Jacques Necker

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Jacques Necker
Necker, Jacques - Duplessis.jpg
Chief Minister of the French Monarch
In office
16 July 1789 – 3 September 1790
MonarchLouis XVI
Preceded byBaron of Breteuil
Succeeded byCount of Montmorin
In office
25 August 1788 – 11 July 1789
MonarchLouis XVI
Preceded byArchbishop de Brienne
Succeeded byBaron of Breteuil
Controller-General of Finances
In office
25 August 1788 – 22 July 1789
MonarchLouis XVI
Preceded byCharles Alexandre de Calonne
Succeeded byCharles Alexandre de Calonne
Director-General of the Royal Treasury
In office
29 June 1777 – 19 May 1781
MonarchLouis XVI
Preceded byLouis Gabriel Taboureau des Réaux
Succeeded byJean-François Joly
Personal details
Born(1732-09-30)30 September 1732
Geneva, Republic of Geneva
Died9 April 1804(1804-04-09) (aged 71)
Geneva, Léman (department), France
Spouse(s)
Suzanne Curchod
(m. 1764; died 1794)
ChildrenGermaine

Jacques Necker (IPA: [ʒak nɛkɛʁ]; 30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804) was a banker of Genevan origin who became a French statesman and finance minister for Louis XVI. Necker played a key role in French history before and during the first period of the French Revolution.[1]

Necker held the finance post during the period 1777-1781 and "is remembered today for taking the unprecedented step in 1781 of making public the country’s budget, a novelty in an absolute monarchy where the state of finances had always been kept a secret."[2] Necker was dismissed immediately. In 1788 the inexorable compounding of interest brought France to a fiscal crisis.[3] Necker was recalled to royal service. When he was dismissed on 11 July 1789 it caused the Storming of the Bastille. Within a week Necker was recalled by the king and entered the capital in triumph. He remained in office for another year trying to accelerate the tax reform process. Faced with the opposition of the Constituent Assembly, who changed the purpose of assignats into legal tender, he resigned in September 1790, apparently a constitutional monarchist, in general indifference.

Necker was also a writer and a moralist. He wrote a severe criticism of the new principle of Equality before the law. Necker fully embraced the label of moderate and the concept of the golden mean.[4]

Early life[edit]

Necker was born in Geneva in a Calvinist surrounding. His father, Karl Friedrich Necker, was a native of Küstrin in Neumark, Prussia (now Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland). After the publication of some works on international law, Necker's father was appointed in Geneva as professor of public law in 1724. In 1747 Jacques became a clerk in the bank of Thellusson and Vernet. In 1750 he was sent to Paris to the Bank Girardot. He learned Dutch and English. One day, he replaces the first clerk in charge of negotiations in the stock exchange and during a major operation, he made a quick profit of half a million. In 1762, Vernet retired and Necker became a partner in the bank with Peter Thellusson who superintended the bank in London, while Necker was his managing partner in Paris. In 1763, before the end of the Seven Years' War, he successfully speculated in British debentures or bonds (possibly grain and/or Canadian shares?), which he sold with a good profit in the next few years.[5] The young Necker was envied by his contemporaries for his fabulous wealth.[6]

Necker had fallen in love with Madame de Verménou, the widow of a French officer. But while on a visit to Geneva, Madame de Verménou met Suzanne Curchod, who was the daughter of a pastor from Crassier near Nyon. In 1764, Madame de Verménou brought Suzanne to Paris as a companion for Thelusson's children. Necker transferred his love from the wealthy widow to the Swiss governess. He married Suzanne before the end of the year. In 1766, they had a daughter, Anne Louise Germaine Necker, who became a renowned author under the name of Madame de Staël.

Suzanne Curchod, wife of Jacques Necker

Madame Necker encouraged her husband to try to find himself a public position. He accordingly became a syndic (or director) of the French East India Company, around which a fierce political debate revolved in the 1760s between the company's directors and shareholders and the royal ministry over its administration and the company's autonomy.[7] "The ministry, concerned with the financial stability of the company, employed the Abbé Morellet to shift the debate from the rights of the shareholders to the advantages of commercial liberty over the company's privileged trading monopoly."[8] After showing his financial ability in its management, Necker defended the company's autonomy in an able memoir[9] against the attacks of Morellet in 1769. Necker bought the stockpile and the ships when the French East India Company went bankrupt in 1769. Meanwhile, he made loans to the French government in the form of life annuity.[citation needed]

From 1768 till 1776 he was resident of the Republic of Geneva in Paris. In 1773, Necker won the prize of the Académie Française for a defense of state corporatism framed as a eulogy in honor of Louis XIV's minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert. In 1775, he published his Essai sur la législation et le commerce des grains, in which he attacked the Physiocrats and questioning the laissez-faire policies of Turgot. As a result he succeeded Turgot. His wife now believed he could get into office as a great financier and made him give up his share in the bank, which he transferred to his brother Louis Necker.[citation needed] In 1776 his brother Louis succeeded him as the resident.

