Jacob Riis Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Jacob Riis Park Historic District
Jacob Riis Park.jpg
Jacob Riis Park is located in New York City
Jacob Riis Park
Jacob Riis Park is located in New York
Jacob Riis Park
Jacob Riis Park is located in the US
Jacob Riis Park
Nearest city New York, New York
Coordinates 40°34′3″N 73°52′24″W / 40.56750°N 73.87333°W / 40.56750; -73.87333Coordinates: 40°34′3″N 73°52′24″W / 40.56750°N 73.87333°W / 40.56750; -73.87333
Built 1932
Architect John L. Plock, Gilmore D. Clarke, Aymar Embury II, Clinton Loyd, Julius Burgevin
Architectural style Art Deco, Moorish
NRHP reference # 81000081
Added to NRHP June 17, 1981[1]

Jacob Riis Park, also called Jacob A. Riis Park[2] or Jacob Riis State Park,[3] is a seaside park at the southwestern end the Rockaway Peninsula in the New York City borough of Queens. It lies at the foot of the Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge, adjacent to the east of Fort Tilden, and west of Neponsit and Rockaway Beach. Originally a city-run park under the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, it is currently part of the Jamaica Bay Unit of the Gateway National Recreation Area, and is managed by the National Park Service (NPS).

Plans emerged for a coastal park located in the Rockaways in the early 20th Century, with the property acquired by the city in 1912. Initially called Seaside Park and later Telawana Park, the park was named in 1914 for social journalist Jacob Riis, who advocated for the creation of the park. During World War I, the site was used as the Rockaway Naval Air Station, one of the first naval air stations in the United States. Riis Park was largely constructed between 1936 and 1937 by NYC Parks Commissioner Robert Moses, who envisioned Riis Park as a getaway for New York City residents comparable to Jones Beach State Park on Long Island. The park was built along with the Marine Parkway Bridge and the Belt Parkway in nearby Brooklyn, which provided access to the park.

In 1972, Jacob Riis Park was transferred to the control of the National Park Service. The Jacob Riis Park Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. It features an extensive sand beach along the Atlantic Ocean coastline and several historic Art Deco structures, including a bathhouse built in 1932 and reconfigured in 1937. Today, the park's sand, surf, and seaside recreation areas and famous Art Deco bathhouse make it a popular summer destination. Facilities available in season include a pitch and putt golf course and food concessions.

Name[edit]

The park was originally known as Seaside Park.[4]:5 (PDF p.11) It was later renamed Telawana Park[5]:321 (PDF p.42)[6]:2 after Culluloo Telewana, believed to be the last surviving member of the Rockaway Lenape tribe until his death in 1818, as documented by European settler Abraham Hewlett.[6]:2[7] A monument to Telawana is located in Woodsburgh, Long Island, east of Far Rockaway.[6]:2[8] In 1914, the park was renamed for Jacob Riis, a famous New York City muckraker journalist and photographer who documented the plight of the poor and working class.[4]:5 (PDF p.11)[9]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Neponsit Beach Hospital (pictured) was opened in 1915 on Riis Park land, prior to major park development

What is now the site of Jacob Riis Park on the western Rockaway Peninsula was under water as recently as the early 19th century. The peninsula was gradually expanded westward by the natural accretion of sand from tidal action. By 1878, the peninsula extended as far as the current western boundaries of the park. The peninsula reached its current extents by the turn of the 20th century.[4]:5 (PDF p.11)[10]:2[11]:22 During the War of 1812, the United States Army erected a blockhouse west of the future park site, on what was then an island.[4]:5 (PDF p.11)[6]:99 It was demolished in 1818.[10]:1–3[11]:23

In 1880, the New York, Woodhaven & Rockaway Railroad opened a railroad line between mainland Queens and the Rockaways, with a terminal in Rockaway Park.[12]:2·3[10]:4–5 In 1879 with the railroad under construction, several New York businessmen formed the Rockaway Beach Improvement Company and drafted plans to create a landscaped park and amusement area in the western Rockaways. This development would include hotels and a horse racing track. At the approximate location of modern Riis Park would be a pavilion for beach-goers. The company purchased 750 acres (300 ha) of land between what are now Rockaway Park and Breezy Point, and later purchased 750 additional acres farther east. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park, was contracted to survey the site.[10]:7–8[6]:89 Part of one hotel, called the Rockaway Beach Hotel or the "Hotel Imperial", was opened in August 1881, with other hotels following it, but the park plans never materialized as the park company had gone bankrupt. This incomplete hotel was demolished by 1889.[4]:5 (PDF p.11)[10]:9[12]:2·3[6]:89 A streetcar line running across the peninsula, operated by the Ocean Electric Railway, opened in 1897, with its western end past Beach 149th Street within the modern park site.[4]:5 (PDF p.11)[10]:9–10

Acquisition of park property[edit]

In 1900, the property that would later would become Riis Park was acquired by Edward P. Hatch as part of two lots totaling 1,000 acres (404.685642240 ha) in size. The first plot, the "Hatch Tract," was 350 acres (142 ha) while the second "Bell Harbor tract" was 650 acres (263 ha). The land consisted predominantly of marshland and meadows yet to be developed.[10]:10–11[13] From 1902 to 1903, the City of New York initially attempted to create a seaside beach park in Staten Island.[10]:14 In 1904,[14][13][2][15] the city planned to build an oceanside park in the western Rockaways near Rockaway Point (Breezy Point), supported by Jacob Riis' Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor. The Association, as well as New York City Mayor George B. McClellan Jr. and Bellevue and Allied Hospitals president John W. Brannon, also lobbied for a hospital and "convalescent home" to be established.[10]:15[13][2][16][17] In March 1906, Hatch expressed interest in selling the "Hatch tract", with an asking price of $1 million.[10]:16 On May 15, 1906, an act was passed in the New York State Legislature allowing for the purchase of beach property in or outside of the city for a maximum of $2.5 million. The act also allowed a portion of the property to be leased for the creation of hospitals.[10]:16 The Hatch tract was favored over other potential locations such as Coney Island and Staten Island, due to its large beach area continuously extended by tidal action, and beaches and surf of higher quality than the other sites.[10]:16–17 Because Hatch was offering the property at a much higher price than its appraised value, the city sought to acquire the site via condemnation.[10]:17 Efforts to develop the park, then called Seaside Park, and the hospital were suspended on November 1, 1907,[10]:18[13][18] due to the panic of 1907,[10]:18[19] but resurrected in 1909 after campaigning from citizens and philanthropic groups.[10]:18[18]

Following the death of Hatch in 1908, the Hatch tract was acquired first by the West Rockaway Land Company.[11]:26 It was then sold to the Neponsit Realty Company,[10]:18[6]:105 which was developing the Neponsit neighborhood.[2][11]:26 Now valued between $850,000 and $1.05 million, the Neponsit Company offered to sell the site for $1.5 million.[10]:18 Meanwhile, the New York Parks and Playgrounds Association campaigned for the city to purchase land for a 250 acres (101 ha) park in western Rockaway. The Parks Association created a Seaside Park Committee, with Jacob Riis as its chairman.[10]:20 The tract was acquired by the city on March 21, 1912 via condemnation, with the city paying around $1.3 million for the site.[10]:26[5]:321 (PDF p.42)[2] Around this time, the park was renamed Telawana Park.[10]:30[20] On March 25, 1913, the tract was transferred to the New York City Parks Department.[10]:26 The site for the hospital at the east end of the beach was transferred from the Parks Department on April 24, 1913.[21][22]

After Jacob Riis passed away in May 1914, former United States President Theodore Roosevelt advocated for the renaming of the park to Jacob Riis Park.[23][20] The name change was approved on January 4, 1915.[10]:32 Neponsit Beach Hospital for Children opened on April 16, 1915.[24] Beginning in late 1915, jetties were installed along the beach in order to prevent beach erosion, and to capture sand from tidal action in order to extend the beach. The jetties were based on similar structures used in nearby Neponsit. By 1917, 10 acres (4.0 ha) of land was added to the beach.[10]:34–36[25][26]

The original plan for the park was created by Parks Department landscape architect Carl F. Pilat in 1913.[12]:2·3[10]:29[27][28] Pilat was the nephew of Ignatz Anton Pilát,[29] and had also designed Astoria Park around the same time.[30] Pilat's design would have deviated significantly from the current layout. Much of the property north of Rockaway Beach Boulevard (then called Washington Avenue) would have been developed into recreational space with fields and courts for sports. Pilat's layout of the park utilized Beaux-Arts planning, characterized by pedestrian pathways organized in an axial arrangement, with focal points at the southern beach "esplanade", and at a bandstand at the north end of the park. The Jamaica Bay coastline at the north end of the site would have been utilized for an additional beach and boardwalk, along with a marine basin for boats, and a lagoon. In addition to the space on the Atlantic Ocean coast used by Neponsit Hospital, an additional tract on the west end of the beach would be utilized for a second health facility; only one-third of the beach would have been part of the park.[12]:2·4[27][28][31] The Parks Department had held a contest in 1913 accepting submission of designs for the park. Pilat's plan incorporated elements of the six finalists in the competition.[12]:2·4[28] At the time, the Pilat plan was considered too expensive and was not implemented.[27] Because of this and the onset of World War I, Riis Park remained largely undeveloped into the 1930s.[12]:2·5[10] :40

