established to help bring about prosperity and stability in developing nations through the growth of private enterprise.

During the 1964 Republican Party presidential primaries, Javits, alongside fellow New York Republicans Kenneth Keating, John Lindsay and Seymour Halpern, refused to endorse Barry Goldwater, the conservative senator from Arizona.[19][20]

A supporter of universal healthcare, Javits in 1970 drafted a bill called "Medicare for All" that would have expanded the Medicare program to every American citizen by the end of 1973, while also giving the citizen a choice to opt-out, and alongside Clifford Case, John Sherman Cooper and William B. Saxbe, was one of four Republican co-sponsors of the Ted Kennedy-Martha Griffiths universal health care bill in January 1971.[21][22]

In 1966, along with two other Republican senators and five Republican representatives, Javits signed a telegram sent to Georgia Governor Carl E. Sanders regarding the Georgia legislature's refusal to seat the recently elected Julian Bond in their state House of Representatives. The refusal, said the telegram, was "a dangerous attack on representative government. None of us agree with Mr. Bond's views on the Vietnam War; in fact we strongly repudiate these views. But unless otherwise determined by a court of law, which the Georgia Legislature is not, he is entitled to express them."[23][24]

By the end of 1967, Javits was becoming disenchanted with the Vietnam War[25] and joined 22 other senators[8][26] in calling for a peaceful solution to the conflict.

In 1965, Javits appointed Lawrence Wallace Bradford Jr. as the Senate's first African-American page.[27] In 1971, Javits appointed Paulette Desell as the Senate's first female page.[28]

By 1970, his rising opposition to the war led him to support the Cooper-Church Amendment, which barred funds for US troops in Cambodia, and he also voted to repeal the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Increasingly concerned about the erosion of congressional authority in foreign affairs, Javits sponsored the 1973 War Powers Act,[29] which limited to 60 days a president's ability to send American armed forces into combat without congressional approval.[30]

Despite his unhappiness with President Richard Nixon over the Vietnam War, Javits was slow to join the anti-Nixon forces during the Watergate scandal of 1973–1974. Until almost the very end of the affair, his position reflected his legal training: Nixon was innocent until proven guilty, and the best way to determine guilt or innocence was by legal due process. His position was unpopular among his constituency, and his re-election in Watergate-tainted 1974 elections over Ramsey Clark was by fewer than 400,000 votes, a third of his 1968 margin of victory. During his last term, Javits shifted his interests more and more to world affairs, especially the crises in the Middle East. Working with President Jimmy Carter, he journeyed to Israel and Egypt to facilitate the discussions that led to the 1978 Camp David Accords.[31][32]

1980 Senate race


Javits served until 1981; his 1979 diagnosis with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease)[29] led to a 1980 primary challenge by the comparatively lesser-known Long Island Republican county official Al D'Amato, who received 323,468 primary votes (55.7 percent) to Javits's 257,433 (44.3 percent). Javits's loss to D'Amato stemmed from Javits's continuing illness and from his failure to adjust politically to the rightward movement of the Republican Party.[citation needed]

After the primary defeat, Javits ran as the Liberal Party candidate in the general election. His candidacy split the Democratic base vote with United States Representative Elizabeth Holtzman of Brooklyn and gave D'Amato the victory by a plurality of 1%. Javits received 11% of the vote.[33][34]



Javits died of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in West Palm Beach, Florida, at the age of 81 in March 1986. In addition to spouse Marion Ann Borris Javits, he was survived by three children: Joshua, Carla, and Joy. He was predeceased by his brother, who died in 1973.[35] His nephew, Eric M. Javits, was a diplomat who served as the U.S. Representative to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and the Conference on Disarmament. He is interred at Linden Hill Jewish Cemetery in Queens, New York.[36]

Javits' funeral service was conducted at the Central Synagogue in Manhattan.[37] 1400 people attended the funeral.[38] Among them were former President Richard Nixon, Governor Mario Cuomo and former Governor Hugh Carey, Mayor Ed Koch and former Mayor John Lindsay, Attorney General Edwin Meese, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor, Kurt Vonnegut, David Rockefeller, Victor Gotbaum, Douglas Fairbanks Jr and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger.[37] Other mourners included Senators Al D'Amato of New York, Nancy Kassebaum Baker of Kansas, Bill Bradley of New Jersey, Lowell Weicker of Connecticut, as well as former U.S. Representative Bella Abzug.[37][39]



