Malankara Jacobite Syrian Christian Church

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church)
Jump to: navigation, search
Syrian Orthodox Church
Syriac orthodox COA.svg
Syriac Orthodox Church Emblem
Independence Apostolic Era
Recognition Oriental Orthodox
Primate H.B Aboon Mor Baselios Thomas I (under the authority of Patriarch of Antioch and All the East Ignatius Aphrem II)
Headquarters Kochi, India
Territory India
Possessions India, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America
Language Malayalam, English, Hindi, Syriac
Members 2 Million[citation needed]
Website jscnews.org
Viswasasamrakshakan.org
Jacobite Wedding

Jacobite Syrian Christian Church aka Malankara Syrian Church (Malayalam: Malankara Suriyani Sabha) (so called after its association with Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch) commonly and erroneously referred to as the Jacobites , is an integral part of the Syriac Orthodox Church; located in Kerala, India. The Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, Ignatius Aphrem II, is its supreme head. It functions as an autonomous Indian church within the Syriac Orthodox church with a provincial episcopal synod, under the authority of the Catholicos of India present Baselios Thomas I, ordained by and accountable to the Patriarch of Antioch. . It is a part of the Saint Thomas Christian community, which traces its origin to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.[1][2][3][4][5]

Historically, the Saint Thomas Christians were united in leadership and liturgy, and were part of the Syriac Orthodox Church centred in Persia.[6][7] From the 16th century the Portuguese Jesuits attempted to subject the community fully into the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. Resentment of these measures led the community to a swearing never to submit to the Portuguese in the famous Coonan Cross Oath event in 1653. Later many deflected back to the Roman Catholic faith. The part of the St.Thomas church that followed Parambil Thomas Kathanar aka Mar Thoma I is known as the Malankara Church.

After the request of Malankara Church Gregorios Abdul Jaleel of Jerusalem, established first Archdeacon For Malankara Church. Over time, however, relations soured between the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs and the local hierarchy, particularly after Patriarch Ignatius Peter IV (reigned 1872—1894) demanded registered deeds for the transfer of properties. In 1912, a synod led by the Patriarch Ignatius Abdul Masih II, who had been controversially deposed by the Ottoman government,[8][9] consecrated Evanios as Catholicos of the East, under the name Baselios Paulose I. The faction that supported Baselios Paulose became what is now the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, while those who supported the new Patriarch, Ignatius Abded Aloho II, who opposed that consecration, became the Jacobite Church. In 2002, Supreme Court appointed a Judge ( Justice Malimat ) to organise the Malankara Association to elect and select their Malankara Metropolitan but a section of people under the leadership of Baselios Thomas gathered at Puthencruz officially at the same time and proclaimed Baselios Thomas as Catholicos. By the permission of Patriarch, later he went Lebanon and met Patriarch of Antioch to have apostolic blessings cementing his place as Catholicos. Attempts by church leaders and two Supreme Court decisions were unable to resolve the contention, and the two churches operate independently today.

As part of the Syriac Orthodox communion the church uses the West Syrian liturgy and is part of the Oriental Orthodox group of churches. It has dioceses in most parts of India as well as in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Western Europe, and the Persian Gulf nations. In 2003 it was estimated that the church has 80,000 members globally.[10] The members of the Church are known as Nazaranis.

Part of a series on
Saint Thomas Christians
മാർത്തോമാ നസ്രാണികൾ
St. Thomas Cross
Alternate names
Nasrani · Mar Thoma Nasrani · Syrian Christians
History
Saint Thomas · Thomas of Cana · Mar Sabor and Mar Proth · Tharisapalli plates · Synod of Diamper · Coonan Cross Oath
Religion
Ancient crosses · Churches · Shrines · Liturgical language · Church music
Prominent persons
Abraham Malpan · Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar · Kayamkulam Philipose Ramban · Kuriakose Elias Chavara · Mar Thoma I · Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly · Sadhu Kochoonju Upadesi · Kariattil Mar Ousep · Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril · Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala · Ignatius Elias III · Geevarghese Mar Ivanios · Saint Alphonsa · Yeldho Mar Baselios · Euphrasia Eluvathingal · Thoma of Villarvattom
Culture

Margam Kali · Parichamuttukali · Cuisine · Suriyani Malayalam

Name[edit]

The legal name of the autonomous body of the Syriac Orthodox Church in India is the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church. It is also known as the Syriac Orthodox Church of Malankara. The local Episcopal synod is led by the Catholicos of India . The Catholicos is ordained by and accountable to the Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church. The Patriarch holds both temporal and spiritual control where the Catholicate has jurisdiction, however restricts exercising temporal power due to the nature of affairs and independent history of the church. However, the Indian section or its bishops including its local head has absolutely no say or voting rights in the selection of the Patriarch of Antoich.

In 2000, a Holy Synod ruled that the name of the church in English should be the "'Syriac Orthodox Church". It had been, and often still is today, called the "Syrian Orthodox Church". The church in India uses the current legal name and inclusion of the term "Jacobite" as a way of distinguish themselves from the other faction known as the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (Indian Orthodox Church) or Methran Kakshi as well as to prevent the transference of churches to the other in legal disputes.