Use as a military base[edit]

Aerial view of NAS Rockaway in 1917

With the emergence of World War I, in 1917 the park site was leased to the United States Navy to create Naval Air Station Rockaway, one of the first naval air stations in the country.[4]:5 (PDF p.11)[2] A permit was issued by the Parks Department to the federal government on April 16, 1917, with 60 acres (24 ha) allotted to the base.[10] The station began operations on October 15 of that year.[10]:46 An additional 34 acres (14 ha) were ceded to the station in March 1915.[10]:46–47 The now-94-acre (38 ha) base extended from Fort Tilden east to the location of the modern bathhouse.[10]:47 The station would be used as the departure point for the first transatlantic flight in 1919, accomplished by the Glenn Curtiss-designed NC-4.[4]:5 (PDF p.11)[32] By the time the base was complete, the remaining 168 acres (68 ha) of the park had little development occurring.[10]:40

On January 20, 1921, US Navy Rear Admiral James H. Glennon requested that the city cede the 94-acre (38 ha) site to the federal government in order to maintain the naval station.[10]:51[2] The request was initially refused, but the dispute continued on for the rest of the decade.[10]:52–56 The station was inactive from 1922 to 1925 and became an armory for the New York Naval Militia from 1928 to 1929.[10]:50–51 The dispute finally ended in 1930, when the Navy moved to facilities in Valley Stream, Long Island, North Beach Airport (now LaGuardia Airport), and later Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn directly across from Riis Park.[10]:55[33] The base was vacated by June 1930, and demolition of the base was ordered in October 1930.[10]:57[34]

Initial development of Riis Park[edit]

The 1932 plaque commemorating the completion of the bathhouse
The changing rooms in the courtyard of the Riis Park bathhouse, since removed

On October 17, 1925, a ferry service was opened between Barren Island, Brooklyn (later Floyd Bennett Field airport) and Riis Park.[35] In 1926, a short macadam transverse road was created between Washington Avenue and the ferry terminal.[10]:41 The road was later paved with concrete, and expanded from 20 feet (6.1 m) wide to 40 feet (12 m) wide.[36]:14 A small concession stand was also constructed at the west end of the park.[10]:41–42 From 1926 to 1927, the beach protection system was expanded to the western section of the park, with additional groins installed.[10]:42–43 From 1927 to 1929, Washington Avenue was widened and paved, with a sidewalk added to both Washington Avenue and the ferry transverse road. Other minor improvements to the park took place at this time.[10]:43[37]:13, 32–33 In July 1929, an existing 1,000-car parking lot was enlarged. By this time, the patronage of Jacob Riis Park was increasing.[10]:45–46[38] Meanwhile, in 1929 the New York City Board of Transportation released a major expansion plan for the New York City Subway. One of the new routes in the plan involved recapturing the New York, Woodhaven and Rockaway Railroad, which by this time became the Rockaway Beach Branch of the Long Island Rail Road, and extending it as a subway line west from Rockaway Park to Jacob Riis Park. The extension of the line to the park was never constructed.[39][40][41]

After the remainder of Riis Park was relinquished by the Navy, in fall 1930 Queens Parks Commissioner Albert C. Benninger proposed the construction of a bathing pavilion at Jacob Riis Park. Benninger had been inspired by the design of the bathhouse at Jones Beach State Park, completed in August 1929 by then-Long Island Parks Commissioner Robert Moses.[10]:60[42] Prior to this, beach-goers were forced to change their clothes in their cars.[37]:13 The designs were prepared by architect John L. Plock in November 1930.[43] The project was approved by the mayor's office in February 1931.[43] The foundation of the building was completed in August 1931.[43][10]:60 Contracts were let for building construction in September 1931.[43][10]:61 Later that month, Benninger requested an additional $105,000 for the project from the New York City Board of Estimate, on top of the initial $425,000 appropriated.[44] Construction began on November 23, 1931.[45][46] The bathhouse was opened on August 6, 1932. At the time, it was only 60 percent completed.[12]:2·5[43][47][48] Additional work was completed in May 1933, including lockers, the restaurant, and the solarium.[43][10]:64[49] The solarium was expected to be the largest in the world at the time.[49][50] A seawall running in front of the bathhouse along the beach and parking facilities for 5,000 cars were also completed by 1933.[10]:64[51]

While the bathhouse was being constructed, several plans were evaluated for developing Riis Park.[12]:2·5 to 2·7[52] Carl Pilat's 1913 plan for the park was briefly revived in 1930, but not developed.[27] On August 26, 1931, Commissioner Benninger invited several architects to a conference held in conjunction the New York chapters of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Among the architects invited included Gilmore D. Clarke, then the landscape architect for Westchester County, New York.[53] Three plans were later created by independent groups, none of which were developed. The first was from Harold A. Caparn of the City Club's park committee in 1931. The second was created by Earl Morrow of the Regional Plan Association (RPA) in 1932. The third was drawn up by Julius V. Burgevin & Joseph Gatringer of the New York City Park Board in 1933. All the plans suggested developing the northern portion of the property in addition to the southern beach.[12]:2·6 to 2·7[52] When presenting the RPA's plans in May 1932, RPA president George McAneny referred to Pilat's plans as "no longer practical", due to the lack of provisions for highways and automobile parking.[52] While presenting the park plan, McAneny also put forward plans for a vehicular bridge or tunnel between Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn and the Riis Park/Fort Tilden area, acting as an extension of Flatbush Avenue.[54] Although the bathhouse was built based off the RPA plans, it and the other plans were rejected in part due to the difficulty and high cost of landscaping and planting in the area.[55]

Expansion under Robert Moses[edit]

The construction of the Marine Parkway Bridge, Riis Park (bottom right), and Fort Tilden (bottom left) in 1937. The ferry landings at Riis Park/Fort Tilden and Floyd Bennett Field are also present

In January 1934, Robert Moses was appointed commissioner of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, following the unification of the five individual borough departments.[12]:2·10[43][10]:70 Moses wished to develop Riis Park into an urban iteration of Jones Beach for working class New York City residents.[12]:2·10[43][51] Under Moses, alterations to the bathhouse began in April 1934 with Works Progress funds.[43] Moses was critical of the previous operation of the park, including the contracting of an outside firm to operate concessions and services, leading to deteriorating conditions in the park.[10]:72–73 Moses proceeded to cancel nearly all outside contracts, forming the Riis Management Corporation to run other services.[10]:77 Improvements to the other park structures were also completed as projects under the Works Progress Administration (WPA).[10]:77

On August 6, 1934, Moses released his plan for Riis Park, designed by Gilmore D. Clarke, Julius Burgevin, W. Earle Andrews, and Clinton Loyd. The plan, designed in Beaux-Arts style, featured elements of the final design: the massive parking area for 15,000 cars, the road plan with a roundabout, and a central pedestrian mall running north to south. A second bathhouse structure would be built on the west side of the park, containing a swimming pool. Also included were a causeway and/or bridge linking to Brooklyn.[12]:2·11 to 2·12[43][10]:81–85[51] Moses was also critical of several aspects of earlier park plans and the then-current layout created under Benninger, including the placement of the bathhouse and seawall too close to the shore, and the lack of parking spaces. According to Moses the location of the bathhouse and bulkhead left a minimal portion of beach during high tide, and limited future expansion of the beach. The lack of parking, meanwhile, limited the utilization of the bathhouse, which could accommodate more people than the lot could fit cars.[10]:89[51] The 1934 plan was not implemented due to opposition from the local communities. Among the reasons for the resistance were fears of bringing in individuals from other parts of the city to the Rockaways, and the possibility of Riis Park out-competing privately owned beaches and resorts leading to declines in property values.[12]:2·12[43]

In 1936, Moses released what would be the final plan for Jacob Riis Park, designed by Clarke, Loyd, and Parks Department architect Aymar Embury II. Under this plan, the mall was relocated to the western end of the property, with a design similar to that of Orchard Beach in the Bronx which was being built at the same time.[12]:2·15[43] The parking area design was altered from two square lots in the 1934 plan, into the current large curved and asymmetrical lot.[12]:2·15[43] The bathhouse was reconfigured, shortening the face of the beach pavilion and altering its design to use simpler Art Deco elements.[12]:2·13[43][51][56] The modern road layout was created, which including altering the route of Rockaway Beach Boulevard in front of the bathhouse. Initially running at a diagonal to the bathhouse's front face, the boulevard was straightened and relocated farther north. It was also truncated to the western end of the parking lot.[12]:2·13, 2·15 The original seawall was replaced and recessed farther north along the new boardwalk.[12]:7·3 Other features including the mall buildings and golf course were also created at this time.[12]:2·13 In order to fund the park and several others around the city, Moses asked the New York City Board of Estimate for $3.6 million of funding in 1936. The funds would go to Jacob Riis Park, Fort Tryon Park, Pelham Bay Park, and the two Marine Parks. These funds, which Moses requested from the Board of Estimate annually for several years afterward, ended up doing little to fund each of the parks, with the exception of Jacob Riis Park, which would be completed with $3.5 million in funding.[57]:476 The Board of Estimate money went toward the Marine Parkway Bridge, one of Moses's projects to connect Riis Park to the rest of the city, while the park itself was nearly entirely built with WPA money.[12]:2·12

