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Jacobite Syrian Christian Church

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Syriac Orthodox Church Under the Holy See of Antioch and All East
Jacobite Syrian Christian Church
Patriarch Ignatius Zaka I Iwas Centre
Patriarch Ignatius Zaka I Iwas Centre in Cochin
AbbreviationJSCC
ClassificationOriental Orthodox Church
OrientationEarly Christanity
Eastern Christianity
Syriac Christianity
ScripturePeshitta
Vishudhagrandham (Malayalam Translation)
TheologyMiaphysitism
PolityEpiscopal polity
Holy SeeHoly Apostolic See of Antioch and All the East[1]
Supreme PatronIgnatius Aphrem II Patriarch of Antioch
Catholicos of IndiaBaselios Thomas I
Catholicos
Maphrian of the Syriac Orthodox Church
AffiliationSyriac Orthodox Church of Antioch
RegionIndia and Nasarani Malayali Diaspora
LanguageMalayalam, English, Hindi, Syriac, Tamil, Kannada
LiturgyWest Syriac Rite
Divine Liturgy of Saint James
HeadquartersPatriarch Ignatius Zaka I Iwas Centre (Patriarchal Centre)
Puthencruz Kochi India
OriginEstablished(A.D 52) - Thomas the Apostle (Apostolic Age)[2]
AD 345 - Thomas of Cana[3][4]
AD 1665 - Gregorios Abdal Jaleel[5]
Separated fromSaint Thomas Christians
Branched fromSyrian Orthodox Church
Members1.2 million[6]
Other name(s)Malankara Syrian Church
മലങ്കര സുറിയാനി സഭ
Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church
യാക്കോബായ സുറിയാനി ഓർത്തോഡോക്സ് സഭ
Syriac Orthodox Church
സുറിയാനി ഓർത്തോഡോക്സ് സഭ
Official News PortalJ.S.C NEWS

The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church (JSCC)[7][8][9][10] also known as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church,[11][12][13][14][15] or the Jacobite Syrian Church,[16] or the Syriac Orthodox Church in India,[17][18][19] is an autonomous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Indian state of Kerala, and is an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. It recognizes the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the East as Supreme Head of the church. It functions as a largely autonomous unit within the church, under the authority of the Catholicos of India, Thomas I. Currently, this is the only church in Malankara that has a direct relationship with the Syriac Christians of Antioch, which has continued from after the schism and it continues to employ the West Syriac Rite Liturgy of Saint James.[20][21][22]

Name

The Emperor Justin I supported the Chalcedonians, The non-Chalcedonian Severus Patriarch of Antioch exiled in Egypt and died in 538. At the situation of the church remaining only three bishops, At that time Jacob Baradeus restoring the church by the help of Queen Theodra. The non-Chalcedonian church, which would later become the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch also known as Jacobite Syrian Christians. The Syrian Orthodox church of India adopted the Title as the respect of Jacob Baradeus.[23]

Headquarters

Puthencruz is the headquarters of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church in India Registered as a Society under Societies act of the Government of India. Its headquarters is named after the illustrious Patriarch of Antioch Ignatius Zakka I Iwas. The property was bought and built under the leadership of the Catholicos of India Baselios Thomas I, after the church faced difficulties in continuing its functioning from its base at Muvattupuzha with the demise of Catholicos Baselios Paulose II.

  • St. Athanasius Catholicate Cathedral, Puthencuriz[24]
  • JSC Publications, The official publishing house of the church are also a part of the large complex.
  • Malankara Jacobite Syrian Sunday School Association (MJSSA) is also based in Puthencruz.[25]
  • St.Thomas College Arts and Science is also run in the premises of the Zakka centre.[26]
  • Michael Dionysius(M.D) Book Stall, official book house of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church.[27]
  • This is the place where Universal Malankara Convention, the official gospel convention of the community, that is generally conducted from 26 to 31 December of every year.[citation needed]

History

History and evolution of the Malankara church in a nutshell

It is believed that Saint Thomas Christians of Malabar were in communion with the Church of the East from 295 to 1599.[28] They received episcopal support from Syriac bishops, who traveled to Kerala in merchant ships along the spice route, while the local leader of the Saint Thomas Christians held the rank of Archdeacon; it was a hereditary office held by the Pakalomattam family. In the 16th century, the overtures of the Portuguese padroado to bring the Saint Thomas Christians into Latin Rite Catholicism led to the first of several rifts in the community due to Portuguese colonialists, and the establishment of the Syro-Malabar Church and the Malankara Church factions. Since then, further splits have occurred, and the Saint Thomas Christians are now divided into several factions.

Saint Thomas Christians were administratively under the single native dynastic leadership of an Archdeacon (a native ecclesiastical head with spiritual and temporal powers, deriving from Greek term arkhidiākonos) and were in communion with the Church of the East, centered in Persia, from at least 496.[29][30] The indigenous Church of Malabar/Malankara followed the faith and traditions handed over by the Apostle St. Thomas. During the 16th century, the Portuguese Jesuits began deliberate attempts to annex the native Christians to the Catholic Church, and in 1599 they succeeded through the Synod of Diamper. Resentment against these forceful measures led the majority of the community under the Archdeacon Thomas to swear an oath never to submit to the Portuguese, known as the Coonan Cross Oath, in 1653. The Malankara Church consolidated under Thoma I welcomed Gregorios Abdal Jaleel, who regularized the canonical ordination of Thoma as a bishop.