Historically, the Syrian Christians of India were organized as a body known as the Syrian Church. When the faith, traditions, and practice of the Syriac Orthodox Church were integrated it became the Orthodox Syrian Church in keeping with how the phrase would be said in the grammar of Malayalam. Afterwards, the name was known as Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, a direct English transliteration/translation of the phrase Malankaralayulla Orthodox Suriyani Sabha. However, when some leadership, including the "Catholicose" at the time and several laypeople of this body broke away from the Syriac Orthodox Church resulting in the fracture of the Syriac Orthodox Church in Malankara, the remaining leadership and faithful reorganized under the name that was traditionally used as an insult for the global Syriac Orthodox Church, the word Jacobite.

Due to its keeping with Cyrillian phrasing of the nature of Christ, the Syriac Church of Antioch and the Coptic Church of Alexandria rejected the Council of Chalcedon and was branded as heretics by the churches of Rome and Constantinople. In this first division of the Christian Church, these two former patriarchates and their churches were persecuted resulting in the near elimination of the Syriac Orthodox Church. It, however, continued to remain and survived due to the instrumental efforts of Jacob Baradaeus. Thus, the church was called Jacob-ites by other Chalcedonian churches to insinuate that the church was new body that formed under Jacob Baradaeus rather than then direct continuation of the Syriac Orthodox Church and the Patriarchate of Antioch.

The Semitic approach of evening and morning are used to mark the observations of fasting and prayer and the preparation for the Eucharist. However, the Malayalam Calendar was used to make the more recent religious events such establishment dates of churches, houses and gravestones until recently. Now that practice has virtually ceased in favor of the standard Western, Gregorian calendar.

Malankara Syrian Church Sunday School Text Book

Headquarters[edit]

Patriarch Ignatius Zaka I Iwas Centre - Patriarchal Centre: The headquarters of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church in India

Puthencruz is the headquarters of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church in India. The headquarters is situated near the St. Peter's and St. Paul's Jacobite Syrian church. Its headquarters is named after the illustrious Patriarch of Antioch Ignatius Zakka I Iwas. The property was bought and built under the leadership of the Catholicos of India Baselios Thomas I, after the church faced difficulties in continuing its functioning from its base at Muvattupuzha with the demise of Catholicos Baselios Paulose II. Within a short time this religious centre rose to significance inside the community and state.

The Catholicossate chapel is named after Poulose Mor Athanasius of Aluva and under the chapel is situated the space for tombs for the use of future Catholicos of the church. An Arts and Science college named after Mor Athanasius of Aluva is also run in the premises of the Zakka centre. It is the place where Akhila Malankara Suvisesha Yogam, the official gospel convention of the community, that is generally conducted from 26 to 31 December of every year. The official publishing house of the church, JSC Publishers and JSC News, the official media of the church are also a part of the large complex.Its subsidiary institutions such as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Sunday School Association (MJSSA) is also based in Puthencruz.

History[edit]

[11]

Relationship of the Nasrani (Saint Thomas Christians) groups
For the current Catholicos of India, see Catholicos Baselios Thomas I.

Thomas the Apostle is credited by tradition for founding the Indian Church in 52 AD.[1][12][13][14] This "Nasrani" faith had many similarities to ancient Judaism, see also Jewish Christianity, and owing to the heritage of the Nasrani people, developed contacts with the Nestorian religious authorities of Edessa, Mesopotamia.

The local church maintained its autonomous character under its local leader. When the Portuguese established themselves in India in the 16th century, they found the Church in Kerala as an administratively independent community. Following the arrival of Vasco de Gama in 1498, the Portuguese came to South India and established their political power there. They brought missionaries to carry out evangelistic work in order to establish churches in communion with Rome under the Portuguese patronage. These missionaries were eager to bring the Indian Church under the Pope's control. They succeeded in their efforts in 1599 with the Synod of Diamper. The representatives of various parishes who attended the assembly were forced by Portuguese authorities to accept the Papal authority.

Following the synod, the Indian Church was governed by Portuguese prelates. They were generally unwilling to respect the integrity of the local church. This resulted in disaffection which led to a general revolt in 1653 known as the "Coonan Cross Oath".Under the leadership of their elder Thomas, Nazranis around Cochin gathered at Mattancherry church on Friday, 24 January 1653 (M.E. 828 Makaram 3) and made an oath that is known as the Great Oath of Bent Cross. The following oath was read aloud and the people touching a stone-cross repeated it loudly. By the Father, Son and Holy Spirit that henceforth we would not adhere to the Franks, nor accept the faith of the Pope of Rome.[15] This reference from the The Missionary Register of 1822 seems to be the earliest reliable document available. Those who were not able to touch the cross tied ropes on the cross, held the rope in their hands and made the oath. Because of the weight it is believed by the followers that the cross bent a little and so it is known as "Oath of the bent cross" (Coonen Kurisu Sathyam). This demanded administrative autonomy for the local church. Since it had no bishop, it faced serious difficulties. It appealed to several eastern Christian churches for help. The Antiochene Syrian Patriarch responded and sent metropolitan Mar Gregorios of Jerusalem to India in 1665. He confirmed Marthoma I as the bishop and worked together with him to organize the Church.