Looking north from the central mall, built in 1936. In the remote distance is the Empire State Building

Work on enlarging the beach began on April 1, 1936.[58] 2,000,000 cubic yards (1,500,000 m3) of sand were dredged from Jamaica Bay to increase the size of the beach from 8 to 24 acres.[12]:2·13, 2·15 The topography of the beach was leveled, with numerous dunes eliminated.[12]:2·13, 2·15[14][56] The parking lot was partially opened in June 1936 with a 6,000-car capacity.[12]:2·15 On June 15, 1936, Green Bus Lines started the Q21B bus route, operating from Brooklyn and mainland Queens to Riis Park via Cross Bay Boulevard.[59][60] The upgraded Jacob Riis Park was initially set to open along with Orchard Beach on June 19, 1937,[61] but the openings were pushed back due to unfinished work.[62] Both beaches were opened on June 25, 1937.[63] Work on the parking lot and bathhouse were completed at this time.[12]:2·15

The Marine Parkway Bridge was opened July 3, 1937,[4]:6 (PDF p.12)[64] after which the ferry service to Riis Park was discontinued.[65] With the opening of the bridge, Green Bus Lines created a new route, the Q35, operating across the bridge between Riis Park and the Flatbush−Nostrand Avenues station in Brooklyn.[66] On Friday August 6, 1937, the park began holding weekly fireworks shows.[67] The Belt Parkway system was opened in June 1940, connecting to the Marine Parkway Bridge.[68]

A lighted softball field just west of the bathhouse was created in summer 1940.[10]:168 A bust of Jacob Riis at the western mall building was completed on October 14, 1940.[10]:175 The Wise and Son street clock was installed on the boardwalk on March 4, 1941.[69] The bathhouse and other structures were waterproofed in 1943.[43][10]:188, 198 The stairs from the beach and boardwalk to the second floor of the bathhouse were removed between 1948 and 1949. The second floor cafeteria, meanwhile, was replaced with additional lockers, while a new cafeteria was built on the first floor.[10]:188–189 Numerous other renovations took place between 1949 and 1958.[10]:181–201

Acquisition of Neponsit Hospital property[edit]

Neponsit Beach Hospital was closed on April 21, 1955 due to a declining need for tuberculosis treatment.[70][71] Following the closure of the hospital, the site was considered a "hot property", located on the beach in the fairly exclusive Neponsit neighborhood.[21] The 14.3 acres (5.8 ha) site of the hospital was valued at $1 million.[70][72] Numerous groups had conflicting interests in the future of the site,[21] with Parks Commissioner Moses wishing to absorb the site back into Riis Park in order to construct sports fields, a swimming pool, and a comfort station, and to extend the beach.[70][73][74] Others including New York City Comptroller Lawrence E. Gerosa desired for the property to be sold and developed, which would draw income from both the sale and taxes.[21][74][75][76] After the Board of Estimate including Gerosa voted 10 to 6 to block the park expansion,[77] and angry exchanges between Moses and Gerosa,[21][78][79][80] on October 27, 1956, New York Supreme Court Justice Peter M. Daly ruled in favor of Moses in a lawsuit by the Park Association of New York City, preventing the sale. The ruling was upheld by the Appellate Court in Brooklyn on July 9, 1956. The ruling referred to the original 1906 act which zoned the property exclusively for park or hospital use.[81][82]

In 1958, a compromise was reached in which the hospital would be converted into a nursing home called the Neponsit Home for the Aged. Meanwhile, the remaining 10 acres (4.0 ha) of the property were turned over to the Parks Department to expand Riis Park, adding 1,000 feet (300 m) of beach.[10]:164[81][83][84] The plan was approved by New York City Board of Estimate in February 1959.[85] A field with two baseball diamonds was created adjacent to the west of the former hospital in 1961, with a comfort station and concession stand erected at the southwest corner of the field.[12]:2·20[10]:205

Decline and creation of Gateway National Recreation Area[edit]

Beach-goers at Riis Park in 1974, after it was absorbed into the Gateway National Recreation Area

By the 1960s, Riis Park was in a state of disrepair, which included debris on the beach, and lack of maintenance of the toilet and bathhouse facilities.[10]:165–168 The park was damaged by the Ash Wednesday Storm in March 1962.[10]:200–201 Further renovations occurred during this time.[10]:181–201 In May 1962, an 18-year-old was fatally stabbed at the beach.[86] On June 13, 1964, the bust of Jacob Riis at the Central Mall was stolen.[23] In August 1965, eighty people swimming at Riis Park and Rockaway Beach were treated for stings from Portuguese man o' war hydrozoans, a taxonomic class similar to jellyfish.[10]:166–167 In addition to vandalism,[10]:165–166 there were also increasing arrests for drug-related offenses on the beach.[87]

In 1972, the National Park Service established the Gateway National Recreation Area around Jamaica Bay. Jacob Riis Park was ceded to the NPS two years later, on March 4, 1974.[88][10]:208[89]:4[9] Upon takeover, focus was put on Riis Park due to it being the most heavily visited part of the Gateway Area.[90] Under NPS' purview, several renovations occurred, including the installation of new roofing on the bathhouse and mall buildings, and the restoration of the Wise Clock which had been taken out of operation.[10]:208 The NPS also began to crack down on nude bathing on the beach.[10]:209 In mid-July 1974, Federal Magistrate Vincent A. Catoggio suggested that the entire park be shuttered if "it is going to be a gathering place of nudists"[91] and around the same time, United States Park Police started issuing summonses to nude bathers who ignored orders to put clothes on.[92] On July 24, 1974, a bill was introduced to the New York City Council to ban nude bathing.[93] In spite of this, NPS rangers and officers maintained a policy of allowing nude bathers to remain so long as they "minded their own business."[88] On June 29, 1976, Riis Park was closed due to raw sewage in the water.[94] It was closed again August 3, 1978 along with beaches in Brooklyn after an oil spill near Breezy Point.[95] The park reopened on August 7, 1978.[96]

In the 1980s during summer months, the B9 and B46 bus routes were extended south of their normal terminus at Kings Plaza in Brooklyn to Riis Park, with a federal subsidy funding the extension.[97][98] The park's historic district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981.[1] Nude bathing was banned at the beach in 1983,[99][87] although it continued to persist unlawfully afterwards.[100]

In May 1988, the National Park Service planned to put the Riis Park bathhouse and mall buildings up for lease, along with other buildings in the Gateway Area. The developers would then pay for renovations and upgrades to the park and its facilities, which the NPS did not have the money to fund. The bathhouse in particular was in a state of disrepair, with its showering and changing facilities closed. The plan proposed constructing a 15,000-seat performance amphitheater, and a water park. Both attractions would be erected on the site of the golf course at the west end of the park. The amphitheater would occupy the northern half of the golf course site, facing south towards the beach. The water park would sit at the south end, and have a 7,500 person capacity. The golf course would be relocated to the east end of the park.[101]:34[102][103] Features would also be added to the bathhouse, including a restaurant, skating rinks, a public garden, and/or a swimming pool.[4]:6 (PDF p.12)[101]:34[104] The plan was opposed by local residents and conservation groups, including the Sierra Club's New York branch and the National Audubon Society. Among the points of contention were the idea of using federal parkland for amusement development, the additional noise and traffic created by the attractions, and the potential of disturbing the bird habitats in the area.[102][105] The debate was reflective of issues with the country's national parks as a whole.[102] Queens Community Board 14 (representing the Rockaways) voted unanimously to block the plans.[104] On July 17, 1988 at 11 AM, the beach was closed after eight syringes washed up onto the beach. Beaches at South Beach, Midland Beach, and Great Kills Park all in Staten Island had previously been closed due to the same issue.[106][107] The beach was reopened on July 22.[108] Much of the waste that had washed up on the beaches in the area had originated in Fresh Kills Landfill or the city sewer system.[109] By July 1989, the amphitheater was removed from the development plan. The proposed water park was downsized from 10 acres (4.0 ha) to 2 acres (0.81 ha), and would only occupy a small corner at the southwest section of the golf course.[4]:PDF p.70[104] The changes did not eliminate opposition from the community or environmental groups.[104] By October of that year, the development plans were dropped and instead $934,000 was allocated for renovations to the park.[105]

1990s to present[edit]

Looking at the Riis Park parking lot in 2012, used as a temporary dump to store debris after Hurricane Sandy