Throughout his years in Congress, Javits seldom enjoyed favor with his party's inner circle. Few pieces of legislation bear his name, yet he was especially proud of his work in creating the National Endowment for the Arts, of his sponsorship of the ERISA,[5] which regulated defined-benefit private pensions, and of his leadership in the passage of the 1973 War Powers Act.[29] In 1966, he had a 94% rating from the Americans for Democratic Action.[40]

Javits used his office to advance ideas that furthered the policies even of Democratic presidents. In the fall of 1962, he proposed to a group of NATO parliamentarians that multinational corporations jointly create a new kind of investment vehicle to promote private investment throughout Latin America. He intended his idea to complement President John F. Kennedy's Alliance for Progress. Two years later, some 50 multinational corporations formed the Adela Investment Company, much as Javits had proposed.[41]

Throughout his career in Congress, first in the House and later in the Senate, Javits was part of a small group of liberal Republicans that was often isolated ideologically from their mainstream Republican colleagues, and he was a staunch supporter of labor unions and civil rights movements. One scoring method found Javits to be the most liberal Republican to serve in either chamber of Congress between 1937 and 2002.[42] From 1973 to 1978, GovTrack ranked Javits as being to the left of noted Democrats like Hubert Humphrey, George McGovern, Edmund Muskie and Gaylord Nelson.[43] Although he frequently differed with the most right-leaning members of the Republican Party, Javits believed that both parties should tolerate diverse opinions, rejecting the idea that they should share only one point of view. Javits also saw himself as being a descendant of the traditional Republicanism of Alexander Hamilton, Henry Clay, Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt, all of whom supported a strong federal government.[44]

In an essay published in 1958 in the magazine Esquire, Javits predicted the election of the first African-American president by 2000. Javits sponsored the first African-American Senate page in 1965 and the first female page in 1971. His liberalism was such that he tended to receive support from traditionally-Democratic voters, with many Republicans defecting to support the Conservative Party of New York.

Javits played a major role in legislation protecting pensioners, as well as in the passage of the War Powers Act; he led the effort to get the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act passed. He reached the position of Ranking Minority Member on the Committee on Foreign Relations while he accrured greater seniority than any New York Senator before or since (as of 2018).[45][46] Along with Dwight Eisenhower, he was among the first and most important statesmen in passing legislation promoting the cause of education for gifted individuals, and many know his name from the federal Jacob Javits Grants established for that purpose.

Honors and commemoration


Javits received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1983.

New York City's sprawling Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was named in his honor in 1986, as is a playground at the southwestern edge of Fort Tryon Park. The Jacob K. Javits Federal Building[47] at 26 Federal Plaza in lower Manhattan's Civic Center district, as well as a lecture hall on the campus of Stony Brook University on Long Island, are also named after him.

The Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act of 1988 was named in honor of Javits for his role in promoting gifted education.[48] The United States Department of Education awards a number of Javits Fellowships to support graduate students in the humanities and social sciences.[49]

The National Institutes of Health awards the Senator Jacob Javits Award in Neuroscience to exceptionally talented researchers in neuroscience who have established themselves with groundbreaking research. A 1983 US Congressional Act established those awards in honor of Senator Javits as a longtime supporter of research into understanding neurological disorders and diseases.[50]

In his memory, NYU established the Jacob K. Javits Visiting Professorship in 2008.[51]

Electoral history


U.S. House of Representatives, New York 21st District[33]