Finance Minister of France[edit]

Necker, 1789 engraving

In June 1777, according to his daughter in her "Vie privée de Mr. Necker" he was made director-general of the royal treasury and not Controller-General of Finance which was impossible because of his Protestant faith.[10][11] He refused a salary and gained popularity in regulating the government's finances by attempting to divide the taille and the capitation tax more equally, abolishing a tax known as the vingtième d'industrie, (a value-added tax) and establishing monts de piété (establishments for loaning money on security). Necker tried through careful reforms (abolition of pensions, mortmain, droit de suite and more fair taxation) to rehabilitate the disorganized state budget. Necker tried to install provincial assemblies and hoped they could serve as effective means of reforming the ancien regime. Court intrigues against Necker prevented this. Necker succeeded only in Berry and Haute-Guyenne. In April 1778 he remitted 2 million livres from his own fortune to the royal treasury.[12]

His greatest financial measures were his use of loans to help fund the French debt and his use of high interest rates rather than raising taxes.[13] Necker, who had financed the participation in the War of independence almost exclusively by municipal bonds, warned of the consequences for the French national budget as the war continued. The war had cost the state already ca. one billion livres. In September 1780 Necker wanted to be dismissed, but the King refused to let him go.[14]

Compte rendu au roi[edit]

Compte rendu au roi (1781) Edition originale

In 1781, France was suffering financially, and as director of the royal treasury he was blamed for the rather high debt accrued from the American Revolution.[15] The government had a deficit of six million livres? After Necker had shown the king his annual report the king tried to keep the content secret. Jacques-Mathieu Augeard trying to succeed Necker, was his main opponent, and attacked him on his foreign origin, his faith, and economic choices.[16] A series of pamphlets appeared.[17] The main reason behind this was the action of Necker "cooking the books" or falsifying the records.[18] [19] In revenge, Necker made the Compte rendu au roi public.

In his most influential work, which brought him instant fame, Necker summarized governmental income and expenditures to provide the first record of royal finances ever made public. As a specific example his compte rendu showed the king would spend more on his brothers than on public health.[20] The Account was meant to be an educational piece for the people, and in it, he expressed his desire to create a well-informed, interested populace.[21] Before, the people had never considered governmental income and expenditure to be their concern, but the Compte rendu made them more proactive. (This birth of public opinion and interest played an important role in the French Revolution.)

The classical interpretation of his statistics, given in the Compte rendu, that they were false and misleading,[22][23] but The state revenues were revised upwards as it was forbidden to publish military expenditures.

The compte rendu made Necker quite popular with the masses, but it had another effect he was not expecting. Publicizing the royal finances exposed and confirmed the excessive lifestyle of the crown. Many French citizens were fed up with this lavish living. Although it was not Necker’s intention, his compte rendu helped precipitate the fall of Louis XVI.[24]

When Necker was dismissed on 19 May 1781 the people pilgrimaged to his estate. Madame Necker went as far as Utrecht to buy the libels that appeared in the name of Turgot against her husband and even tried to have arrest the booksellers.[25][26][27] It seems he and his brother Louis received annually 8 million livres as a pension?[28] Anyhow Jacques bought an estate in Coppet and Louis in Cologny in the surrounding of Geneva. In retirement, Necker, believing in "credible policy", occupied himself with law and economics, producing his famous Traité de l'administration des finances de la France (1784). Because of difference in the gabelle salt was smuggled all over the country. Necker reported that a minot of salt, which was 49 kilograms (107.8 pounds) cost only 31 sous in Brittany, but 81 in Poitou, 591 in Anjou, and 611 in Berry.[29] Each year about 3000 citizens (men, women, and children) were being imprisoned, sent to the galleys, or put to death for crimes against the gabelle. All the while, religious persons, nobility, and high-ranking officials were often exempt from the gabelle or paid much lower taxes.

The family returned to the Paris region in 1785. The impending national bankruptcy of France caused Calonne to convene an Assembly of notables under the elimination of parlements in order to enforce tax reforms. It had not met since 1626. However, the assembly of notables decided otherwise and forced his dismissal. Calonne was dismissed by the king on 7 April 1787. Two days later the king banished Necker to 40 leagues from Paris by a lettre de cachet for his very public exchange of pamphlets and memoirs attacking his successor Calonne.[30] The next minister of finance Loménie de Brienne resigned already on 24 August 1788.