On August 31, 1991, the beach was closed again due to the presence of medical waste, with over 500 items found including needles and medicine vials of the painkiller Nubain. The beach was closed for a single day.[109][110] Due in part to the reoccurrence of waste on the beach, the park saw declining patronage that year.[87] During that year, a $20 million rehabilitation of the bathhouse began, which included the removal of asbestos. The project, however, was not completed, and the bathhouse remained closed and decaying.[111][87][112] In 1999, $450,000 from the federal government was earmarked for the rehabilitation of Riis Park, projected to be complete by 2004.[113] By 2001, $4.1 million in additional funds were secured by then-Senators Hillary Clinton and Chuck Schumer and then Congressman Anthony Weiner, particularly targeted at the bathhouse.[114][115] One of the early plans for the project was to construct a pool with the $4 million, as hinted in a press release from Senator Schumer, possibly located in the bathhouse. The National Park Service planned to use the money for general renovations. After a preliminary study, the pool plan was cancelled as the pool would lead to a financial deficit.[116][117][118] Through 2005, numerous improvements were performed on the bathhouse, with plans to repave the central courtyard.[119][120] By July 2006, however, the repairs had not been finished.[112]

On April 17, 2010, a new bust depicting Jacob Riis was installed at the Central Mall.[23][121][122] On July 21, 2011, Staten Island Congressman Michael G. Grimm introduced H.R. 2606 – New York City Natural Gas Supply Enhancement Act – to the U.S. Congress.[123] The bill proposed to construct a 3-mile (4.8 km) natural gas pipeline called the Rockaway Delivery Lateral Project, proposed by Williams Companies, connecting to an existing offshore pipeline and running south-to-north through the sites of Jacob Riis Park and Floyd Bennett Field. The pipeline would run through the golf course of Riis Park, then connect to a new 1.5-mile (2.4 km) along Flatbush Avenue to be constructed by National Grid.[124][125] The project was supported by the district manager of Queens Community Board 14.[125] Grimm, meanwhile, was found to have received campaign money from both Williams and National Grid. Two Queens congressman also supported the pipeline, as did Anthony Weiner before his resignation.[124] The pipeline was opposed by local environmental groups, who felt it would disturb a nearby artificial reef.[125]

People enjoying the beach over Labor Day weekend in August 2013

In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy struck the New York City area, particularly effecting the Rockaway Peninsula. At Riis Park, sand was pushed north from the beach onto the back beach areas. The bathhouse was flooded and damaged.[89]:4[126] However, structures like the Wise Clock and the new Jacob Riis bust were generally unscathed.[127][128] During the recovery effort, the large parking lot was used as a temporary dump for debris from the park and the entire peninsula. This included excess sand, trees, cars, boats, and household debris.[126][129][130] The parking lot was selected as a waste facility due to its size, location on the peninsula, and connection to highways and roads.[131] Afterwards, the parking lot was used to clean sand before it returned to the beaches on the peninsula. Because of this the lot was filled with numerous man-made dunes.[129][132] The park reopened in May 2013.[133] Repairs to the bathhouse occurred from 2015 to 2016,[89]:8[134] after which the NPS solicited requests for proposals to reuse the entry pavilion and bathhouse.[89]:7

Shortly after Hurricane Sandy, on November 7, 2012, the Rockaway Lateral Pipeline bill was signed into law.[135][136] The pipeline was put in service by May 2015.[137]

Description[edit]

A map of Jacob Riis Park

Jacob Riis Park is located at the west end of the Rockaway Peninsula, between Fort Tilden and the Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge to the west, and the Neponsit neighborhood to the east. The Roxbury and Breezy Point neighborhoods sit farther west. The Atlantic Ocean coast marks the south end of the site, where the park's beaches are located. The north end is bound by Beach Channel Drive and the Jamaica Bay shore.[88][12]:2·3[138][139]:12 The park is approximately 262 acres (106 ha) in size, extending 1 mile (1.6 km) east-to-west between Beach 149th Street in Neponsit and Beach 169th Street at Fort Tilden.[2][140][141]

The major east-to-west thoroughfares running across the park are Beach Channel Drive and Rockaway Beach Boulevard, the latter of which runs near the south end of the park at the north end of the beach. Beach Channel Drive feeds west into the Marine Parkway Bridge, and into Rockaway Point Boulevard which runs to Roxbury and Breezy Point. Both roads run east towards the rest of the Rockaways. A roundabout at the east end of the park provides an interchange between the two roads. The road layout was designed in the 1930s.[88][12]:2·15[70][138][142]

Three buildings constructed in the 1930s are the primary features of the Riis Park Historical District. These are the bathhouse and the two Central Mall buildings.[88] Many elements of the park, including the mall buildings, boardwalk, and renovations to the bathhouse, were completed during the 1936-1937 renovation of the park with Works Progress Administration funds, under the watch of Robert Moses, Gilmore D. Clarke, and Aymar Embury II.[88][12]:2·13 to 2·15

Features[edit]

Bathhouse[edit]

The front or north structure of the bathhouse (top), called the entrance pavilion, and rear structure of the bathhouse (bottom), known as the "beach pavilion", in 1990

Located on the south side of Rockaway Beach Boulevard near the horizontal center of the park is the bathhouse, which has historically served as the entrance to the beach. It was first completed in 1932, designed by John L. Plock of the Stoughton and Plonck firm in Moorish/Byzantine style. The 1936-1937 WPA project led to a reconfiguration of the bathhouse, designed by Clinton Loyd, which added Art Deco/Art Moderne elements.[88][4]:PDF p.64[12]:2·13, 2·21[43][89]:8 The alteration in architectural style is said to have been brought on by Robert Moses being "annoyed" by the bathhouse's original Moorish elements.[12]:2·13 The bathhouse measures approximately 640 feet (200 m) long and 250 feet (76 m) wide.[10]:PDF p.112–123[48] It was modeled after the Jones Beach bathhouse, and is similar in design to other bathing pavilions of the early 20th Century.[43][47][143] It is the largest building in the park.[43]

The bathhouse actually consists of four individual structures making up each face of the building, linked by common outer screen walls, with a central courtyard in between.[4]:PDF p.64[12]:3·6[89]:8[43][111] The screen walls are brick and rise 8 feet (2.4 m) high.[43] The buildings share a common outer facade in terms of materials, consisting of brick laid in american bond, cast stone, and concrete.[43] After the 1937 renovations, the entire structure was painted in light gray.[12]:2·15[43]

At the front or north face of the site on Rockaway Beach Boulevard is the Entry Pavilion. The one-story structure was built in 1932 as part of the original bathhouse, and retains its Moorish and Byzantine features. Loosely T-shaped, it occupies 10,000 square feet (930 m2) of space.[88][89]:8[43] The front face of the building features two small towers or turrets near each end, with an octagonal shape. In between the towers is an arcade, with five brick archways supported by concrete Corinthian columns. The columns are hexagonal in shape with arabesque features. An additional archway is located at both the east and west ends of the arcade.[88][43] Six hipped skylights are located on the roof of the pavilion.[43]

At the rear of the bathhouse, facing the beach, is the "bathing pavilion"[88] or "beach pavilion",[12]:2·22[43] often simply called the "bathhouse".[89]:8 It is two-stories high and rectangular in shape, made up of two brick side sections and a concrete center section. Although built as a part of the 1932 bathhouse, the building underwent extensive renovations during the 1936-1937 projects, leading to its current Art Deco characteristics.[88][4]:PDF p.64[43][10]:94–95 Unlike the entrance pavilion which is relatively small, the beach pavilion extends the entire east-west length of the building.[88] An arcade or colonnade is located on the ground floor of the center section, largely concrete with columns.[88][43] The original design of the beach pavilion was similar to that of the entrance building, with numerous Moorish arches forming its arcade.[143] On the second floor on top of the arcade is a concrete projection with rounded edges, enclosed by glass brick windows.[88][43] These windows are not original to the structure.[43] The projection originally contained a cafeteria or restaurant and its kitchen.[10]:96[144] It also doubled as a solarium, and is often referred to as such.[49][50] A terrace surrounds the projection.[10]:96 The center section's roof is flat, used as an additional terrace, while the side sections have hipped roofs.[43] The beach pavilion contains two octagonal towers which rise four-stories high with copper roofs. Several windows are located on the towers.[88][43] External stairs on either side originally led from the beach to the terrace on the second floor, with additional staircases to the roof of the structure; the outdoor stairs from the ground have since been removed.[43][10]:94–95

Inside the front arcade of the bathhouse, with its Moorish arches

At the east and west ends of the bathhouse are the east and west wing buildings. The wings are identical one-story rectangular buildings.[88][4]:PDF p.64[43] They were built with the original bathhouse, with the east wing renovated in 1936.[43] The wings each feature a hipped roof of asphalt tiles.[43] Both wings originally contained public bathrooms, with east wing containing a police sub-station for the United States Park Police, and the west wing housing first aid stations.[43][89]:9 Much of this space has since been converted into visitor facilities,[43] with bathrooms still present in the east wing.[89]:9

At the core of the bathhouse between the four buildings is the central courtyard.[88][43][89]:9 Now open space,[89]:9 the courtyard was initially used for dressing rooms, built with numerous cabana-shaped lockers, along with shower facilities.[88][12]:3·6 The western courtyard was for women, while the eastern court was for men.[43] There were 500 changing rooms, containing 8,100 individual lockers. Of these, 5,400 lockers were located in the men's section, while the women's quarters held 2,700.[12]:3·6[47] The capacity was later increased to 10,000 during the 1936-1937 expansion, with 6,000 men's lockers and 4,000 women's lockers.[88][61][56] The changing rooms were constructed of asbestos board, while the showers were tile with stone trim.[144] The changing rooms were closed and removed by 1988 due to a lack of maintenance and sanitary concerns.[4]:PDF p.64[102] Entrance to the changing rooms was via doors at the sides of the front and rear arcades.[10]:96

