Jacobite rising of 1689
|The Jacobite Rising of 1689|
|Part of Jacobite risings|
The Battle of Dunkeld
|Commanders and leaders|
Viscount Dundee † |
Hugh Mackay |
|4,000 – 5,000 (maximum)||5,000 – 10,000 (maximum)|
|Casualties and losses|
|1,500 – 2,000 (estimate)||2,000 – 2,500 (estimate)|
The Jacobite rising of 1689 was a revolt seeking to restore James II & VII, following his deposition in November 1688. Adherents of the exiled House of Stuart were known as 'Jacobites', from Jacobus, Latin for James, and the associated political movement as Jacobitism.
Part of the wider European conflict known as the Nine Years War, the Scottish rising was launched in support of the 1689 to 1691 Williamite War in Ireland. Despite victory at Killiecrankie in July 1689, the death of Jacobite leader John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee and lack of supplies limited the Scottish rising. Major military action ended in May 1690, although the Highlands were not finally subdued until February 1692, ending with the Massacre of Glencoe.
It was the first of a series of Jacobite rebellions and plots which continued until the mid 18th century.
In February 1685, the Catholic James II & VII came to power with widespread support in all three kingdoms. In predominately Catholic Ireland, it was hoped he would reverse land confiscations and restrictions on their ability to hold office. While overwhelmingly Protestant, the 1638 to 1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms meant many in both England and Scotland feared the consequences of bypassing the 'natural heir'. A desire for stability led to the rapid collapse of two Protestant risings in June 1685, the Monmouth Rebellion in England, and Argyll's Rising in Scotland.
The 1681 Scottish Succession and Test Acts made obedience to the monarch a legal obligation, 'regardless of religion'; in return, James swore to uphold the primacy of the Church of Scotland or kirk. By 1680, over 95 percent of Scots were members of the kirk; Catholics numbered less than 2% of the population and even other Protestant sects were barred. Attempts to repeal the Scottish Test Act undermined his moderate supporters, while rewarding the dissident Presbyterians who backed Argyll in 1685.
The perception James was willing to ignore his commitments, his Coronation Oath and his own supporters seriously undermined his position in Scotland. In October 1685, an estimated 200,000 French Protestants were forced into exile by the Edict of Fontainebleau, while French expansion under Louis XIV threatened the Protestant Dutch Republic. Close economic and cultural ties between Scotland and fellow Calvinists in France and Holland exacerbated fears Protestant Europe was threatened by a Catholic counter-reformation.
In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis. The first was the birth of James Francis Edward on 10 June, creating the prospect of a Catholic dynasty, rather than James being succeeded by his Protestant daughter Mary, and her husband William of Orange. The second was prosecution of the Seven Bishops, which seemed to go beyond tolerance for Catholicism into an assault on the Church of England. This appeared to also threaten the kirk, and their acquittal on 30 June destroyed James' political authority in both Scotland and England.
Prior to 1685, many feared civil war if James were bypassed; by 1688, it seemed only his removal could prevent one. War with France appeared imminent, making William anxious to secure English resources; in July, he received assurances of support for armed intervention from across the English political class, including those who had previously supported James. The Nine Years War began in September and on 5 November, William landed in Brixham with 14,000 men; as he advanced, much of the Royal Army deserted and James went into exile on 23 December. In February, the Parliament of England made William and Mary joint monarchs of England.
The Scottish Convention
In March 1689, elections were held for a Scottish Convention to agree a settlement. Many of William's advisors were Scottish exiles like Argyll and Melville, who wanted to expel bishops from the kirk. When the Convention assembled in March, the 125 delegates were split roughly 75:50 between Presbyterians and Episcopalians; only a tiny minority were loyal to James, the real debate being control of the kirk and the limits of Royal authority.
On 12 March, James landed in Ireland; he sent the Convention a letter, which was read out on 16 March, demanding obedience and threatening punishment for non-compliance. Public anger meant some Episcopalians stopped attending meetings, claiming to fear for their safety, while others changed sides. In addition, the Catholic Duke of Gordon held Edinburgh Castle for James, while his former military commander Viscount Dundee began recruiting troops. The effect was to bolster the Presbyterian majority in the Convention, which met behind closed doors guarded by its own troops.
On 11 April, the Convention ended James' reign and adopted the Articles of Grievances and the Claim of Right Act that made Parliament the primary legislative power in Scotland. On 11 May 1689, William and Mary accepted the Scottish throne and the Convention became a full Parliament on 5 June.
Dundee's rising was designed to complement the war in Ireland and relied on support from Ulster. The government commander in Scotland was Hugh Mackay, an experienced soldier with around 3,500 troops, including 1,100 men from the veteran Dutch Scots Brigade. Ewen Cameron of Lochiel assembled some 1,800 Highland levies at Glenroy; Dundee joined him with around 40 companions and on 18 May, marched out in an attempt to bring Mackay to battle.
Aware of the short-term nature of Highland warfare, Mackay avoided combat; when Dundee returned to Glenroy in late June, most of the clansmen went home, leaving him with less than 200 men. His position was weakened by defections, Gordon surrendered Edinburgh Castle on 14 June, while Jacobite retreat in Ulster made resupply extremely difficult. The only reinforcements received were a contingent of 300 Irish soldiers under Alexander Cannon, who landed near Duart on 21 July.
Before returning to Glenroy, Dundee installed a Jacobite garrison at Blair Castle, a strategic point which controlled access to the Scottish Lowlands. Home to the Marquess of Atholl, this shows how many tried to balance both sides. Atholl left for Bath, Somerset claiming ill-health, while his eldest son John Murray 'besieged' his ancestral home on behalf of the government. He was careful not to damage it, while its garrison was commanded by Patrick Stewart of Ballechin, a trusted Atholl family retainer.