Meanwhile, the Dutch East India Company defeated the Portuguese and gained supremacy over the spice trade in Malabar in 1663. The Malankara church used this opportunity to escape from Catholic persecution with the Dutch East India Company's help. At the request of the Malankara Church, the Dutch brought Gregorios Abdal Jaleel of Jerusalem, a bishop of the Syriac Orthodox Church, in their trading vessel in 1665. Thoma I forged a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church and gradually adopted West Syriac liturgy and practices.

As part of the Syriac Orthodox communion, the church uses the West Syriac liturgy and is part of the Oriental Orthodox group of churches. It has dioceses in most parts of India as well as in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Western Europe, the Persian Gulf, Australia and New Zealand nations. In 2003 it was estimated that the church has 1,000,000 (including Knanaya) members globally.[31]

Hierarchy

The highest rank in the ecclesiastical hierarchy is the Patriarch Ignatius Aphrem II. The second-highest rank is the Maphrian Baselios Thomas I, also known as Catholicos of India of is the head of the Jacobite Syrian Church in India. Then there are Metropolitan bishops or Archbishops, and under them, there are auxiliary bishops.

Three ranks of hierarchy

There are three ranks of priesthood in the Syriac Orthodox Church:

  • Episcopate: There are the ranks of Patriarch, Catholicos, archbishop, and bishop.
  • Vicariate: There are the ranks of chor-episcopos and priest or qasheesho.
  • Deaconate: There are the ranks of archdeacon, evangelical-deacon, subdeacon, lector or qoruyo and singer or mzamrono.

The Church

Thomas of Cana and the Knanaya depart for India
His Beatitude Baselios Thomas I conducting prayer to the Venerated Icon of saint mary

As per Syriac Orthodox Church of India tradition established by Thomas the Apostle and belief in Apostolic succession by Syriac Orthodox Church and the early Church of the East, the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church believes in the part of Church of Antioch regarding three councils of the Christendom Church and the promise of the Holy Fathers of the Church of Antioch and the Church of Alexandria.[32]

The Holy Church believes in the Holy Trinity, Apostolic succession, Miaphysitism Christological doctrine and saints' Communion in the inner world and in Heaven. The Holy Church believes in the Throne of Antioch established by Saint Peter and Saint Paul and believes in Petrine Primacy and Supremacy as does the Catholic Church, the revival against the Oriental Orthodox Church. The Church believes in Saint Thomas Tradition. The Syrian Orthodox Church of India, known as the Jacobite Syrian Church, is influenced by Hindu and Jewish traditions. The church believes in intercession prayers, Venerated Icons, written prayers by the holy fathers of Geevarghese Gregorios of Perumpally and Arch Corepiscopa Curien Kaniyamparambil and others. The Jacobite Syrian Church-related myths in Kerala of India are related to Hindu religion regarding churches; the cerntral churches are Manarcad Church and Kothamangalam Cheriya Pally. Church adherents believe in miracles and in the intercession of saints held in Kattachira Church and other churches. The church architecture follows that of the Architecture of Kerala and the Western Church.

Tradition

Syrian Christians adopted many traditions from the Indian Church or Syriac Traditional Indian Church. The most important example of this culture is Manthrakodi, Minnukettu and either procession. Syrian Christians have a prominent role in the late centuries and received honourable respect and honourable permissions from Royal Kings.[36]

  • Minnukettu and Manthrakodi - The Minnukettu and Manthrakodi is a ritual of Syrian Orthodox Tradition in India adhered to by the Malankara Church whatever approved by Ignatius Peter IV Patriarch of Antioch as same as Blessing of the Crown of Syriac Orthodox Church. The Manthrakodi is known as Sari for Bridegroom which is a Blessed Cloth that represents Holy Spirit. The Minnu is the ritual equipment of wedding ceremony as a shape like Wheat, representing rebirth and resurrection.[37]
  • Procession - The Procession comes from the tradition of Jews as per the Holy Bible But as in InGrammardia which is adopted from Hinduism and Syriac Christianity.
  • Chattayum Mundum - Chattayum Mundum is the traditional dress of Syriac Christians; not as to Jacobite Syrian Christians either Syrian Christians in India inspired from Jews and Mohammedan culture.
  • Onam - The Onam is the festival of Kerala and the symbol of peace known as communion celebration from Hindu rituals, where Malayalis live.