Among the other original features of the bathhouse were two restaurants, a cafeteria, concession stands, and the solarium on the roof.[4]:PDF p.64[12]:3·3[43][10] :96 These were later replaced by a ranger station, the park police station, and the first-aid station.[4]:PDF p.64 An eastern portion of the beach pavilion is currently used to house lifeguards from the National Park Service.[89]:9 The bathhouse has received damage from numerous storms, including Hurricane Irene and Hurricane Sandy.[4]:PDF p.64[111]

Central Mall[edit]

The western (left) and eastern mall buildings at the end of the central mall

Near the foot of the Marine Parkway Bridge between the parking lot and golf course (see § Additional features) is the park's central mall, a landscaped concourse which runs north-to-south between Beach Channel Drive and the main beach.[4]:6 (PDF p.12)[88][12]:5·3 The mall was laid out to be aligned with the Empire State Building, providing a distant view of the Manhattan skyscraper.[12]:5·3[14] At the south end of the mall is a concrete plaza with two structures known as the Central Mall Buildings or the Bay 9 Mall Buildings. The buildings were erected during the 1936-1937 park projects, designed in Art Deco/Art Moderne style. The outer facade consists of brick and tile with concrete trim and roofing. The two buildings are mirror images of each other, standing one-story high. They are semi-circle shaped, opening towards the main beach; the two buildings together form a horseshoe. Each structure occupies 6,000 square feet (560 m2) of space. The western building contains offices and public toilets, along with a small bathhouse. The eastern structure is used as a concession stand, with retail space at its eastern end, and a patio area in front of it.[4]:6 (PDF p.12)[88][12]:5·3[145][146] Like the bathhouse, the mall buildings were painted gray upon opening in 1937.[12]:2·15 A bandstand was originally located in between the two buildings in the center of the plaza, but was removed in 1954.[12]:5·3

A bronze bust of Jacob Riis had been installed adjacent to the western mall building in 1940, donated by Riis' son Roger. The bust rested on a granite pedestal constructed by the Parks Department with money from the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, the highway agency also controlled by Robert Moses. After it was stolen in 1964, only its granite base remained.[12]:2·20[10]:166[23] A replacement bronze bust was constructed by artist David Ostro, organized by students at the Immaculate Conception Catholic Academy in Jamaica Estates. The new bust was installed on April 17, 2010.[23][121][122]

Boardwalk[edit]

The Wise and Son clock on the Riis Park boardwalk

Running along the north end of the entire beach is the boardwalk, also sometimes called the promenade. The majority of the boardwalk was built during the 1936-1937 park projects, with the portion in front of the bathhouse built in 1932. The boardwalk separates the beach from the "back beach" portions of the park, such as the bathhouse, central mall, and non-beach recreation areas (see § Central Mall and § Additional features). It is the primary means of pedestrian circulation through the park.[12]:4·6 to 4·7[4]:6 (PDF p.12) The boardwalk is 40 feet (12 m) wide, except at the bathhouse where it is 70 feet (21 m) wide.[12]:4·7[61] It was originally wood, but was upgraded to concrete in 1970.[12]:4·3, 4·7[10]:205

The boardwalk is built on top of the beach's concrete seawall or bulkhead, which stabilizes the sand and protects the back beach from flooding.[12]:4·6[4]:8 (PDF p.14) The original seawall was constructed in 1931 and ran parallel to the south face of the bathhouse. Portions of the old sea wall remain on the beach.[12]:4·3, 7·3

Located on the boardwalk at the east end of the main beach is a street clock, known as the Wise Clock or Riis Park Memorial Clock. It was donated by Downtown Brooklyn jewelry dealer William A. Wise and Son, after the store moved to a new location.[14][12]:4·11 to 4·12[69] The clock was built by the Howard Watch Company in 1891 and moved to the park on March 4, 1941.[69] The clock has four faces, and originally operated on a single mechanism.[12]:4·11 to 4·12[10]:175–176[69] Renovations in the 1970s added four individual mechanisms.[10]:208

Parking lot[edit]

An aerial view of Riis Park and the Marine Parkway Bridge (background) in 1956

Located on the north side of Rockaway Beach Boulevard extending to Beach Channel Drive is the park's parking lot. At 62 acres (25 ha) or 72 acres (29 ha) in size, the parking lot is the largest individual feature in the park and occupies much of the park site north of the beach. The only entry point to the lot is at its south end in front of the bathhouse, where four toll booths are present.[4]:10 (PDF p.16)[88][12]:2·25[138][146] It was built with a capacity of 9,000[4]:10 (PDF p.16)[12]:2·21[138][57]:508 or 14,000[88][12]:2·15[61] automobiles. At the time of its construction, it was the largest paved parking lot in the world.[88][12]:2·15[61] The Jacob Riis Park lot, the 4,000-space lot on Randalls Island, and the 8,000-space lot at Orchard Beach collectively covered 1 square mile (2.6 km2) of land.[57]:508 A grade-level crosswalk to the west of the toll booths and a pedestrian underpass to the east lead across the street to the bathhouse.[12]:2·25[146] The lot is entirely circumscribed by the access roads to the park, with the roundabout located at its southeast corner, and the interchange with the Marine Park Bridge located near its northwest corner.[4]:10 (PDF p.16)[88][12]:2·24 to 2·25[138]

The parking lot was managed by the Marine Parkway Authority (which constructed and operated the Marine Parkway Bridge) until 1940, then by Robert Moses' Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority (which absorbed the Marine Parkway Authority) until 1968, and finally by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA)'s Bridges and Tunnels division until 1974 when the park was relinquished to the National Park Service.[12]:2·15 to 2·21[147][148] Parking fees collected from Riis Park contributed to the construction of the bridge.[12]:2·15

Additional features[edit]

At the west end of the park across from Fort Tilden is the park's 18-hole, pitch and putt golf course.[4]:6 (PDF p.12)[12]:5·4 It is 26 acres (11 ha) in size.[10]:146[149] The entrance to the course is from the boardwalk adjacent to the western mall building.[12]:5·4 The golf course was constructed during the 1936-1937 projects, and opened in August 1938.[10]:146 A New York City Fire Department station and a Park Police station are located at the northwest corner of the golf course, on Beach 169th Street across from Fort Tilden.[10]

At the southeast corner of the park just east of the bathhouse and adjacent to Neponsit is Neponsit Beach Hospital, a former children's tuberculosis hospital and later a nursing home. The hospital was built in 1915 on Riis Park property, and closed in September 1998.[150][70][151]

The park also contains conventional park recreation including playgrounds and sports fields located in the back beach area. Little league-size baseball fields are located at the west end of the hospital. Basketball courts are located at the west side of the bathhouse. Farther west near the central mall are handball, paddle ball, and shuffleboard courts. More basketball and handball courts were previously located along the southern edge of the golf course. There are also open grass areas for picnicking and grilling. One of these areas between the bathhouse and mall was previously a lighted softball field.[4]:15 (PDF p.21)[12]:5·4[10][14] The crescent-shaped plot of land east of the parking lot, 30 acres (12 ha) in size, is undeveloped and consists of open grass and trees. Baseball fields were formerly present on the southern portion of this site.[4]:8 (PDF p.14)

Beaches[edit]

The beach and bathhouse at dusk at Jacob Riis Park

The beaches at Jacob Riis Park consists of 14 bays numbered east-to-west on the Atlantic coast.[4]:6 (PDF p.12)[152][153] The main beach occupies the western half of the park, or Bays 6 through 14, at the mouth of the Central Mall. Bays 1 through 5 lie on the eastern half in front of Neponsit Beach Hospital and the park bathhouse. Bay 1 is directly in front of the hospital, while the bathhouse feeds into Bay 4.[88][70][14][152] The main beach features a distinctive crescent shape opening towards the Atlantic Ocean.[12]:7·3 The eastern half of the beach is much more narrow than the western half.[14] Each bay is separated by reinforced concrete jetties, boulders, and rows of wooden pilings which extend into the ocean.[14] The jetties also stabilize the sand of the beach.[12]:7·3 Until the 1950s, Bays 1 and 2 were part of the Neponsit Hospital property.[70] Adjacent to the east of Bay 1 is Rockaway Beach, another public beach which stretches from Neponsit to Far Rockaway at the east end of the peninsula.[139]:12–13 A fence separates the two beaches.[99]

Bay 1 is often considered the "adult" section of the beach.[14][100] It has historically been popular among the gay community, as well as nudists.[14][153][100][99][154] The remaining bays have also been informally segregated in the past.[14][154][87]

Transportation[edit]

Public transport[edit]

A retired Grumman 870 parked in front of Riis Park
The Riis Landing ferry stop on the Jamaica Bay shore