When reinforcements led by Dundee arrived at Blair on 25 July, Murray withdrew, while Mackay left Perth with around 3,500 men and moved north to support him. At Killiecrankie on 27 July, the Jacobites won a resounding victory, inflicting nearly 2,000 casualties on Mackay's army. However, nearly a third of the Jacobites were killed, including Dundee. Alexander Cannon took over as Jacobite leader, but his options were limited. Without siege equipment, he could not capture a port, making resupply almost impossible, while lack of cavalry made Jacobite soldiers vulnerable in the open. Time was on Mackay's side, so long as he avoided another ambush.
After an assault on Dunkeld in August was repulsed with heavy losses, Cannon ended the campaign for the year, and his army dispersed. Mackay spent the winter reducing Jacobite strongholds and constructing a new base at Fort William, while harsh weather conditions led to severe food shortages. Thomas Buchan replaced Cannon in February 1690, but could only mobilise some 800 men; he was taken by surprise at Cromdale in May and his forces scattered. Mackay pursued Buchan into Aberdeenshire, preventing him from establishing a secure base. In November 1690, Mackay relinquished command to Thomas Livingstone.
Anxious to re-allocate resources to the war against France, in March 1690, Lord Stair offered the Jacobite chiefs £12,000 for swearing allegiance to William. They finally agreed to do so in the June 1691 Declaration of Achallader, although the war did not formally end until the Glencoe massacre in February 1692. Cannon and Buchan had been sheltered in the Highlands by Glengarry, and as part of the deal that ended the Rising received safe conduct to France in March 1692.
Although William wanted to retain bishops, the Rising highlighted his reliance on Presbyterian support. In an attempt to preserve Episcopalianism, the Scottish bishops proposed Union with England, which was rejected by the English Parliament. In October 1690, the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland met for the first time since 1653; the 1690 Settlement eliminated episcopacy and created two commissions for the south and north of the Tay, which over the next 25 years removed almost two-thirds of all ministers.
Acts of indulgence in 1693 and 1695 allowed many of these to return to the kirk, with others protected by the local gentry, such as Michael Fraser, minister at Daviot and Dunlichty. First appointed in 1673, he was still in office when he died in 1726, despite being evicted in 1694, as well as joining the 1715 and 1719 Jacobite Risings.
However, a significant element of the Scottish political class remained outside the kirk, eventually forming the Scottish Episcopal Church, which was officially sanctioned in 1711. Particularly strong in Aberdeenshire and Perthshire, it would be a major source of Jacobite support in subsequent risings.
- Miller 1978, pp. 156–157.
- Baker 2009, pp. 290–291.
- Harris 2007, pp. 153–157.
- Harris 2007, pp. 179–181.
- Spielvogel 2014, p. 410. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSpielvogel2014 (help)
- Bosher 1994, pp. 6–8.
- Harris 2007, pp. 235-236.
- Wormsley 2015, p. 189.
- Harris 2007, pp. 3–5.
- Harris 2007, pp. 271–272.
- Harris 2007, pp. 379–386.
- Szechi 1994, pp. 30–31.
- Lynch 1992, p. 302.
- Coward 1980, p. 460.
- Fritze & Robison 1996, pp. 68–70.
- Macpherson 1775, pp. 357–358.
- Macpherson 1775, pp. 360–367.
- Kennedy 2016, p. 8.
- Hill 1986, p. 73.
- Lenman 1995, p. 37. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLenman1995 (help)
- Chichester 2004.
- MacConechy 1843, p. 77.
- Lynch 1992, p. 305.
- Lynch 1992, p. 304.
- Lenman 1980, p. 56.
- Mackie, Lenman & Parker 1986, p. 253.
- Baker, Derek (2009). Schism, Heresy and Religious Protest. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521101786.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bosher, JF (February 1994). "The Franco-Catholic Danger, 1660–1715". History. 79 (255).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Chichester, H.M (2004). "Livingstone, Thomas, Viscount Teviot". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16810. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Coward, Barry (1980). The Stuart Age: England 1603–1714 (1994 ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-0582067226.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Fritze, Ronald; Robison, William (1996). Historical Dictionary of Stuart England, 1603–1689. Greenwood. ISBN 0313283915.
- Harris, Tim (2007). Revolution; the Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685-1720. Penguin. ISBN 0141016523.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hill, James (1986). Celtic Warfare 1595–1763 (2017 ed.). Dalriada Publishers. ISBN 978-0-9708525-5-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Kennedy, Allan (2016). "Rebellion, Government and the Scottish Response to Argyll's Rising of 1685". Journal of Scottish Historical Studies. 36 (1).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lenman, Bruce (1980). The Jacobite Risings in Britain 1689–1746. Eyre Methuen. ISBN 978-0413396501.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lynch, Michael (1992). Scotland: a New History. Pimlico Publishing. ISBN 0712698930.
- MacConechy, James (1843). Papers Illustrative of the Political Condition of the Highlands of Scotland (2012 ed.). Nabu Press. ISBN 1145174388.;
- Mackie, JD; Lenman, Bruce; Parker, Geoffrey (1986). A History of Scotland. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0880290401.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Macpherson, James (1775). Original Papers: Containing the Secret History of Great Britain (2017 ed.). Hansebooks. ISBN 978-3-7434-3572-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Miller, John (1978). James II; A study in kingship. Menthuen. ISBN 978-0413652904.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Spielvogel, Jackson J (1980). Western Civilization. Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 1285436407.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites: Britain and Europe, 1688-1788. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719037743.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wormsley, David (2015). James II: The Last Catholic King. Allen Lane. ISBN 014197706X.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)