Faith and traditions[edit]

The Jacobite Syrian Church accepts only three Ecumenical Synods namely Nicea (A.D.325), Constantinople (A.D. 381) and Ephesus (A. D. 431) as the universal Synods. The Church meticulously observe all faith declaration of the Nicean Creed. The western church at a later stage appended a statement to this creed attributing the Holy Ghost to be originating from Son also, Filioque which we do not accept. The Church was totally merged with the divine element and became one Monophysite.The church believes that Jesus Christ is one Person out of two natures namely human and divine. He is perfect man and perfect God. But Western Church had wrongly construed us Monophysites. This was an unfortunate error that creeped into the Werstern Church History. But this anomaly was removed as a result of the deliberations at Vienna under the auspices of Pro-Orienete'.The faith of Oriental Orthodoxy like Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian and Indian Church are in line with the beliefs of Syrian Churches. The Holy church assiduously teach its members that the Church is One, Holy, Catholic and Apostholic enshrined with all elements of full-fledged Church and it paves way for salvation and that it is the duty of each member to obey the directions of the Church. The sacramental rites such as Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Confession, Priestly Orders, Matrimony and Sacrament to sick are held sacred and the members have ardent belief in their efficacy. Among those the first three rites are not only given together but are most important and each member has to partake in these without fail.

Baptism[edit]

The Syrian Church believes in infant baptism. Hot and cold water mixed together is used for baptism.

Eucharist[edit]

Catholicos Baselios Thomas I Celebrated Holy Mass

The Eucharist is believed to represent the Body and Blood of Christ. But we do not accept the 'transubstatiation' of the Roman Catholic Church , whereby the bread and wine transmuted into the very Body and Blood of Christ. Leavened bread and wine are used in the Eucharist and given to the believers as the sacred Body and Blood.The departed souls are remembered in prayers and Holy Eucharist is conducted in their memory. There is another practice of annually celebrating the day of demise of any person at his house with prayer and offering of incense at the tomb.

Holy Bible[edit]

The Holy Bible is revered as the word of God. Every Sundays and other sacred days, Bible is invariably read. During the sacramental rites and common prayers the Bible is read by the priest and as a mark of reverence candles are lit and held either sides. The traditions of the church that have been handed down by the early Church Fathers are revered fervently and observed strictly as that of Bible. The Holy Bible and the traditions of the Church are esteemed as the criteria of the Church's faith.

Bible in Syriac tradition[edit]

Syriac Orthodox Churches use the Peshitta (Syriac: simple, common) as its Bible. The Old Testament books of this Bible were translated from Greek to Syriac between the late 1st century to the early 3rd century AD.[16]

The Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated from the Hebrew, probably in the 2nd century. The New Testament of the Peshitta, which originally excluded certain disputed books, had become the standard by the early 5th century, replacing two early Syriac versions of the gospels.

Saint Mary and Saints[edit]

St.Mary is the perpetual virgin and mother of God who is esteemed as the first among the saints. Inercessory prayers are offered in the names of the Saints, Churches are built in their venerated memory and their relies are honored and their memories are celebrated Conception for St. Mary is not accepted by the Syrian Church.

Lent[edit]

The Church teaches that observing lent, refraining from rich food is good for the spiritual awakening. The Church observes every Wednesday and Friday as day of lent. Also there are five lent annually such as 50 days lent before Easter, the lent of Apostles the lent in the name of St.Mary, the lent before Christmas and the 3 day lent (Nineweh).

Apostolic Benediction and succession[edit]

The church believes that it receives Apostolic Benediction and succession through the Patriarchs seated on the throne of St.Peter at Antioch and the Patriarchs are the successors of St. Peter. The Apostolic laying on the hands is regarded to be absolutely essential for the Order of Priesthood. Those priest who have received such ordination only have the authority to perform liturgy and give sacraments.

confession[edit]

The church teaches the priest to be the designate of Christ and as such he is empowered to forgive sins. The believers make secret confession before the priest forgives the sins in the name of Christ. The Church asserts the need for marriage to those priests who are Vicars of Parishes. But the bishops are unmarried and must adhere to celibacy. The Priests are not allowed to remarry. The Church also preaches that matrimony is sacred and marriage relation is undissolvable.

Holy Oil[edit]

The Sick are anointed with sacred oil for recuperation and atonement of sins. Basically this sacrament has been conceived for the healing of the sick, but it is now generally misunderstood and observed as the last sacrament.

The Major Feasts[edit]

The church expects its members to observe Sunday and sacred days as holy and to refrain from routine engagements. Traditionally there are nine such sacred days a year and they are Christmas, Baptisam of Jesus, His entry into the Church, Gabriel's Announcement to St. Mary of the impending birth of the saviour, Ascension, Transfiguration, Feast of Cross, the ascension of St. Mary the mother of God and remembrance of St. Peter & St. Paul. In addition to these, other important occasions are St.Thomas day. Passover, Good Friday, Holy Saturday and Resurrection during Passion Week.

Worship[edit]

The Syrians do not worship idols but the pictures of Jesus, St. Mary and other Saints are displayed in the Churches and houses. During Prayer, facing east ward is the practice. The monks in monasteries should pray seven times and the laity twice daily. It is also specified that only canonical prayers can be used in public worship.