The Q22 and Q35 local buses serve the park on Rockaway Beach Boulevard. The Q22 runs east-to-west across the Rockaway Peninsula.[155] The Q35 travels between Rockaway Park and Brooklyn via the Marine Parkway Bridge.[156] During summer months (late May to early September) when the park is open, eastbound Q22 buses and all Q35 buses stop at the Riis Park bathhouse.[157] This stop also acts as a drop-off area for passenger cars.[12]:3·4 Off-season, the closest stop to the park is at Beach 149th Street in front of Neponsit Hospital; westbound Q22s use this stop during summer months.[157] An additional eastbound bus stop is located at the north end of the mall near the bridge.[4]:12 (PDF p.18)[12]:5·4[158][155][156][157] The QM16 express route to Manhattan also operates on Rockaway Beach Boulevard, terminating at the park bathhouse and parking lot. QM16 passengers utilize the parking lot as a park-and-ride facility.[158][159][160]

The closest New York City Subway station is the Rockaway Park–Beach 116th Street station on the IND Rockaway Line east of the park, served by the A and ​S trains.[139]:14[161] The Q22 and Q35 connect to the station. The Q35 also connects to the Flatbush Avenue–Brooklyn College station in Brooklyn.[161][158][155][156]

The New York Water Taxi operates a Rockaway ferry, also called the New York Beach Ferry, from Pier 11/Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, which stops at Riis Landing in front of Fort Tilden on Jamaica Bay. Service began in May 2008.[139]:15[162][163] NYC Ferry also operates the Rockaway Ferry route from Pier 11/Wall Street to Beach 108th Street in Rockaway Park. A free shuttle bus travels from the ferry terminal, stopping at Beach 149th Street, the Riis Park bathhouse, and Beach 169th Street.[164]

Road access[edit]

Highway access to Riis Park is provided by the Belt Parkway, which runs along the south shore of Brooklyn and Queens. The Belt Parkway connects to the Marine Parkway Bridge via its Flatbush Avenue exit in Marine Park, Brooklyn. Cross Bay Boulevard provides access from central Queens and Broad Channel, leading to both Beach Channel Drive and Rockaway Beach Boulevard.[4]:10–11 (PDF p.16–17)[138][139]:14 The Riis Park parking lot is a pay-to-park facility during summer months.[165]

In popular culture[edit]