Relics

According to the Holy Bible

..And when the men of that place recognized Jesus, they sent word to all the surrounding country. People brought all their sick to him and begged him to let the sick just touch the edge of his cloak, and all who touched it were healed

— Mathew 14:35-36

The clothes or any either relics of saints to be held miracles and done spiritual power to go around the world and another world is called Heaven. The Syriac Orthodox Church respects the relics of Saint Mary, forefathers and saints. The most venerated relics of the Syrian Orthodox Church are the Holy Girdle found from the olden manuscripts by Ignatius Aphrem I Patriarch of Antioch and the relics of the Thomas the Apostle founded by Ignatius Zakka I Patriarch of Antioch and Syrian Church has other relics also. The Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church kept part of these relics and celebrated on occasions.[38]

Liturgy

Jacobite Syrian Prayer Book of 1932
Nasrani Cross with the traditional food of Malankara Church
Icon of Last Judgement of Christian Church

The liturgical service is called Holy Qurobo in the Syriac language meaning "Eucharist". Liturgy of Saint James is celebrated on Sundays and special occasions. The Holy Eucharist consists of Gospel reading, Bible readings, prayers, and songs. The recitation of the Liturgy is performed according to specific parts chanted by the presider, the lectors, the choir, and the congregated faithful, at certain times in unison. Apart from certain readings, prayers are sung in the form of chants and melodies. Hundreds of melodies remain preserved in the book known as Beth Gazo, the key reference to Syriac Orthodox church music.[39]

Holy Bible

The Syriac Orthodox Church respect the Holy Bible in the Church of tradition and liturgy. The Holy Church preserves the Syriac Manuscripts of the Holy Bible and others. The Syriac name of Peshitta is known as Vishudhagrandham(വിശുദ്ധ ഗ്രന്ഥം) in native language Malayalam, translated by Arch-corepiscopos Curien Kaniamparambil, as its scripture.

Prayers

The Jacobite Syrian Christians pray the canonical hours of the Shehimo at fixed prayer times, in accordance with Psalm 119. In 1910 V. Rev. Konattu Mathen Malpan translate the prayer book of the Syrian orthodox church into Malayalam is known as Pampakuda Namaskaram with permission of the Patriarch Ignatius Abded Aloho II.[40][41] This is the common prayer book of Syrian Orthodox Christians in India. The Prayer Order of Liturgy Book that is;

  • Qawmo(Trisagion Prayer)
  • Prayer of the Ninth Hour
  • Prayer of the Evening
  • Prayer of the Bedtime (Compline)
  • Prayer of the Midnight
  • Prayer of the Morning
  • Prayer of the Third Hour
  • Prayer of the Sixth Hour
  • Praise of the Cherubim

Theology

The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church officially accepted Miaphysitism of Syriac Orthodox Church as per evidence of art pictorial of St. Mary's Knanaya Church of Kottayam, Piravom Church and Mulanthuruthy Church of Holy Altar. According to inscriptions of Kottayam Valiyapally believed as the theopaschite theology of the earlier Malankara Church against the alleged Nestorianism and claimed virgin mary as Mother of God(Theotokos).[42][43]

In punishment by the cross (was) the suffering on this one; He who is true God and God above, and Guide ever Pure

— Inscription(AD 464) of St. Mary's Knanaya Church, Kottayam

But this does not refute the Church of the East relationship of the earlier Church as the Church of the East never professed the alleged Nestorianism and it is held as a misnomer and false accusation as per the view of most historians.[44][45]

Nasrani Cross

The Nasrani Cross(Persian cross) used by Syrian Christians of India known as Marthoma Sleeha Cross or Menorah of Syrian Christians. The Persian cross spread in the early 4th century and similar to the Armenian Cross of Armenian Apostolic Church and design based on Jewish Menorah.[46]

Associated Churches

St George Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church Melbourne

The Associated Church is church-related to Syriac Orthodox Church and Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church.

Knanaya Syrian Church

The Knanaya Syrian Community(ക്നാനായ സുറിയാനി സഭ) are claimed to be the descendants of a migrant group of Jewish Christians from Antioch. In AD 345, the Malayalam calendar (kollavarsham), under the leadership of Knai Thoma and 72 families from Edessa (or modern Urfa) immigrated to Malabar (presently Kerala). This migration considered a good turning point for Saint Thomas Christians. The community belongs to priests, deacons and their bishop named Uraha Ouseph (Bishop Joseph of Uraha/Urfa). These colonists were welcomed by Cheraman Perumal of The Emperor of Kerala given special permission as 72 Royal Privileges Known as Thomas of Cana copper plates

Today, the majority of Knanaya are members of the Syro-Malabar Church (Kottayam Archeparchy) and the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church (Knanaya Archdiocese) under the guidance and directorate of Sevarios Kuriakose and they have a special constitution under Syriac Orthodox Church.

Simhasana Church

The Simhasana Church(സിംഹാസന പള്ളി) is under the direct control of the Syrian Orthodox Church Patriarch in Malayalam diaspora. The Simhasana Church was established by Mor Yulios Elias Qoro under the leadership of the Patriarch of Antioch. The Church constituted under the direct administration of the Syrian Orthodox Church. The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church instituted the Simhasana Churches who are the prominent persons are the Geevarghese Gregorios of Perumpally and Malankara Malpan Arch Corepiscopa Curien (Kurian) Kaniyamparambil.