Prayer[edit]

Dayroyo Naseeho Very Rev. Phinehas Monk of malecruz Dayara

Syriac Orthodox clergy and some devout laity follow a regimen of seven prayers a day, in accordance with Psalm 119.[17] According to the Syriac Tradition, an ecclesiastical day starts at sunset:

  • Evening or Ramsho prayer (Vespers)
  • Night prayer or Sootoro prayer (Compline)
  • Midnight or Lilyo prayer (Matins)
  • Morning or Saphro prayer (Prime or Lauds, 6 a.m.)
  • Third Hour or tloth sho`in prayer (Terce, 9 a.m.)
  • Sixth Hour or sheth sho`in prayer (Sext, noon)
  • Ninth Hour or tsha` sho'in prayer (None, 3 p.m.)

Belief[edit]

The church believes in the second coming of Jesus and in the last judgment when the righteous would be rewarded with eternal heavenly tranquility and the wicked will be banished to perpetual hell.

Monasticism[edit]

Malecruz Dayaro (Syriac Orthodox Monastery of India )

The Syriac Orthodox Church enriched by ancient monasteries. From the beginning of the 4th century, many famous monasteries were founded throughout the lands under the jurisdiction of the Antiochian see, that is to say in Syria, Mesopotamia, on the southern coast of Palestine, in the Syrian desert, in Gozarto (Mount Edessa), at Mount Izala, which surveys Nisibis and Tur-Abdin, and in Qardu and Al-Faf close to Mosul. They became centres of learning and of the virtuous life; thousands of monks and nuns withdrew into them from the worldly life in their quest for the Kingdom of God.The First Monastery of Malankara Church was built by the Patriarchal delegate Mor Yulius Elias Qoro over the tomb of the Patriarch Ignatius Elias III on manjanikara [18]

Catholicos of India[edit]

Catholicose of India is an ecclesiastical office in the Syriac Orthodox Church, the head of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church in Kerala, India. He is the Catholicos/Maphrian of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church an autonomous body within the Syriac Orthodox Church, and functions at an ecclesiastical rank second to the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. The jurisdiction of the Syriac Orthodox Catholicos is limited to India and Indian diaspora, although he is often invited to preside over Syriac Orthodox functions abroad.[19] The current Catholicos of India is Catholicos Baselios Thomas I, who was consecrated in 2002.

The position was created in the 20th century, amid a series of splits within the local Malankara Church and the broader Syriac Orthodox communion that divided the community into rival Jacobite Syrian and Indian Orthodox factions. It was instituted to provide a regional head for Jacobite Syrian Church, the faction that remained closely aligned with the Patriarch of Antioch.

Catholicos/Maphrian[edit]

The word is a transliteration of the Greek καθολικός, pl. καθολικοί, meaning concerning the whole, universal or general. It was a title that existed in the Roman Empire where Government representative who was in charge of a large area was called ‘Catholicos’. The Churches later started to use this term for their Chief Bishops.

‘Maphriyono’ (Maphrian) is derived from the Syriac word 'afri', "to make fruitful’, or "one who gives fecundity". This title be used exclusively for the head of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the East. From the mid 13th century onwards, a few occupants of the Maphrianate were referred also as ‘Catholicos’, but the title never came into extensive usage.

In the 20th century when this office of the Maphrianate under the See of Antioch was established in India, the chief of the local church assumed the title ‘Catholicos’. It is this title that is being used in India today, whilst the title Maphrian is no longer used.[19] Both the titles have the same meaning in the Syriac Orthodox Context.[20]

Origins and development of the Catholicate in India[edit]

As the political rivalries were great between the Roman and Persian Empires, the Persian Church thought it wise to create a local leader, since the Zoroastrian rulers of Persia were strongly suspicious of any contacts between their Persian Christian minority, and the Christians in the enemy Roman Empire. In the 4th century, the bishop of the Persian capital of Seleucia, Mar Papa, had been declared the first Catholicos of the Church of the East. Mar Issac, bishop of Seleucia, became the first royally recognized Catholicos, empowered to exercise authority over the Church's Persian jurisdictions excluding India. In the 5th century, as part of the Nestorian schism, the Persian Christians separated from the Christians of the Roman Empire. In the 16th century, another split occurred, with the Nestorian branch becoming known as the Assyrian Church of the East, and another branch joining into communion with Rome, to become the Chaldean Catholic Church. The Assyrian Christians sought to better establish themselves by claiming that the Apostle Thomas not only evangelized their territories and ordained presbyters, but gave authority to specific successors to govern the Church. This teaching contradicted the teachings of Nicaea. To maintain Orthodoxy, patriarchs continued to ordain local Orthodox Maphriyono, who assumed the title Catholicos centuries later.[21]

Public consecration of Thomas Mar Dionysius as Baselios Thomas I, Catholicos of India of the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church (seated) by the Patriarch of Antioch, H. H. Ignatious Zakka I Iwas, and the universal episcopal synod. 31 July 2002, Damascus

A reconciliation movement gathered momentum in the 1950s and culminated in the consecration of Mar Augen I by the bishop's Synod presided over by the Patriarch Ignatius Jacob III, canonically establishing the Catholicate as the spiritual and temporal head of the Church in India (1964) under the authority of the Patriarch of Antioch. The camps later split again in 1975 with the Patriarch Ignatius Jacob III excommunicating the Catholicos Mor Augen I after renewed efforts to from an autocephalous and national church. Mor Augen I in turn excommunicated the Patriarch, favoring autocephaly and "Thomasine" hierarchical succession.