The park was featured a Cracker Jack commercial in the late 1960s/early 1970s, with the boardwalk and the Wise clock shown.[10][127][166]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b National Park Service (2008-04-15). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society (1922). Annual Report of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society to the Legislature of the State of New York. pp. 30–31. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  3. ^ Jamaica Bay Environmental Study Group (January 1, 1971). Jamaica Bay and Kennedy Airport: a Multidisciplinary Environmental Study: A Report. National Academies. p. 44. NAP:15660. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Development Concept Plan, Environmental Assessment: Jacob Riis Park, Gateway National Recreation Area, New York-New Jersey". Internet Archive. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. June 1989. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "Department of Parks: Borough of Queens; 1912 Annual Report" (PDF). Department of Parks: Borough of Queens. 1912. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Emil R. Lucev (2007). The Rockaways. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-4990-3. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  7. ^ Peter Ross; William Smith Pelletreau (1905). A History of Long Island: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Lewis Publishing Company. p. 109. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  8. ^ Bessen, Jeff (October 11, 2012). "Woodsburgh marks its centennial: Small village had large impact on the way we live". Nassau Herald. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Jacob Riis Park". Nyharborparks.org. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce Unrau, Harian D. (April 1981). "Historic Structure Report: Jacob Riis Park Historic District; Historic Data; Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey-New York" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c d Alfred Henry Bellot (1918). History of the Rockaways from the year 1685 to 1917: being a complete record and review of events of historical importance during that period in the Rockaway Peninsula, comprising the villages of Hewlett, Woodmere, Cedarhurst, Lawrence, Inwood, Far Rockaway, Arverne, Rockaway Beach, Belle Harbor, Neponsit and Rockaway Point. Bellot's histories, inc. p. 22−26. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl "Cultural Landscape Report: Jacob Riis Park" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 1992. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Department of Parks: Borough of Queens; 1912 Annual Report" (PDF). Department of Parks: Borough of Queens. 1912. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Setha Low; Dana Taplin; Suzanne Scheld (May 21, 2009). Rethinking Urban Parks: Public Space and Cultural Diversity. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-77821-4. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  15. ^ "The Big Seaside Park: Full Report Adopted by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment last Friday". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. March 16, 1907. p. 1. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  16. ^ "Plea for Oceanside Park". New York Evening Post. Fultonhistory.com. 1907. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  17. ^ New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor (1907). Annual Report of the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor for the Fiscal Year .. The Association. pp. 43–44. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  18. ^ a b "Seaside Park Being Urged". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. December 4, 1909. p. 1. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  19. ^ "Cripple Aids Poor; Boy Caused Erection of Hospital to Cost $250,000". The Fayette Chronicle. Fultonhistory.com. 1912. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "Jacob A. Riis Park: Movement Starter to Change Name of Rockaway Beach Tract". The New York Times. May 28, 1914. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Lawrence Kaplan; Carol P. Kaplan (2003). Between Ocean and City: The Transformation of Rockaway, New York. Columbia University Press. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-231-12848-3. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  22. ^ "$250,000 Building; To be Erected at Seaside Park for Hospital Use". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. April 26, 1913. p. 1. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "Riis Bust". National Park Service. March 10, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  24. ^ Bellevue and Allied Hospitals (1915). Annual Report. pp. 39–40. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  25. ^ "Ocean Gives City Five Acres of Land". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. July 20, 1916. p. 5. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  26. ^ "Plan to "Steal" 30 Acres from Ocean". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. August 6, 1916. p. 4. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  27. ^ a b c d "PLAN TO BEAUTIFY RIIS PARK REVIVED; Development Outlined by C.F. Pilat in 1916 Competition Now Is Being Modernized. APPROVED BY CIVIC BODIES Queens Park Commission Prepares to Begin Work With Recent Allotment of $90,000. Plans Receive Backing. Would Preserve Shrubbery". The New York Times. June 23, 1930. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  28. ^ a b c "Competition for Landscape Design". Landscape Architecture. 4: 66–71. 1914. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  29. ^ American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society (1915). Annual Report. J.B. Lyon Company. p. 154. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  30. ^ "Astoria Park Pool and Play Center" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. June 20, 2006. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  31. ^ "Rockaway Beach for Bathers or Institutions?". The Survey. New York Survey Associates, Inc. 31 (16): 455–456. January 17, 1914. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  32. ^ "The First Flight Across the Atlantic" Archived September 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Naval Historical Center. Accessed July 11, 2007. "Soon the NC-l would establish a record by carrying 51 men aloft, including the first deliberate stowaway in aviation history."
  33. ^ "RIIS PARK DISPUTE ENDED.; City Leases 2 Private Flying Fields for Naval Militia Temporarily". The New York Times. February 20, 1930. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  34. ^ "TO WRECK AIR BASE AT ROCKAWAY BEACH; Navy Department Asks Bids for the Demolition of the War. Time Plane Station. SITE WILL BECOME A PARK Fifty-one Buildings Will Be Removed and Property Will BeRestored to City. Rockaway Hails Park Plan". The New York Times. October 12, 1930. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  35. ^ "ROCKAWAY FERRY OPENED BY HYLAN". The New York Times. October 18, 1925. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  36. ^ "Annual Report of the Department of Parks, Borough of Queens, City of New York, for the year 1926" (PDF). Department of Parks: Borough of Queens. March 15, 1929. Retrieved September 24, 2017. 
  37. ^ a b "Annual Report of the Department of Parks, Borough of Queens, City of New York, for the years 1927 and 1928" (PDF). Department of Parks: Borough of Queens. March 15, 1929. Retrieved September 24, 2017. 
  38. ^ "EXODUS TO ROCKAWAY FOR SUMMER BEGINS; 150,000 Go by Auto and Truck to Cottages at Beaches--Father and Son Rescued". The New York Times. June 29, 1930. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  39. ^ Duffus, R.L. (September 22, 1929). "OUR GREAT SUBWAY NETWORK SPREADS WIDER; New Plans of Board of Transportation Involve the Building of More Than One Hundred Miles of Additional Rapid Transit Routes for New York". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  40. ^ Board of Transportation of the City of New York Engineering Department, Proposed Additional Rapid Transit Lines And Proposed Vehicular Tunnel, dated August 23, 1929
  41. ^ Raskin, Joseph B. (November 1, 2013), The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System, Fordham University Press, ISBN 978-0-8232-5369-2 
  42. ^ "Jacob Riis Park". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. August 7, 1932. p. 24. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Marsh, John B.; Small, Sally (February 1986). "Historic Structure Report: Architectural Data Section: Jacob Riis Bathhouse Exterior, Jacob Riis Park Historic District, Gateway National Recreation Area". Internet Archive. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  44. ^ "GETS $105,000 MORE FOR RIIS PARK WORK; Benninger Obtains Estimate Board Approval to Spend $530,469 Instead of $425,000". The New York Times. September 30, 1931. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  45. ^ "Riis Park Pavilion Project Is to Get Under Way Today". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. November 23, 1931. p. 28. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  46. ^ "Work Of Constructing Bathing Pavilion In Riis Park Is Started". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. November 26, 1931. p. 5. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  47. ^ a b c "RIIS PARK PAVILION TO OPEN TOMORROW; Mayor Will Speak at Ceremony at New Bathing Centre -- Police Band to Play. BUILDING WORK SPEEDED Benninger Says Structure Will Be "Completed in Every Respect" Despite Recent Delays". The New York Times. August 5, 1932. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  48. ^ a b "Rockaways Get Hilly Pledge on Rapid Transit". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. August 7, 1932. p. 3. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  49. ^ a b c "Big Riis Park Solarium to Start in Spring". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. January 29, 1933. p. 48. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  50. ^ a b "Solarium to be Erected: Work on New Feature at Riis Park Starts This Fall". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. September 22, 1932. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  51. ^ a b c d e "Moses to Develop Riis Park as Model; Plans a 'Second Jones Beach' on City Ocean Front, Correcting Predecessor's Errors. TO REMODEL BATHHOUSE Will Raze Part of It and Take Out Sea Wall to Quadruple Space for Bathers". The New York Times. Wantagh, New York. August 7, 1934. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  52. ^ a b c "Would Add Ft. Tilden To Riis Acreage". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. May 2, 1932. p. 25. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  53. ^ "TO WEIGH RIIS PARK PLANS; Benninger, Architects and Park Association Officers Meet Tomorrow". The New York Times. August 25, 1931. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  54. ^ "Would Connect Riis Park Area With Brooklyn". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. May 2, 1932. p. 17. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  55. ^ "BEACH AT RIIS PARK TO OPEN ON JUNE 19; Attractive Seaside Resort Has Been Created on Former Waste of Sand Dunes". The New York Times. June 7, 1937. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  56. ^ a b c "The City Opens Two New Bathing Areas on the Jones Beach Model". The New York Times. June 20, 1937. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  57. ^ a b c Caro, Robert A. (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-48076-3. Retrieved 2017-09-14. 
  58. ^ "RIIS PARK WORK BEGUN; Beach Will Be Extended North of the Original Bulkhead". The New York Times. April 2, 1936. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  59. ^ "New Bus Route Here: Express Service Between Brooklyn, Seaside and Riis Park, Monday". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. June 11, 1936. Retrieved January 12, 2016. 
  60. ^ "Green Bus Lines Incorporated". Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. August 24, 1936. p. 13. Retrieved January 12, 2016. 
  61. ^ a b c d e "TWO NEW BEACHES TO OPEN SATURDAY; Orchard, in Pelham Bay Park, Although Not Completed, Will Be Ready for Bathers". The New York Times. June 13, 1937. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  62. ^ "City Beach Openings Put Off". The New York Times. June 16, 1937. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  63. ^ "TWO CITY BEACHES OPEN FOR SEASON; Jacob Riis Park, on the Ocean, Attracts 2,500--Few Bathers Brave the Chilly Water 3,000 AT ORCHARD BEACH At Least 1,000 Try Swimming in Long Island Sound--Joint Capacity of 500,000 NEW YORK OPENS TWO NEW RECREATIONAL AREAS TO PUBLIC". The New York Times. June 26, 1937. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  64. ^ "NEW RIIS PARK SPAN IS OPENED BY MAYOR; He Pays High Tribute to Moses at Dedication of Bridge Over Rockaway Inlet". The New York Times. July 4, 1937. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  65. ^ "MARINE BRIDGE IN PLACE; Span Over Jamaica Inlet to Be Open to Public July 3". The New York Times. May 26, 1937. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  66. ^ New York Times, Rockaway Bus Line Extends Service, July 3, 1937, page 17
  67. ^ "FIREWORKS AT RIIS PARK; Displays Opening Tonight Will Take Place Each Friday in August". The New York Times. August 6, 1937. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  68. ^ "Belt Road To Open to Traffic Today". The New York Times. June 29, 1940. p. 12. 
  69. ^ a b c d "Famed Sidewalk Clock Is Moved to Riis Park". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. March 4, 1941. p. 3. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  70. ^ a b c d e f g Freeman, Ira Henry (May 27, 1955). "2 Hospital Sites Sought for Parks". The New York Times. p. 25. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  71. ^ "City Loses Appeal to Sell Land Around Old Neponsit Hospital". New York Times. July 10, 1956. p. 33. Retrieved October 9, 2015. 