Malankara Arch-Diocese of Syrian Orthodox Church in North America

The Malankara Orthodox Church of North America is the abroad Church of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church under Syriac Orthodox Church Patriarchate. The Arch Diocese of America was formed in 1975 as the name of Saint Gregorios in Staten Island of the United State of America. The legal Issues spread around the church after the church separated, the rival Malankara Orthodox Church from the Syrian Orthodox Church of the United States of America. The church leadership was taken by the Metropolitan Mar Samuel as well then after The Ignatius Zakka I Patriarch of Antioch consecrated Rev. Fr. P.G. Cherian as Mor Nicholovos Zachariah as the Arch Metropolitan of American Arch-Diocese of Holy See of Antioch. He rebelled against the Holy See of Antioch and joined the Malankara Orthodox Church with the majority churches of the Holy Church. Today, the Church ongoing under the leadership of His Eminence Mor Titus Yeldho representative of the United States and Canada.[47]

Middle East Diocese

The Middle East Diocese under Jacobite Syrian Church under the guidance of Syriac Orthodox Church Patriarchate. In the Gulf region, The Jacobite Syrian Church has a special constitution for churches under the guidance of Kingdoms of Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen Government officials. The church of Jacobite Syrian Church respects Gulf rules and does empower gulf regions and under the guidance of rulers. The Jacobite Syrian Church respects leaders and has a prominent role for Commander M. A. Yusuff Ali of LuLu Group International for the establishment of churches in Gulf regions and the ongoing holy church.

Seminary

Celebration of Holy Eucharist at St. Mary's Cathedral, Kundara

The Jacobite Syrian Church has Major and Minor Seminaries. At the older time of Holy church started as minor seminaries at home. The minor seminary's motto is to study, meditate and monasticism at home. The first official major seminary is known as Old Seminary(പഴയ സെമിനാരി) founded by Colonel John Munro with the administration of Pulikkottil Dionysius II. The Second Seminary is known as Thrikkunnathu Seminary(തൃക്കുന്നത്ത് സെമിനാരി) acquired 18 acres (73,000 m2). The Seminary established by Angamaly Metropolitan Athanasius Paulose, Later Malankara Metropolitan of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church included St. Marys Church. The Third Major Seminary is known as Manjanikkara Dayara(മഞ്ഞനിക്കര ദയറാ) established by Yulios Elias Qoro Patriarchal Delegate of Malankara in 1932. The Manjanikkara Dayara motivate to study teachings of Syriac Orthodox Church faith and established stronger spiritual relationships between churches. The fourth Major Seminary is known as Malekurish Dayara(മലേകുരിശ് ദയറാ) established in 1975 known as Saint James Monastery alone Perumpally Church Pre-Seminary and Manjanikkara Dayara.

MSOT Seminary

The Malankara Syriac Orthodox Theological Seminary established by modern infrastructure. The Seminary established on 1 January 1990, inaugurated by the Baselios Paulose II Catholicos of the East and the presence of the Honorable Chief Minister of Kerala. The Theological Seminary has so many crises then after the support of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Germany to be completed Seminary of Syriac Orthodox Church in India. The Seminary under the affiliation of Senate of Serampore University alone with Marthoma Syrian Theological Seminary of Marthoma Syrian Church and Old Seminary of Malankara Church under the authority of Malankara Orthodox Church.

List of Minor Seminaries

The ongoing Major Seminary is known as M.S.O.T Seminary, others are known as Minor Seminaries.

  1. Perumpally Church - under the administration of Syriac Orthodox Church.
  2. Parumala Seminary - Under the authority of Syriac Orthodox Church in India, Later Malankara Orthodox Church as per Supreme Court verdict of India.
  3. Manjanikkara Dayara - under the administration of Syriac Orthodox Church.
  4. Thrikkunnathu Seminary - established in 1904 under the administration of Malankara Metropolitan of Jacobite Syrian Church Mor Athanasius Paulose under the guidance of the Ignatius Elias III Patriarch of Antioch.
  5. St. George's Monastery, Malekurish - under the authority of Syriac Orthodox Church.
  6. Chingavanam St. Johns Dayara - under the authority of Malankara Syriac Knanaya Archdiocese.
  7. Piramadom Dayara - reconstructed by Catholicos Baselios Thomas I

Monasticism

Monasticism has an important role in Holy Church and has a lot of Dayara is known as Monastery. The Syrian Church has monks who stay in the church to pray for the church and the world. The Finahas Rambachan is the notable Monk of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church.

Persecuted Church

The Syrian Orthodox Church is known to be a heavily persecuted Church because of the allignment to miaphysite faith from the time of Jacob Baradaeus and Mor Severus Patriarch of Antioch. The Syriac Orthodox Church of India, known as Malankara Church[48] is also persecuted by a splinter Church known as the Malankara Orthodox Church since the past decades. The Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church has lost many of its prominent churches like Piravom Church, Mulanthuruthy Church, Kandanad Church, Kolenchery Church and more than 60 churches to the splinter Church following the judgement of the Supreme Court of India, despite having absolute majority in those churches.[49] After the long struggle for talks on churches which has always been dismissed by the other faction, the Jacobite Syrian Church decided to end the sacramental relationship between the Malankara Orthodox Church.[50] Meanwhile the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, known currently as Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, has developed a tight bonded relationship between the remaining Christian Churches like the Mar Thoma Syrian Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church and the Syro-Malabar Church and with other religious leaders.