The office of the Catholicate favoring the Patriarch's supremacy was continued with the consecration of Mor Baselios Paulose II by Patriarch Jacob III in 1975. After Mor Baselios Paulose II's demise in 1996 the office remained vacant for several years to accommodate reconciliation attempts, which were unsuccessful.

In 2002 Baselios Thomas I was consecrated by Patriarch Ignatius Zakka I Iwas to be the local head of the Malankara Archdiocese of Syriac Orthodox Church. His Beatitiude's official title was made Catholicos of India. due to the region of his jurisdiction. He functions at an ecclesiastical rank second only to the Patriarch, having the privilege to preside over the consecration of new patriarchs. The Catholicos is welcomed brotherly alongside the Patriarch at ecclesiastical and ecumenical functions, and hosted the Patriarch during a state visit to India in 2005.

This Catholicate is headquartered at Puthencruz, Kerala, India. The Catholicos of India presides over the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Christian Association

Catholicos Baselios Thomas I[edit]

Catholicos of the Syriac Orthodox Church in India and Metropolitan Trustee of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church.

Catholicos Baselios Thomas I(Mal: ആബൂന്‍ മോര്‍ ബസേലിയോസ് തോമസ്‌ പ്രഥമന്‍ കാതോലിക്ക ബാവ, b: July 22, 1929) is the current Maphrian i.e. Catholicos of the Syriac Orthodox Church in India and Metropolitan Trustee of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church.His official title is Catholicos of India. On 26 July 2002 he was enthroned by Patriarch Ignatius Zakka I Iwas, Patriarch of Antioch and All the Eastfor Syrian Jacobite Christians in India.Her ceremony held at Damascus, Syria.The position had remained vacant between 1996 (date of death of Catholicos Baselios Paulose II) and 2002.

Lineage of Catholicos of India[edit]

Gregorios Abdul Jaleel

Saints of the Church[edit]

Dioceses[edit]

The Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church has the following dioceses

Manarcad Marthamariam Cathedral, Manarcad Church
Bethel Suloko Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church, Perumbavoor, Kerala

Archdioceses (Autonomous)[edit]

There are Archdioceses under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Antioch:

  1. Knanaya Archdiocese
    1. Region of Chingavanam
    2. Region of Kallisseri
    3. Region of Ranni
    4. Region of Malabar
    5. Region of USA, Canada and Europe
  2. Malankara Archdiocese of North America
    1. Diocese of America
    2. Diocese of Canada
  3. Malankara Archdiocese of Europe
    1. Patriarchal Vicarate of Ireland
    2. Patriarchal Vicarate of UK
    3. Patriarchal vicarate of Germany & Central Europe

Dioceses in Kerala[edit]

  1. Kollam Diocese[22]
  2. Thumpamon Diocese[23]
  3. Niranam Diocese[24]
  4. Kottayam Diocese[25]
  5. Idukki Diocese[26]
  6. Kandanad Diocese[27]
  7. Kochi Diocese[28]
  8. Angamaly(Largest Diocese)
    1. Angamaly Region
    2. Perumbavoor Region
    3. Kothamangalam Region
    4. Highrange Region
    5. Muvattupuzha Region
    6. Pallikkara Region
  9. Thrissur Diocese[29]
  10. Kozhikode Diocese[30]
  11. Malabar Diocese[31]

Dioceses in Rest of India[edit]

  1. Mangalore DIocese
  2. Bangalore DIocese
  3. Mylapore DIocese[32] (formerly Chennai Diocese)
  4. Bombay Diocese
  5. New Delhi Diocese[33]

Dioceses in Outside India (Autonomous)[edit]

  1. Middle East Diocese - -Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
  2. Australia & New Zealand
  3. Singapore & Malaysia

Other Dioceses (Autonomous)[edit]

There are dioceses under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Antioch.

  1. Honavar Mission[34]
  2. E.A.E (Evangelistic Association Of The East) Churches[35]
  3. Simhasana Churches

Present Synod[edit]

The Synod of the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church comprises:

  1. Catholicose Baselios Thomas I- Metropolitan Trustee and Angamaly Diocese
  2. Kuriakose Mor Severios Edavazhikal- Knanaya Archbishop and Chingavanam Region
  3. Abraham Mor Severious- Angamaly Region of Angamaly Diocese
  4. Thomas Mor Timotheos- Kottayam Diocese
  5. Joseph Mor Gregorios- Synod Secretary and Kochi Diocese
  6. Mathews Mor Ivanios- Kandanad Diocese
  7. Geevarghese Mor Dionysius- Simhasana Churches (Pampady)
  8. Kuriakose Mor Dioscorus- Simhasana Churches (Malecruz)
  9. Geevarghese Mor Athanasios- Simhasana Churches (Manjinikkara)
  10. Kuriakose Mor Theophilos- Seminary Resident Bishop
  11. Yuhanon Mor Militos- Thumbamon Diocese
  12. Mathews Mor Theodosius- Kollam Diocese
  13. Mathews Mor Aphrem- Perumbavoor Region of Angamaly Dicese
  14. Pathros Mor Osthathios- Bangalore Diocese
  15. Geevarghese Mor Coorilose- Niranam Diocese
  16. Yeldho Mor Theethose- Malankara Archdiocese of America
  17. Kuriakose Mor Eusabios- Kothamangalam Region of Angamaly Dicese
  18. Markose Mor Chrisostamos- Evangelist Association Of East
  19. Elias Mor Athanasios- Thrissur Diocese
  20. Kuriakose Mor Gregorios Knanaya Kalliserry Region
  21. Yaqu'b Mor Anthonios- Honavar Mission
  22. Zacharias Mor Philoxenos- Idukki
  23. Paulose Mor Irenious- Kozhikode
  24. Kuriakose Mor Ivanious Knanaya Malabar Region
  25. Ayub Mor Silvanious Knanaya Diaspora Region
  26. Geevarghese Mor Barnabas- Niranam Diocese Assistant Metroolitian
  27. Issac Osthathios- Mylapore Diocese
  28. Kuriakose Mor Julios- Highrange Region of Angamaly Dicese
  29. Thomas Mor Alexandros- Bombay
  30. Zacharias Mor Polycarpus- Malabar
  31. Mathews Mor Thimothios- Malankara Affairs Secretary of Patriarch
  32. Matthews Mor Anthimos- Muvattupuzha Region of Angamaly Dicese