New York 21st Congressional District General Election, 1946
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jacob Javits 37,136 36.4% +5.7%
Liberal Jacob Javits 9,761 9.6% −0.2%
Total Jacob Javits 46,897 46.0% +5.5%
Democratic Daniel Flynn 40,652 39.9% −7.2%
American Labor Eugene Connolly 14,359 14.1% +1.7%
Total votes 101,908 100.00%
New York 21st Congressional District General Election, 1948
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jacob Javits 45,820 34.8% −1.6%
Liberal Jacob Javits 21,247 16.1% +6.5%
Total Jacob Javits 67,067 50.9% +4.9%
Democratic Paul O'Dwyer 49,972 37.9% −2.0%
American Labor Paul O'Dwyer 14,682 11.1% −3.0% − class="vcard" Total Paul O'Dwyer 64,654 49.1% −4.9%
Total votes 131,721 100.00%
New York 21st Congressional District General Election, 1950
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jacob Javits 41,194 40.6% +5.8%
Liberal Jacob Javits 21,410 21.1% +5.0%
Total Jacob Javits 62,604 61.8% +10.9%
Democratic Bennett Schlessel 33,349 32.9% −5.0%
American Labor William Mandel 5,419 5.3% −5.8%
Total votes 101,372 100.00%
New York 21st Congressional District General Election, 1952
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jacob Javits 58,128 41.2% +0.6%
Liberal Jacob Javits 31,738 22.5% +1.4%
Total Jacob Javits 89,866 63.7% +1.6%
Democratic John C. Hart 47,637 33.6% +0.7%
American Labor William Mandel 4,148 2.9% −2.4%
Total votes 141,051 100.00%

New York State Attorney General

New York Attorney General election, 1954
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jacob Javits 2,603,858 51.7%
Democratic Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. 2,430,959 48.3%
Total votes 5,034,817 100.00%

U.S. Senate, New York[33]

1956 United States Senate election in New York[52]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jacob K. Javits 3,723,933 53.3%
Democratic Robert F. Wagner Jr. 2,964,511 42.4%
Liberal Robert F. Wagner Jr. 300,648 4.3%
Total Robert F. Wagner, Jr. 3,265,159 46.7%
Write-in Douglas MacArthur 1,312 0.02%
Total votes 6,990,404 100.00%
Republican gain from Democratic
1962 United States Senate election in New York[53]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jacob K. Javits (incumbent) 3,272,417 57.4% +4.1%
Democratic James B. Donovan 2,113,772 37.0% −5.5%
Liberal James B. Donovan 175,551 3.1% −1.2%
Total James B. Donovan 2,289,323 40.14% N/A
Conservative Kieran O'Doherty 116,151 2.04% N/A
Socialist Workers Carl Feingold 17,440 0.31% N/A
Socialist Labor Stephen Emery 7,786 0.14% N/A
Total votes 5,703,117 100.00%
Republican hold
1968 United States Senate election in New York[54]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jacob K. Javits (incumbent) 2,810,836
Liberal Jacob K. Javits (incumbent) 458,936
Total Jacob K. Javits (incumbent) 3,269,772 49.68% −7.70%
Democratic Paul O'Dwyer 2,150,695 32.68% −7.46%
Conservative James Buckley 1,139,402 17.31% +15.27%
Peace and Freedom Herman Ferguson 8,775 0.13% +0.13%
Socialist Labor John Emanuel 7,964 0.12% −0.02%
Socialist Workers Hedda Garza 4,979 0.08% −0.23%
Republican hold
1974 United States Senate election in New York[55]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jacob K. Javits (incumbent) 2,098,529
Liberal Jacob K. Javits (incumbent) 241,659
Total Jacob K. Javits (incumbent) 2,340,188 45.32% −4.36%
Democratic Ramsey Clark 1,973,781 38.23% +5.55%
Conservative Barbara A. Keating 822,584 15.93% −1.38%
Socialist Workers Rebecca Finch 7,727 0.15% +0.07%
American William F. Dowling 7,459 0.14% +0.14%
Socialist Labor Robert E. Massi 4,037 0.08% −0.04%
Communist Mildred Edelman 3,876 0.08%
American Labor Elijah C. Boyd 3,798 0.07% +0.07%
Republican hold Swing
1980 US Senate Republican Primary in New York[56]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Al D'Amato 323,468 55.68%
Republican Jacob Javits (incumbent) 257,433 44.32%
Total votes 580,901 100.00%
General election results[57][58]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Al D'Amato 2,272,082 37.8%
Conservative Al D'Amato 275,100 4.6% −11.4%
Right to Life Al D'Amato 152,470 2.5% N/A
Total Al D'Amato 2,699,652 44.9% N/A
Democratic Elizabeth Holtzman 2,618,661 43.5% +5.3%
Liberal Jacob Javits (incumbent) 664,544 11.1%
Libertarian Richard Savadel 21,465 0.4% N/A
Communist William R. Scott 4,161 0.07% Decrease0.01
Workers World Thomas Soto 3,643 0.06%
Socialist Workers Victor A. Nieto 2,715 0.05% Decrease0.10
Write-in 73 0.00%
Majority 80,991 1.34%
Total votes 6,014,914 100.00%
Republican hold Swing