The Church has undergone a number of splits throughout the centuries since 1665.

Cemetery Ordinance

As per Supreme Court Order 2017, the Syrian Church disputes their rights to attend holy mass and rituals then after take the proposed ordinance as per Human rights for Cemetery. The Ordinance gives the right for every person to attend rituals and laws passed on by the majority votes with the support of Honourable Chief Minister, Ministers and other Assembly Members.[51]

Sacramental Relationship

The Syriac Orthodox Church maintains the relationship between either church, they are;

Catholic Church

According to the Agreement of Pope John Paul II and Ignatius Zakka I, the Church of Holy Catholic Church and Syriac Orthodox Church has the relationship between sacraments of Penance, Eucharist and Anointing of the Sick for a grave spiritual need. They agree the first three councils and Incarnation and they accepts their needs of Holy Church.[52][53]

Participants of Catholic Church

His Excellency Msgr Pierre Duprey - Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, Vatican City (Co-Chairman), His Excellency Mar Joseph Powathil - Archbishop of Changanacheny (India), His Excellency Mar Kuriakose Kunnacherry - Bishop of Kottayam (India), His Excellency Msgr Patrick D'Souza - Bishop of Varanasi (India), His Excellency Cyril Mar Baselios Malancharuvil - Malankara Catholic Bishop of Battery (India), Revd Fr. Dr. Clarence Gallagher - SJ, Rome (Italy), Revd. Fr. Dr. Matthew Vellanickal - Kottayam (India), Revd. Fr. Dr. Xavier Koodapuzha - Kottayam (India), Revd. Fr. Dr. Geevarghese Chediath - Trivandrum (India), Revd. Fr. Bernard Dubasque - Vatican City (Co-Secretary)

Participants of Syriac Orthodox Church

His Grace His Grace Timotheos Thomas, His Grace Yuhanon Mor Meletius, Thomas Mor Athanasius (Later convert to Malankara Orthodox Church), Very Revd. Prof. Joseph Cor-Episcopa Pulickaparampil, Revd. Fr. Cherian Poothicote, Revd. Fr. Dr. Adai Jacob, Revd. Fr. Kuriakose Moolayil (Co-Secretary), Revd. Fr. R.V. Markose, Dr. D. Babu Paul, Revd. Deacon Shibu Cherian, Revd. Deacon Biji C. Markose, Revd. Deacon Saji K.V.

Marthoma Syrian Church

The Marthoma Syrian Church and Jacobite Syrian Church maintain a good relationship between them when they attend together prayer meetings and marriage ceremonies. The Jacobite Syrian Church and Marthoma Syrian Church continue their synods for recognition of theological acceptance and Holy Communion from their understanding. The Holy Muron of Marthoma Syrian Church gave by the Patriarch of Antioch Ignatius Elias III in 1842 and the church never uses the title of the ecclesiastical title of Ignatius and Baselios for the honour of Syriac Orthodox Church.[54]

Malankara Orthodox Church

The Malankara Orthodox Church is the excommunicated Independent church of Syriac Orthodox Church. One of the faction was emerged in 1914 because of Dionysius of Vattasseril from Syriac Orthodox Church of India(Jacobite Syrian Church), Later the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church consecrated new Malankara Metropolitan Coorilos Paulose. After the circumstance of the holy church-going under the leadership of Malankara Metropolitan Athanasius Paulose Valiya Thirumeni of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church. After another split of the church lose the whole of the church of the holy church undergoing the leadership of Catholicos His Beatitude Baselios Thomas I Maphrian of the Syriac Orthodox Church known as Jacob Baradaeus of the holy church. The one of the church has no official relationship with Jacobite Syrian Christian Church is known as Malankara Orthodox Church.[55]

Politics

The Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church believed in politics and has major and minor political leaders in the church also believed in Christian politics known as Christian communism.

Leadership

The Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church have former ministers and Member's in Kerala's Legislative Assembly and have great hold between Honorable Chief Minister of Kerala Pinarayi Vijayan and either political leaders of Kerala.

Kerala Legislative Assembly (2016)

The members of the Kerala Legislative Assembly, who support the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church are;

Notable members

Twenty20 Kizhakkambalam

The Twenty20 Kizhakkambalam is the communion of the people conservation party and the nonprofit charitable organization started by Sabu M. Jacob with the blessing of Catholicos Baselios Thomas I. This is the dream vision of Commander M.C Jacob[56] to conserve people who need help?. The Twenty20 Kizhakkambalam started in 2015 by using the Corporate Social Responsibility(C.S.R) fund to use poorly people, homeless people, or who wanted needy. What is the aim of communion is that to peace for the whole family and alcohol-free village.

Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Delegates of India

The Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Delegates of India is the representative of the patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church, who is sent to India to guide and administer the church, or on special occasions, as the representative of the Holy See of Antioch.[57] Every year, Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Delegates participate in Manjanikkara Church Feast.[58][59]

Catholicate

"Catholicos" means "the general head", and can be considered equivalent to "universal bishop." The fourth-century ecumenical councils recognized the authority of the metropolitan. By the fifth century, the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria and Antioch gained control of the churches in surrounding cities. They gradually became the heads of the regional churches, and were known as patriarchs (common father). Outside the Roman Empire, patriarchs were known as catholicos. After Nestorian Schism in the seventh century, the Syriac Orthodox Christians who lived in Persia began using the title for its Catholicos / Maphrian, who was originally the head of the Syriac Orthodox Christian community in Persia. This office ranked right below that Syriac Orthodox church hierarchy after the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, until it was abolished in 1860 and reinstated in the India of the East on 1964.

Catholicos of India

The Catholicos of India is an ecclesiastical office of the Syriac Orthodox Church and the head of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church. He is the Catholicos/Maphrian of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, an autonomous body within the Syriac Orthodox Church. The jurisdiction of Catholicos was in India of the East, Hence Syriac Orthodox Church Catholicos of the East was renamed the Catholicos of India in 2002. The position had remained vacant between 1996 and 2002.[60]

The current Catholicos of India is Baselios Thomas I.[61][62] He was enthroned as the Catholicos by Ignatius Zakka I Iwas Patriarch of Antioch at St. Peter and St. Paul Cathedral in Mor Ephrem Monastery near Damascus on 26 July 2002. He is the third Indian Maphrian and Catholicos of the Syriac Orthodox Church in India and former Metropolitan Trustee of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church.

Malankara Metropolitan

The Malankara Metropolitan was a legal title given to the head of the Malankara Church Nasrani Christians, by the Government of Travancore and Cochin in South India. This title was awarded by a proclamation from the King of Travancore and the King of Cochin. The Prime jurisdiction regarding the temporal, ecclesiastical, and spiritual administration of the Malankara Church.

  • Metropolitan Trustee: In 2002, after the enactment of the new bylaws for the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, and in the light of verdicts from the Supreme court of India, the Malankara Metropolitan officially assumed the title "Metropolitan trustee" unknowingly Malankara Metropolitan of Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church. Present Metropolitan Trustee is Joseph Mor Gregorios.

Covention and Proclmation

The Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church organizes spiritual conventions and faith hold conventions for a new path for the church who against faith. The convention's done in different areas as per the demographic of Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church.

  • Second Coonan Cross Oath - The Jacobite Syrian Church re-enacts the Second Coonan Cross Oath of Coonan Cross Oath of 1653[63] gathered Syrian Orthodox Church faithful of India on Kothamangalam Cheriya Pally. The faithful tied the rope to the Cross of the church and hold it with a Massive crowd on the demonstrated area across Aluva Munnar road to Nellikkuzhi. The faithful pledged their faith in the intercession of Maphrian Baselios Yeldo against the Supreme Court Verdict Of India.[64][65][66][67][68]
  • Proclamation - The Jacobite Syrian Church held proclamations to hold strong faith is known as Vishwasa Prakhyapanam[69][70] held on the established date of the holy Church of Antioch.
  • Holy Apostolic Visit - On the Holy apostolic visit of Syriac Orthodox Church Patriarch of Antioch, the faithful gathered together to receive Patriarch of Antioch.[71][72]

Missionary

  • St Paul's Mission of India - St Paul's Mission of India (S.P.M.) is the missionary society of the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, with mission fields in 21 states in India.[73] Coorilose Geevarghese, metropolitan, is the President of S.P.M.[74]
  • Honavar Mission - Honavar Mission of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church is an Organization functioning in the Karnataka state of Kerala founded by Fr George Pinto. The Mission runs more than 32 schools, orphanages and old-age homes in Dakshina Kannada, Uttara Kannada and Udupi districts under a registered organization named St Antony's Educational Society. The headquarters of this institution is located in a small town namely Honnavar in North Canara District, Karnataka. The Diocese is under the leadership of Anthonios Yaqu'b.
  • Evangelistic Association Of The East - E.A.E Arch Diocese is the missionary association of Syriac Orthodox Church founded in 1924 by Geevarghese Athunkal Cor-Episcopa at Perumbavoor.[75] This archdiocese is under the direct control of the patriarch under the guidance of Chrysostomos Markose, It is an organization with churches, educational institutions, orphanages, old age homes, convents, publications, mission centers, gospel teams, care missions, and a missionary training institute. It is registered in 1949 under the Indian Societies Registration Act. XXI of 1860 (Reg. No. S.8/1949ESTD 1924).[76][77][78]
  • St Johns Mission Charitable Trust - St Johns Mission Charitable Trust[79] located on Kothamangalam is a Missionary trust for helping Orphans, Widows and providing financial help for students. It is registered in 2003 vide no.79/IV/2003.
  • Mor Gregorios Syriac Orthodox Mission of India - Mor Gregorios Syriac Orthodox Mission of India is a small missionary community of Jacobite Syrian Church under the guidance of Timotheos Thomas.

Association

Proclaimed Saints of the Church

As per the tradition of Syrian Orthodox Church not officially proclaimed saints but it does for Syrian Orthodox Church in India is known as Jacobite Syrian Christian Church which is done by the long relationship between Antioch Church and Malankara Church by Ignatius Zakka I Patriarch of Antioch.