Pilgrim Sites[edit]

Tomb churches[edit]

Tomb Churches
Name Known As Notes Links
St Ignatiaus Dayara, Manjanikkara Manjinikkara Pally Tomb of: Ignatius Elias IIIYacoub Mor JuliusMor Yulios Elias QoroJoseph Benyamin Mor OsthatheosKuriakose Mor Julius
Destination of World's largest Pilgrimage on foot
Manjinikkara Dayara
Marthoman Cheriyapally, Kothamangalam Kothamangalam Chriapally Tomb of: St Yeldho Mor Baselious cheriapally
St Thomas Jacobite Syrian Church, North Paravoor Paravoor Pally Tomb of: St Abdul Jaleel Mor Gregorios Paravoor Pally
St. Mary’s Jacobite Syrian Simhasana Church, Kunnamkulam Bava Pally Tomb of: St Sleeba Mor OsthathiousPaulose Mor Severios Bava Pally
Thrikkunnathu St. Mary’s Jacobite Syrian Church, Aluva Seminary Pally Tomb of: Kadavil Paulose Mor Athanasius, Vayaliparambil Geevarghese Mor Gregorios , St Paulose Mor Athanasius Thrikkunnathu Jacobite Church
St.Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church, Panampady Panampady Church Tomb of: St Paulose Mor Koorilose, Michael Mor Divansious panampady Pally
St.Mary’s Cathedral of Kandanad Kandanad Marth Mariam Church Tomb of: Mar Thoma IV Kandanad Pally
Marthoman Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Mulanthuruthy Mulanthuruthy pally Tomb of: St Yuyakkim Mor Koorilos, Yuhanan Mor Gregorius, Hidayatulla Mor Ivanius Mulanthuruthy Marthoman Cathedral
St George Jacobite Syrian Church, Malecruz Malecruz Dayaro Tomb of: Baselios Paulose II Malecruz Dayaro
St. Peter's & St. Paul's Jacobite Syrian Church, Kolenchery Kolenchery Pally Tomb of: Mar Thoma VII Kandanad Diocese
St. George Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, Kadamattom Kadamattom Pally Tomb of: Mar Thoma IX Kadamattom pally
St George Jacobite Syrian Simhasa Church, Perumpilly Perumpally pally Tomb of: Gheevarghese Mor Gregorios (Perumpilly Thirumeni) Perumpally Pally
Mor Aphrem church at the St. John's Dayro, Chingavanam Chingavanam Dayaro Tomb of: Abraham Mor Clemis Knanaya Valiyapally
Kottayam St. Mary’s Knanaya Valiya Pally Kottayam Valiya Pally Tomb of: Geevarghese Mor Severios Kottayam Valiyapally
St. Mary’s Jacobite Syrian Sonoro Cathedral Church, Angamaly Angamaly Cathedral Tomb of: Mar Thoma I, Geevarghese Mor Kurillos Ambattu, Angamaly Cathedral
St. Mary’s Simhasana Cathedral Church, Pampady Panampady Pally Tomb of: Yuhanon Mor Philoxenos Kabharadakkam
St Peter's and St Paul's Cathedral, Meenangadi Meenangadi Cathedral Tomb of: Samuel Mor Philaxinos Malabar Diocese
St. Mary's Bethlehem Simhasana church at Thrikkothamangalam Bethlehem Church Tomb of: Yakub Mor Thimotheos, Thrikkothamangalam Church
Michael Mor Dionysius Dayro, Adoor Adoor Dayaro Tomb of: Kuriakose Mor Koorilos Koorilose Thirumeni
St. Antony's Cathedral, Jeppu, Mangalore (Karnataka) Jeppu Cathedral Tomb of: Geevarghese Mor Polycarpus Honavar Mission
Malankara Syrian Orthodox Theological Seminary,Udayagiri Mulanthuruthy Vettickal Seminary
MSOT Seminary
Tomb of: Thomas Mor Theophilos MSOT Seminary
St. Mary's church at Pangada Pangada Pally Tomb of: Markose Mor Koorilos Kottayam diocese
Kyomtho Seminary and St Gregorios Centre, Thiruvankulam Kyomtho Seminary Tomb of: Thomas Mor Osthatheos Kyomtho Seminary
St Peter's and St Paul's Jacobite Syrian Church, Kadungamangalam Kadungamangalam Pally Tomb of: Shemvun Mor Dionysius Kadungamangalam Pally
Mor Ignathios Jacobite Syrian Church, Cheria Vappalasserry Cheria Vappalasserry Pally Tomb of: Kadavil Dr Paulose Mor Athanasiaus 2nd Cheriyavappilaserry