See also



  1. ^ r. Doerner, William (March 17, 1986). "Minority Power: Jacob K. Javits: 1904-1986". Time.
  2. ^ a b "Jacob Koppel Javits (1904-1986)".
  3. ^ a b "About - Javits Center".
  4. ^ a b c d Pearson, Richard (March 8, 1986). "Former Senator Jacob Javits Is Dead at 81". Washington Post. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Jacob K. Javits - Pensions & Investments". December 14, 2006.
  6. ^ Mendolsohn, Joyce (2009). The Lower East Side Remembered and Revisited. Columbia University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-231-14760-6.
  7. ^ "History".
  8. ^ a b c Michael S. Mayer (2009). The Eisenhower Years. Infobase. p. 351. ISBN 978-1438119083.
  9. ^ J. Lee Annis (2016). Big Jim Eastland: The Godfather of Mississippi. Univ. Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1496806154.
  10. ^ "Recess appointments" by the Governor in case of a vacancy in the offices of either the State Comptroller or the State Attorney General are now forbidden. To fill the vacancy, the State Legislature must convene and elect somebody. See Art. V, § 1 State Constitution.
  11. ^ "Yes, Virginia, There are Liberal Republicans". HuffPost. May 12, 2009.
  12. ^ "HR. 6127. Civil Rights Act of 1957". GovTrack.us.
  13. ^ "HR. 8601. Passage of Amended Bill".
  14. ^ "HR. 7152. PASSAGE".
  15. ^ "To Pass H.R. 2516, A Bill to Prohibit Discrimination in Sale or Rental of Housing, And to Prohibit Racially Motivated Interference With a Person Exercising His Civil RIghts, And for Other Purposes".
  16. ^ "S.J. Res. 29. Approval of Resolution Banning the Poll Tax as Prerequisite for Voting in Federal Elections". GovTrack.us.
  17. ^ "To Pass S. 1564, The Voting Rights Act of 1965".
  18. ^ "Confirmation of Nomination of Thurgood Marshall, The First Negro Appointed to the Supreme Court". GovTrack.us.
  19. ^ "Statements by Javits and Keating Barring Aid to Goldwater". The New York Times.
  20. ^ "Halpern's Rejection of Goldwater Is Expected Disavowal Wonld Be Rebuff to Queens G.O.P. Leaders; Congressman's District Has Big Democratic Vote". The New York Times.
  22. ^ National Health Insurance Proposals: Hearings, Ninety-second Congress, First Session on the Subject of National Health Insurance Proposals. Part of 13 Parts (October 19 and 20, 1971)
  23. ^ "Georgia House Dispute". Congressional Quarterly. 24 (3): 255. January 21, 1966. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
  24. ^ "Entitled To Express Views". The Courier-Journal from Louisville, Kentucky. January 16, 1966. p. 10.
  25. ^ Mann, Robert (2002). A Grand Delusion: America's Descent into Vietnam. Basic Books. p. 554. ISBN 0-465-04370-4.
  26. ^ & p.352: "... and joined 22 other senators ..."
  27. ^ "Frank Mitchell, the First 20th-century, African-American Page". history.house.gov. Office of Art & Archives at the House of Representatives. April 14, 1965. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
  28. ^ "Michael A. Johnson: Deputy Assistant Sergeant at Arms" (PDF). senate.gov. Oral History Interviews, Senate Historical Office. November 8, 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  29. ^ a b c Moynihan, Daniel Patrick. (March 11, 1986). "Special Report to New York". United States Senator from New York.
  30. ^ "War Powers - Law Library of Congress". Library of Congress.
  31. ^ "Jacob Javits - Central Synagogue". "He also traveled to Israel and Egypt with President Carter, opening up discussions that ultimately led to the 1978 Camp David Accords."
  32. ^ "Jacob Javits Dies in Florida at 81: 4-Term Senator from New York". The New York Times. March 8, 1986.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Office of the Clerk (2009). Election Statistics. U.S. House of Representatives.
  34. ^ "New York State Plurality Was 165,459 for Reagan". The New York Times. December 10, 1980. p. B24. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  35. ^ "Benjamin Javits, Lawyer, Is Dead". The New York Times. May 19, 1973. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 13, 2022.