  72. ^ "Neponsit Hospital Property To Be Used For New Homes". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. July 28, 1955. p. 1. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  73. ^ "Neponsit Owners Fight Extension Of Riis Park: Object To Adding Neponsit Hospital Grounds To The Park Area; Say Extension Would Be Detrimental To Community And Nullify G-I Zone Effect". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. June 2, 1955. p. 1. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  74. ^ a b "The Hospital Story: Court Says "Return Land To the Department of Parks"; Board of Estimate And Gerosa Say "Hands Off"; Rockawayites Have Some Ideas Also!". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. May 31, 1956. p. 1. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  75. ^ "Gerosa Doubts Tax Hike Need". Long Island Star-Journal. Fultonhistory.com. October 25, 1955. p. 9. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  76. ^ "Neponsit Hospital Property Sale Favored By Park Assn". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. June 9, 1955. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  77. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (July 22, 1955). "MOSES PARK PLANN KILLED BY BOARD; Estimate Unit, Led by Gerosa, Bars Conversion of Old Neponsit Hospital Site MOSES PARK PLAN KILLED BY BOARD". The New York Times. pp. 25, 43. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  78. ^ "GEROSA BELITTLES MOSES' SEA PARKS; In Letter 'Resenting' Talk of 'Subdivision Boys' He Credits Nature's Bounty DRIVE TO SAVE NEPONSIT Civic Group Opens It Today With Petitions to Estimate Body to Reconsider Vote". The New York Times. July 23, 1955. p. 19. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  79. ^ "MOSES STEPS UP NEPONSIT ATTACK; He Charges 'Shenanigans' in City's Plan to Sell Site He Wants for Park WAGNER WILL TOUR AREA Commissioner Will Conduct Mayor on Trip Monday to Stress Need for Land". The New York Times. August 6, 1955. p. 17. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  80. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (August 30, 1955). "MOSES, IN RETORT, BELABORS GEROSA; Accuses Controller of Plan 'to Sell Off City Parks to Balance the Budget' NOT SO, SAYS OPPONENT Wagner to Ask That Board Reconsider Its 10-6 Vote to Sell Neponsit Site". The New York Times. p. 29. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  81. ^ a b Bennett, Charles G. (October 16, 1956). "CITY MAY CONVERT NEPONSIT FACILITY; Wagner and Stark Propose Abandoned Hospital Be Made Home for Aged PLAN WOULD END FEUD It Is Favored by Both Sides in the Court Fight Over Disposition of Site Park Development Planned". The New York Times. p. 35. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  82. ^ "City Loses Appeal to Sell Land Around Old Neponsit Hospital". The New York Times. July 10, 1956. p. 33. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  83. ^ "CITY IS SET TO OPEN NEW HOME FOR AGED". The New York Times. August 2, 1961. Retrieved August 28, 2017. 
  84. ^ "City to Build Home for Aged". Long Island Star-Journal. Fultonhistory.com. June 3, 1958. p. 2. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  85. ^ "Neponsit Home For The Aged Gets Green Light By Board Of Estimate". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. February 19, 1959. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  86. ^ "Youth, 18, Fatally Stabbed, Friend Knifed at Riis Park". The New York Times. May 31, 1962. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  87. ^ a b c d e Lorch, Donatella (September 7, 1991). "Giving Riis, the Forgotten Park, a Better Image". The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "National Register of Historic Inventory - Nomination Form For Federal Properties: Jacob Riis Park Historic District (Gateway NRA)". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. June 17, 1981. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Request for Proposals Jacob Riis Park" (PDF). National Park Service. 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  90. ^ Bird, David (February 3, 1974). "Gateway Planners Focus on Riis Park; Vandallsm a Problem". The New York Times. p. 77. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  91. ^ "Nudists in Riis Park Warned Of Closing by U.S. Magistrate". The New York Times. July 18, 1974. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  92. ^ Kaufman, Michael T. (July 22, 1974). "It Was a Dayof Comfort, In the Nude or Clothed". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  93. ^ "Council Bill Would Bar Sunbathing in the Nude". The New York Times. July 25, 1974. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  94. ^ "Riis Park is Closed To Water Activities Because of Sewage". The New York Times. June 30, 1976. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  95. ^ Kihss, Peter (August 4, 1978). "Oil From a Sunken Barge Closes Coney Island and Other Beaches". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  96. ^ "Last 2 of 5 City Beaches That Were Closed by Oil Spill Are Reopened". The New York Times. August 8, 1978. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  97. ^ Fower, Glen (May 27, 1979). "Riis Park Bus Service Is Extended". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2017. 
  98. ^ "'6 Buses An Hour Tops' Greeley Proposal OKd". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. July 7, 1979. p. 5. Retrieved January 19, 2016. 
  99. ^ a b c "NUDE SUNBATHING AT RIIS PARK IS BANNED BY NEW STATE LAW". The New York Times. June 27, 1983. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  100. ^ a b c Colangelo, Lisa L. (June 17, 2012). "Rockaway residents fume over loss of Riis Park fence". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  101. ^ a b "Development Concept Plan, Environmental Assessment: Jacob Riis/Fort Tilden, Gateway National Recreation Area, New York-New Jersey". Internet Archive. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. March 1988. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  102. ^ a b c d Fried, Joseph P. (May 17, 1988). "Environmental Fears Cast Pall Over Riis Park Project". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  103. ^ deCourcy Hinds, Michael (May 4, 1986). "U.S. Offering Gateway Park Properties for Leasing". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  104. ^ a b c d Fried, Joseph P. (July 4, 1989). "Plan to Restore a Park in Queens Is Scaled Down". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  105. ^ a b Fried, Joseph P. (October 9, 1989). "Opponents of Queens Park Development Get Federal Money". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  106. ^ Marriott, Michel (July 18, 1988). "Medical Waste Shuts Jacob Riis Park Beach". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  107. ^ Barron, James (July 19, 1988). "MEDICAL WASTE KEEPS 3 NEW YORK BEACHES SHUT". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  108. ^ Verhover, Sam Howe (July 22, 1988). "New York Officials Disagree Over Beach Debris". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  109. ^ a b Lyall, Sarah (September 11, 1991). "Beach Medical Waste: Debris but No Panic". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  110. ^ Myers, Steven Lee (September 1, 1991). "RISS BEACH CLOSED BECAUSE OF WASTE". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  111. ^ a b c Foderaro, Lisa W. (August 21, 2012). "A Promise Unfulfilled at an Art Deco Bathhouse in the Rockaways". The New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  112. ^ a b Hays, Elizabeth (July 9, 2006). "Riis shore is in sorry state. Park is crumbling from years of neglect by feds, beachgoers gripe". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  113. ^ "450G WILL HELP REFURBISH RIIS PARK IN THE ROCKAWAYS". New York Daily News. November 30, 1999. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  114. ^ Becker, Maki (July 2, 2001). "FEDS EYE 4M FOR RIIS FIXUP". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  115. ^ Woodberry, Warren, Jr. (March 17, 2003). "GATEWAY TO GET $3.6M SPRUCE-UP Marina plans new showers, docks, pilings". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  116. ^ Woodberry, Warren, Jr. (August 11, 2002). "FLOATING THEIR PLAN FOR A RIIS PARK POOL". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  117. ^ Schwach, Howard (July 7, 2001). "$4 Million Riis Pool: Maybe Yes, Maybe No". Wave of Long Island. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  118. ^ Schwach, Howard (February 15, 2003). "Weiner: Riis Pool Would Drown In Red Ink". Wave of Long Island. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  119. ^ Woodberry, Warren, Jr. (November 2, 2003). "$4.2M FACE-LIFT FOR PARK Restoration & renovation at Jacob Riis". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  120. ^ Lepeska, David; Son, Hugh (August 28, 2005). "SPRAY'S A SIGHT FOR SHORE EYES. Beachgoers rip $22M Riis fixup". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  121. ^ a b Remizowski, Leigh (April 11, 2010). "Students hired artist David Ostro to recreate lost Jacob Riis bust for Far Rockaway park". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  122. ^ a b "He's Back! Jacob Riis Returns". National Park Service. April 15, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  123. ^ "HR 2606". CRS Summary of HR 2606. Library of Congress. Retrieved February 6, 2012. 
  124. ^ a b Lesser, Benjamin; Gendar, Alison (February 9, 2012). "Rep. Michael Grimm's campaign contributions from backers of proposed gas pipeline thru Riis Park draw criticism". Newspapers.com. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  125. ^ a b c Trapasso, Claire (June 13, 2012). "Plan to extend natural gas pipeline through Rockaways gets chilly reception". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  126. ^ a b Colangelo, Lisa L. (February 8, 2013). "Bird's eye view of Sandy's fury". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  127. ^ a b Patrylo, John; Guarino, Dan (April 12, 2013). "Riis Clock Still Stands". Wave of Long Island. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  128. ^ Colangelo, Lisa L. (January 16, 2013). "Jacob Riis monument still stands despite a wallop from Superstorm Sandy". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  129. ^ a b Foderaro, Lisa W. (January 10, 2013). "Before Rebuilding Beaches, Plucking Debris From Storm-Tossed Sand". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  130. ^ "Sand Pyramids Rise At Riis Park". Wave of Long Island. January 4, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  131. ^ Doherty, John J. (October 25, 2013). "From The Sanitation Commissioner: One Of DSNY's 'Strongest' Challenges". Wave of Long Island. Retrieved September 8, 2017. 
  132. ^ Tumola, Cristabelle (January 4, 2013). "PHOTOS: Eerie sand dunes created in the Rockaways after Sandy". Queens Chronicle. Retrieved September 8, 2017. 
  133. ^ Pesce, Nicole Lyn (May 22, 2013). "City's beaches to reopen after repairs from Hurricane Sandy". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 8, 2017. 
  134. ^ "Work Under Way To Restore Historic Jacob Riis Park Bathhouse". WCBS-TV. New York City. November 24, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017. 
  135. ^ Chan, Melissa (December 4, 2012). "Obama signs bill for gas pipeline under the Rockaways". Queens Courier. Retrieved September 8, 2017. 
  136. ^ "Riis Park Pipeline Approved By Obama". Wave of Long Island. November 30, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2017. 
  137. ^ "Williams Rockaway Delivery Lateral and Northeast Connector Pipeline Projects Complete, Now Flowing Natural Gas to New York City". Williams Companies. Tulsa, Oklahoma. May 15, 2015. Retrieved September 8, 2017. 
  138. ^ a b c d e f "U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service And U.S. Federal Highway Administration Eastern Federal Lands Highway Division; Gateway National Recreation Area Jamaica Bay Unit New York City, New York; Jamaica Bay Transportation Studies Development Concept Plan/Environmental Assessment/Assessment of Effect". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. May 5, 2006. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  139. ^ a b c d e "Rockaway Parks Conceptual Plan" (PDF). New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, New York City Economic Development Corporation. 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  140. ^ New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor (1910). Annual Report of the New-York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  141. ^ "History of City–Owned Beaches". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  142. ^ "Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit Jamaica Bay Greenway Missing Links Study" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, United States Department of Transportation. 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  143. ^ a b "Bathing Pavilion Proposed for Jacob Riis Park in Rockaways". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. August 24, 1930. p. 22. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  144. ^ a b "New Pavilion Dedicated Saturday; Absence Of Walker Disappointing". Wave of Long Island. Fultonhistory.com. August 11, 1932. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  145. ^ "Gateway National Recreation Area Bay 9/ East Mall Building 2014 Request for Proposals" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  146. ^ a b c "Locker Rooms at Riis Park Made Larger: Facilities at Queens Beach". Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. November 13, 1936. p. 23. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  147. ^ "MTA's Bridge To The Beach". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 4, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  148. ^ "Marine Parkway-Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  149. ^ "New Riis Park At Rockaway Opens on 19th". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Fultonhistory.com. June 7, 1937. p. 7. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  150. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (November 30, 2006). "In Queens, Closed Nursing Home Still Open to Controversy". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2017. 
  151. ^ Gearty, Robert (June 3, 2003). "CITY TO PAY IN AGE-OLD SUIT 5M deal for nursing home shutdown". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 28, 2017. 
  152. ^ a b "Gateway National Recreation Area: Maps". National Park Service. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  153. ^ a b "Neighborhood Report: Riis Park; Claiming Their Patches of Sand". The New York Times. August 11, 2002. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  154. ^ a b William, Terry; Komblum, William. "Segregation and Use at Riis Park" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved August 29, 2017. 
  155. ^ a b c "MTA Bus Time: Q22 Rockaway Beach Blvd - Beach Channel Dr". mta.info. MTA Bus Time. 
  156. ^ a b c "MTA Bus Time: Q35 Rockaway Park - Brooklyn College". mta.info. MTA Bus Time. 
  157. ^ a b c "Planned Service Changes: Summer service to and from Jacob Riis Park". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  158. ^ a b c "Queens Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  159. ^ McCarthy, Ellen (December 16, 2011). "Move QM 16 Back". Wave of Long Island. Archived from the original on October 7, 2015. Retrieved October 6, 2015. 
  160. ^ "Goldfeder Improves Morning Commute For QM16 Riders". Queens Gazette. January 13, 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  161. ^ a b "MTA Neighborhood Maps: The Rockaways" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2015. 
  162. ^ Ferry, New York Beach. "New York Whale Watching - Whale, Dolphin, Bird, Turtle Watching NY - July 4th Fireworks New York". Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  163. ^ Brosh, Brendan (May 12, 2008). "New Rockaway ferry route to Wall Street awash in funding brouhaha". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  164. ^ Warerkar, Tanay (November 11, 2016). "Ferry service to the Rockaways will get a boost from bus service: Two free shuttle buses will run to and from the ferry terminal". Curbed. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 
  165. ^ "Fees & Passes - Gateway National Recreation Area (U.S. National Park Service)". Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  166. ^ "Looking Backward: What The Wave Said 20 Years Ago.." Wave of Long Island. March 11, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2017. 

External links[edit]