Global Pilgrim Centres[edit]

Global Pilgrim Centres
Name Known As Notes Links
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Manarcad Manarcad Pally Global Marian Pilgrim Centre
Place of origin of Ettunombu
Largest Church festival in Kerala
Manarcad Pally
St George Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Karingachira Karingachira Pally Global Georgian Pilgrim Centre
Thamukku perunnal
website 1
website 2
Marthasmooni Jacobite Syrian Church, Peroor Peroor Pally Global Marthasmooni Pilgrim Centre Peroor Pally
St Mary’s Jacobite Syrian Church, Kattachira Kattachira Pally Global Marian Pilgrim Centre
Tear from St Mary's Photo
Kattachira pally
Rajadhiraja St. Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Piravom Rajakkalude Pally
Piravom Valiyapally
Global Holy Kings Pilgrim Centre
Said to be the first Christian Church in the world
Established by the Three Kings to worship Infant Jesus
Piravom Pally
St Thomas Jacobite Syrian Chappel, Malecruz Pallikkara Malecruz pally Global Marthoman Pilgrim Centre
800 year old chappel famous for smallpox cures
Pallikkara Church

Pilgrim Centres[edit]

Pilgrim Centres
Name Known As Diocese Notes Links
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Valiyapally, Thamarachal Thamarachal ValiyaPally
Second Manarcad
Angamaly Diocese (Angamaly Region) Largest Ettunombu celebration after Manarcad
Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
Thamarachal Valiyapally
Akaparambu Mor Sabor Mor Apfroth Cathedral Akaparambu Pally Angamaly Diocese (Angamaly Region) established by Mor Sabor and Mor Apfroth in the 9th century
Only church in Malankara named after Mor Sabor and Mor Apfroth
St Mary’s Jacobite Syrian Nercha Cathedral, Rakkad Nercha Pally Angamaly Diocese (Muvattupuzha Region) Established by the patriarchal delegate Mor Ivanios Hidayatulla as an offering
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Kundara Kundara Puthenpally
Manarcad of South
Kollam Diocese Ettunombu festival is famous
Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
Puthupally St. George Patriarchal Church Puthupally Puthenpally Kottayam Diocese Georgian Pilgrim Centre
St Kuriakose Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Maneed Maneed Pally
Second Manjinikkara
Kandanad Diocese Starting Point of Famous Manjinikkara Pilgrimage Maneed Pally
St Mary’s Jacobite Syrian Church, Meenangadi Meenangadi Sonooro Pally
Manarcad of Malabar
Samajam Pally Meenangadi
Evangelistic Association Of The East Holy Sonoro of St Mary and Relics of Patriarch H.H Ignatius Elias III installed. Meenangadi Sonoro Pally
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Valiyapally, Thuruthiply Thuruthiply Valiyapally
Little Manarcad
Angamaly Diocese (Perumbavoor Region) Ettunombu festival is famous
Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
Thuruthiply Valiyapally
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Valiyapally,Kothamangalam Kothamangalam Valiyapally Angamaly Diocese (Kothamangalam Region) Parent Parish of al churches in Idukki and Muvattupuzha Districts
Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
Kothamangalam Valiyapally
St Kuriakose Sahada Chappel, Thengode Thengode chappel Angamaly Diocese (Angamaly Region) Miraclulous growth of Jasmine garlands during fest
St Mary’s Jacobite Syrian Church, Cheengery Cheengery Pally Malabar Diocese Largest fest of St Yeldho Mor Baselios in Malabar Cheengeri Pally
Mor Baselious Jacobite Syrian Church, Cheeyumbam Cheeyumbam Pally Malabar Diocese On foot Pilgrimage from churches in Malabar on fest of St Yeldho Mor Baselios
St. Gregorious Patriarchal Church, Parumala Parumala Patriarchal Pally Niranam Diocese Gregorian Pilgrim Centre. Holy Relic of St George installed Niranam diocese
St George Jacobite Syrian Chappel, Vattal Vattal Kurishu Palli Kozhikode Diocese Georgian Pilgrim Centre
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church, Velamcode Velamcode Pally Kozhikode Diocese Largest Ettunombu celebration in Kozhikode
Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church, Kallumedu Kallumedu Pally
Manarcad of highrange
Idukki Diocese Assumption festival is famous
Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church, Sultan Bathery Sultan Bathery Valiyapally Malabar Diocese Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
St Mary's Knanaya Syrian Valiyapally, Kalliserry Kalliserry Valiyapally
Manarcad of Kananaya
Knanaya Archdiocese (Kalliserry Region) Tomb of: Anjilimoottil Itty Thommen Kathanar
Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
St Kuriakose Jacobite Syrian Church, Puthoor Puthoor Pally Kollam Diocese Holy Relic of St Kuriakose installed
St George Jacobite Syrian Church, Ponpally Ponpally Pally Kottayam Diocese Holy Relic of St George installed Ponpally Pally
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church, Kannara Kallumedu Pally
Manarcad of North
Thrissur Diocese Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed

Other Prominent Churches[edit]