  36. ^ Clarity, James F. (March 8, 1986). "Jacob Javits Dies in Florida at 81: 4-Term Senator from New York". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  37. ^ a b c Berger, Joseph (March 11, 1986). "SENATORS EULOGIZE JAVITS AT FUNERAL". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  38. ^ "1,400 at Javits' Funeral; He Is Praised as 'Example for Ages'". Los Angeles Times. March 10, 1986. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  39. ^ "Colleagues, admirers eulogize Javits". UPI. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  40. ^ Nation: Trustee for Tomorrow: Republican Jacob Javits; TIME, June 24, 1966
  41. ^ Boyle, Richard; Ross, Robert (July 26, 2009). Mission Abandoned: How Multinational Corporations Abandoned Their First Attempt to Eliminate Poverty. Why They Should Try Again. Robert Ross. pp. 1–6. ISBN 978-0615317373.
  42. ^ Poole, Keith T. (October 13, 2004). "Is John Kerry a Liberal?". legacy.voteview.com. University of Georgia. Archived from the original on May 26, 2017.
  43. ^ Hubert Humphrey, former Senator of Minnesota, GovTrack
  44. ^ Our Divided Political Heart, The Battle for the American Idea in an Age of Discontent; E.J. Dionne, E.J. Dionne Jr., 2012
  45. ^ Javits's successor, Al D'Amato, served 3 terms (18 years), and Chuck Schumer, if he completes his 2016 term in 2023, will tie Javits's record of 24 years. "Schumer topples D'Amato in New York Senate race". cnn.com. November 3, 1998. "Charles Schumer has bested three-term Sen. Alfonse D'Amato in New York's Senate race."
  46. ^ "Biography - U.S. Senator Chuck Schumer of New York".
  47. ^ "Jacob K. Javits Federal Building". Emporis GmbH. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016.
  48. ^ Russo, Charles J. (June 27, 2008). Encyclopedia of Education Law. SAGE. ISBN 9781412940795. Retrieved March 1, 2017 – via Google Books.
  49. ^ "Jacob K. Javits Fellowships Program". www2.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education. April 23, 2014. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  50. ^ "Javits Neuroscience Investigator Award (R37)". ninds.nih.gov. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. July 7, 2006. Archived from the original on July 30, 2009.
  51. ^ "NYU Lecture on the plight of Syrian Refugee Children".
  52. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
  53. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY US Senate Race - Nov 06, 1962".
  54. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1968". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  55. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1968".
  56. ^ "Syracuse Mayoral Primary Results - 9wsyr.com". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  57. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY US Senate Race - Nov 04, 1980".
  58. ^ "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1980" (PDF). clerk.house.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 20, 2022.


Party political offices
Preceded by Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from New York
(Class 3)

1956, 1962, 1968, 1974
Succeeded by
Preceded by Liberal nominee for U.S. Senator from New York
(Class 3)

1968, 1974, 1980
Succeeded by
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 21st congressional district

Succeeded by
Legal offices
Preceded by Attorney General of New York
Succeeded by
U.S. Senate
Preceded by U.S. senator (Class 3) from New York
Served alongside: Irving Ives, Kenneth Keating,
Robert F. Kennedy, Charles Goodell, James L. Buckley,
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
Succeeded by
Preceded by Ranking Member of the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee
Succeeded by
Preceded by Ranking Member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Succeeded by