Other Saints

The Syrian Orthodox Church and Syrian Orthodox Church of India respect whole saints of the Holy Church either Catholic Church or Orthodox Church.

Maramon Convention and Jacobite Syrian Church

The Maramon Convention is one of the world's largest convention held on Maramon, India organized by Marthoma Syrian Church. After the reformation movement when it's started in 1984 is known as Maramon Convention, what is the relationship between the Maramon Convention and the Syrian Church is that Patriarch of Antioch and Current Catholicos Baselios Thomas I of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church attended together after the enthronement of the patriarch.

Dioceses

The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church has the following dioceses

Archdioceses (autonomous)

There are Archdioceses under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Antioch:

  1. Knanaya Archdiocese
    1. Region of Chingavanam
    2. Region of Kallisseri
    3. Region of Ranni
    4. Region of USA, Canada and Europe
  2. Malankara Archdiocese of North America
  3. Malankara Archdiocese of Europe
    1. Patriarchal Vicarate of Ireland
    2. Patriarchal Vicarate of UK
    3. Patriarchal vicarate of Germany & Central Europe

Dioceses in Kerala

  1. Kollam Diocese[84]
  2. Thumpamon Diocese[85]
  3. Niranam Diocese[86]
  4. Kottayam Diocese[87]
  5. Idukki Diocese[88]
  6. Kandanad Diocese[89]
  7. Kochi Diocese[90]
  8. Angamaly (Largest Diocese)
    1. Angamaly Region
    2. Perumbavoor Region
    3. Pallikkara Region
    4. Muvattupuzha Region
    5. Kothamangalam Region
    6. Highrange Region
  9. Thrissur Diocese[91]
  10. Kozhikode Diocese[92]
  11. Malabar Diocese[93]

Dioceses outside Kerala

  1. Mangalore Diocese
  2. Bangalore Diocese
  3. Mylapore Diocese[94] (formerly Chennai Diocese)
  4. Mumbai Diocese
  5. Delhi Diocese[95]

Dioceses outside India (autonomous)

  1. Middle East Diocese - Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
  2. Australia & New Zealand
  3. Singapore & Malaysia

Other dioceses (autonomous)

There are dioceses under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Antioch.