Other Prominent Churches
Name Known As Diocese Notes Links
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Kuruppumpady Kuruppumpady Pally Angamaly Diocese (Perumbavoor Region) Largest Parish in Kerala with 5000 families
Holy Sonoro of St Mary installed
Kuruppumpady Cathedral
St Stephen's Bes Ania Jacobite Syrian Valiyapally, Chelad Chelad ValiyaPally Angamaly Diocese (Kothamangalam Region) Holy Relic of Jacob Burdana installed
Parish with most number of chappels in Malankara
Chelad Valiyapally

Seminary[edit]

Seminary
Name Address Known as Links
Malankara Syrian Orthodox Theological Seminary Udayagiri, Mulanthuruthy, Ernakulam M.S.O.T Seminary Seminary Website

Office Bearers[edit]

Office Bearers
Post Name Term Notes
Catholicos and Metropolitan Trustee H B Baselios Thomas Ist Catholicose 2002- Became Metropolitan Trustee in 1997 and Catholiocse in 2002
Synod Secretary H G Joseph Mor Gregorios 2012-2017 Holding the post since 2002
Priest Trustee V Rev Mathai Poovanthara Cor Episcopa 2012-2017
Lay Trustee Thambu George Thukalan 2012-2017 Held the post of Lay Secretary from 2002-2012
Lay Secretary George Mathew Thekkethala 2012-2017 Held the post of Lay Trustee from 2002-2012

Spiritual Organisation[edit]

Spiritual Organisation Office Bearers
Organisation President Vice President General Secretary Secretary Treasurer Link
Malankara Jacobite Syrian Sundayschool Association (MJSSA) H G Mathews Mor Aphrem V Rev Saju Cheruvillil Cor Episcopa Chev M J Markose Baby Varghese K K Mathew [2]
Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Youth Association (JSOYA) H G Zacharias Mor Polycarpous Rev Fr Eldhose Kakkadan Biju Skariya Asha Cinol V Saju [3]
Mor Gregorios Jacobite Students' Movement (MGJSM) H G Kuriakose Mor Theophilos Rev Fr George Vayaliparambil Rev Fr Tijo Markose Shinil Thuruthummel Akhil Peediayakkan [4]
Marthamariyam Vanitha Samajam H G Mathews Mor Anthimos
Elder's Forum H G Abraham Mor Severious

See also[edit]

Related

References[edit]

Complete video of the Holy Mass [Holy Qurbano] of the Jacobite Syrian Church:

  1. ^ a b The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2.
  2. ^ Menachery G (1973) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, B.N.K. Press, vol. 2, ISBN 81-87132-06-X, Lib. Cong. Cat. Card. No. 73-905568; B.N.K. Press – (has some 70 lengthy articles by different experts on the origins, development, history, culture... of these Christians, with some 300 odd photographs).
  3. ^ Leslie Brown, (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.)
  4. ^ Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur.
  5. ^ NSC Network (2007) St. Thomas, India mission- Early reference and testimonies
  6. ^ Frykenberg, p. 93.
  7. ^ Wilmshurst, EOCE, 343
  8. ^ Vadakkekara, p. 95.
  9. ^ Tamcke, p. 214.
  10. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin; Lochman, Jan Milic; Mbiti, John S.; Vischer, Lukas; Bromiley, Geoffrey William (2003). The Encyclopedia Of Christianity (Encyclopedia of Christianity) Volume 5. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 285. ISBN 0-8028-2417-X. 
  11. ^ "Church of the Syrian Christians in India". Wesleyan Juvenile Offering (London: Wesleyan Missionary Society) XII: 115. October 1855. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  12. ^ Medlycott, A E. 1905 "India and the Apostle Thomas"; Gorgias Press LLC; ISBN 1-59333-180-0.
  13. ^ N.M.Mathew. St. Thomas Christians of Malabar Through Ages. CSS Tiruvalla. (2003). ISBN 81-7821-008-8.
  14. ^ Origin of Christianity in India - A Historiographical Critique by Dr. Benedict Vadakkekara. (2007). ISBN 81-7495-258-6.
  15. ^ The Missionary Register for M DCCC XXII. October 1822, Letter from Punnathara Mar Dionysious (Mar Thoma XI)to the Head of the Church Missionary Society. [1] For a translation of it out of Syriac, by Professor Lee, see page 431- 432. Only the English text is published.
  16. ^ Brock, Sebastian P. The Bible in Syriac Bible. Kottayam: SEERI.
  17. ^ "Psalm 119:164 Seven times a day I praise you for your righteous laws". Bible.cc. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  18. ^ http://www.malankara.com/node/290
  19. ^ a b Catholicate of the East
  20. ^ Malankara Jacobite Syrian Christian Network
  21. ^ this exposition.
  22. ^ "Kollam Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Church". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  23. ^ "Home". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  24. ^ "Niranam Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  25. ^ "Kottayam Diocese". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  26. ^ "Official website of Idukki Diocese ::". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  27. ^ "Kandanad Diocese - Jacobite Syrian Christian Church". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  28. ^ Kochi Diocese
  29. ^ "Home". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  30. ^ "Kozhikode Diocese". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  31. ^ "Official Website of Malabar Diocese, Jacobite Syrian Christian Church". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  32. ^ "Mylapore Diocese". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  33. ^ "Delhi Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Church". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  34. ^ "Honnavar Mission". Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  35. ^ *Evangelical Association of the East

External links[edit]