  1. Honavar Mission[96]
  2. E.A.E (Evangelistic Association of the East) Churches[97]
  3. Simhasana Churches

Bishops of the church

Knanaya Archdiocese

See also

References

  1. ^ "Canonization". www.syriacchristianity.info.
  2. ^ History of Jacobite Syrian Church
  3. ^ Society, Canadian Anthropology (2004). Anthropologica. Canadian Anthropology Society.
  4. ^ Courier, Madras (25 December 2017). "How Christianity Arrived in Kerala Through Syrian Immigrants". Madras Courier.
  5. ^ Malankara Church
  6. ^ http://www.cnewaindia.in/default.aspx?ID=9&pagetypeID=9&sitecode=CA&pageno=1
  7. ^ "JSC News - The Official News Portal of the Holy Jacobite Syrian Christian Church".
  8. ^ "Pastoral message of H.B Thomas I, Maphrian of India, Jacobite Church Head in India".
  9. ^ Official Publication of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church
  10. ^ "Jacobite Syrian Christian Church Constitution 2002 (in Malayalam)" (PDF).
  11. ^ Russell, Thomas Arthur; Comparative Christianity: A Student's Guide to a Religion and Its Diverse Traditions; Boca Raton, Florida; 2010; Universal Publishers; p. 40.
  12. ^ Gregorios; Paulos; Roberson; Ronald G.; The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online (Syrian Orthodox Churches in India); Netherlands; 2016; Brill Online Reference works.
  13. ^ Lucian N. Leustean; Eastern Christianity and the cold war, 1945-91; New York; 2010; Routeledge Taylor&Francis Group; p. 317.
  14. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch; The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5; 2008; Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing; p. 285.
  15. ^ Frykenberg, Eric; Christianity in India: From Beginnings to the Present; Oxford University Press; p. 374.
  16. ^ Jacobite Syrian Christian Church
  17. ^ "The Malankara Syriac Church – SCOOCH". www.scooch.org.
  18. ^ "Metropolitan's from the Syriac Orthodox Church of India Visits Patriarch Ignatius Aphrem II". 21 October 2016.
  19. ^ Alexander 2018, p. 56.
  20. ^ "Saint Thomas Christians- Chronological Events from First Century to Twenty First Century". Nasranis.
  21. ^ Thomas, Abraham Vazhayil (1974). Christians in Secular India. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 9780838610213.
  22. ^ Joseph, John. Muslim-Christian Relations and Inter-Christian Rivalries in the Middle East: The Case of the Jacobites in an Age of Transition. SUNY Press. ISBN 9781438408064.
  23. ^ Jacob Burdana History
  24. ^ "St. Athanasius Cathedral, Puthencuriz". www.syriacchristianity.info.
  25. ^ "Malankara Jacobite syrian Sunday School Association". mjssa.in.
  26. ^ Administrator, Site. "St.Thomas College". stcpcz.in.
  27. ^ "MD Bookstall". www.mdbookstall.com.
  28. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Thomas Christians". www.newadvent.org.
  29. ^ Frykenberg, p. 93.
  30. ^ Wilmshurst, EO, 343
  31. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin; Lochman, Jan Milic; Mbiti, John S.; Vischer, Lukas; Bromiley, Geoffrey William (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity (Encyclopedia of Christianity) Volume 5. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 285–286. ISBN 0-8028-2417-X.
  32. ^ Nicea Synod Canon 6
  33. ^ Cheriya Pally
  34. ^ Piravom Church
  35. ^ Pakalomattam Family History
  36. ^ Royal Agrements
  37. ^ Symbols of Christian Church
  38. ^ Holy Girdle
  39. ^ Patrologia syriaca: complectens opera omnia ss. patrum, doctorum scriptorumque catholicorum, quibus accedunt aliorum acatholicorum auctorum scripta quae ad res ecclesiasticas pertinent, quotquot syriace supersunt, secundum codices praesertim, londinenses, parisienses, vaticanos accurante R. Graffin ... Firmin-Didot et socii. 1926.
  40. ^ http://www.pampakudavaliyapally.com/details.php?page=1&id=4
  41. ^ http://www.syriacchristianity.info/bio/KonattCorepiscopa.htm
  42. ^ Kottayam Valiyapally
  43. ^ Kottayam Valiyapally Mural Painting
  44. ^ Seleznyov 2010, p. 165–190.
  45. ^ Brock 1996, p. 23-35.
  46. ^ Nasrani Cross
  47. ^ Orthodox Church of North America
  48. ^ Malankara Syriac Church
  49. ^ Explained | The Piravom church stand-off and the century-old rivalry among two Christian factions in Kerala
  50. ^ Sacramental Relationship
  51. ^ Cemetery Ordinance News
  52. ^ Agreement
  53. ^ Common Declaration
  54. ^ Preach of Marthoma Metropolitian
  55. ^ History of Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church
  56. ^ M.C Jacob died
  57. ^ "Delegates from the Holy See of Antioch who came to the Church in Malabar since 16th century". www.syriacchristianity.info.
  58. ^ Patriarchal Delegates in 2014
  59. ^ Manjanikkara church festival to begin on February 2
  60. ^ "Catholicate of the East". catholicose.org. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  61. ^ H.B Baselios Biography
  62. ^ Catholicos
  63. ^ Coonan Cross Oath Malayalam Drama
  64. ^ Coonan Cross Oath The New Indian Express
  65. ^ Coonan Cross Oath The Times of India
  66. ^ Coonan Cross Oath Malayalam Manorama
  67. ^ Second Coonan Cross Oath Mathrbhumi
  68. ^ Second Coonan Cross Oath Youtube Video
  69. ^ Vishwasa Prakhyapanam Youtube Video
  70. ^ Vishwasa Prakhyapanam Official Video
  71. ^ Holy Apostolic Visit
  72. ^ Holy Apostolic Visit 2004
  73. ^ STPMWebAdmin. "Home". St. Paul's Mission of India. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  74. ^ STPMWebAdmin. "Who We Are". St. Paul's Mission of India. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  75. ^ Thomas, Anthony Korah (1993). The Christians of Kerala: A Brief Profile of All Major Churches. A.K. Thomas.
  76. ^ "Ministry Of Corporate Affairs – societiesregistrationact". www.mca.gov.in.
  77. ^ "പൗരസ്ത്യ സുവിശേഷ സമാജം ജനറൽ കൺവൻഷൻ തുടങ്ങി". ManoramaOnline.
  78. ^ "Missionary Training Institute,Mission centres-The Evangelistic Association of the East,EAE,Perumbavoor,Kerala,India". eaepbr.org.
  79. ^ http://stjohnstrust.org/about/
  80. ^ Malankara Jacobite syrian Sunday School Association
  81. ^ Martha Mariam Vanitha Samajam
  82. ^ Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Youth Association
  83. ^ Mor Gregorios Jacobite Students' Movement
  84. ^ "Kollam Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Church". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  85. ^ "Official site of Thumpamon Diocese". Thumpamon Diocese. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  86. ^ "Niranam Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church". Niranam Diocese. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  87. ^ "Kottayam Diocese". Kottayam Diocese. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  88. ^ "Official website of Idukki Dioces". Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  89. ^ "Kandanad Diocese - Jacobite Syrian Christian Church". Kandanad Diocese. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  90. ^ Kochi Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Church Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  91. ^ "Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church". Thrissur Diocese. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  92. ^ "Kozhikode Diocese - Jacobite Syrian Christian Church". Kozhikode Diocese. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  93. ^ "Official Website of Malabar Diocese, Jacobite Syrian Christian Church". Malabar Diocese. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  94. ^ "Mylapore Diocese - Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church". Mylapore Diocese. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  95. ^ "Delhi Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Church". Delhi Diocese. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  96. ^ "Honnavar Mission". Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  97. ^ "Evangelical Association of the East". Retrieved 26 September 2017.

Sources

External links