Significant deficits through increased spending on the magnificent court in Versailles and costly, foreign policy failures let the debt grow from 67% to 100%.[citation needed] By August the state needed 240 million livres and France was effectively bankrupt.[31] On 25 August Necker was called back to office accompanied by fireworks and an impressive rise of the stock exchange. This time he insisted on the title of Controller-General of Finances.[32][33] Necker was appointed as head of the governement. In the summer of 1789 when the population suffered from famine Necker intervened personally and successfully at the Amsterdam bank Hope & Co. to supply the 'King of France' with grain.[34][35] The two million in the royal treasury he used as a deposit.[36]

The one non-noble minister[edit]

In this 1789 engraving, James Gillray caricatures the triumph of Necker (seated, on left) in 1789, comparing its effects on freedom unfavorably to those of William Pitt the Younger in Britain. France has the caption "Freedom," while Britain has the caption "slavery."

Necker succeeded in doubling the representation of the Third Estate to satisfy the nation, c.q. the people. His address at the Estates-General on 5 May 1789 about the fundamental problems as financial health, constitutional monarchy, and institutional and political reforms lasted three hours. Necker suffered from a cold and after fifteen minutes he asked a clerk to read the remainder. He invited the representatives to leave aside their factional interests and take into consideration the general, long-term interests of the nation. Personal rivalries and radical claims had to give way to a pragmatic spirit of moderation and conciliation.[37] Necker's last sentence of the speech: "Finally, gentlemen, you will not be envious of what only time can achieve, and you will leave something for it to do. For if you attempt to reform everything that seems imperfect, your work will lead to poor results."[38] According to Simon Schama he "appeared to consider the Estates-General to be a facility designed to help the administration rather than to reform government".[39] Two weeks later Necker seems to have sought to persuade the king to adopt a constitution similar to that of England and advised him in the strongest possible terms to make the necessary concessions before it was too late.[40] According to François Mignet "He hoped to reduce the number of the orders, and bring about the adoption of the English form of government, by uniting the clergy and nobility in one chamber, and the third estate in another."[41] By this refusal he became the ally of the assembly, which determined to support him.

On 17 June 1789, the first act of the new National Assembly in revolutionary France declared all existing taxes illegal. Necker had legitimate reasons to be concerned about the implications of this unprecedented decision.[42] On 23 June the king proposed to the royal council the dissolution of the Assembly. While at dinner on the 11th of July, Necker received a note from the king enjoining him to leave the country immediately. He finished dining very calmly, without communicating the purport of the order he had received, and then got into his carriage with Madame Necker, as if intending to drive to their estate in Saint-Ouen, but he took the road to Brussels. When the news became known the next day it enraged Camille Desmoulins. The threat of a counter-revolution, as well as bankrupt, provoked the armament of citizens and the storming of the Bastille on 14 July.[43] The king recalled the immensely popular Necker on 16 July. Necker wrote his brother that he was going back to the abyss. His entry into Paris was a day of festivity and demanded a general amnesty. He proved to be powerless as tax-income dropped quickly. The political scene came to be dominated by "clamorous spectators, passionate judges, and ungovernable agitators".[44] In November 1789 ecclesiastical possessions were confiscated. Necker proposed the issue of assignats. He was partly backed by Comte de Mirabeau, his strongest opponent who called for "national money".[45] "Consequently, a first decree was voted through on 21 December 1789, ordering the issue of 400 million assignats with an interest rate of 5%, secured and repayable based on the auctioning of the biens nationaux (“national goods”: properties and assets recently seized from the Catholic Church)."[46] Feudal rights were confiscated in March. In May 1790 the feudal and ecclesiastical properties were sold against assignats. Initially, the new money had a beneficial effect, but exchange rates dropped with 25% and the treasury stayed empty.

On 17 April 1790, the government, which was still short of cash, declared an emergency exchange rate for the assignat, and the interest was cut from 5% to 3% before being scrapped altogether. This is how it became genuine paper money. On top of that, the State was no longer destroying the assignats that it was getting back. Jacques Necker, Minister of Finance and fervent opponent of the paper money, disapproved of these decisions and handed in his resignation in September.[47]

A first loan of thirty millions (1,200,000 livres), voted the 9th of August, had not succeeded; a subsequent loan of eighty millions (3,200,000l.), voted the 27th of the same month, had been insufficient. Duties were reduced or abolished, and they yielded scarcely anything, owing to the difficulty of collecting them. It became useless to have recourse to public confidence, which refused its aid; and in September, Necker had proposed, as the only means, an extraordinary contribution of a fourth of the revenue, to be paid at once. Each citizen was to fix his proportion himself, making use of that simple form of oath, which well expressed these first days of honour and patriotism:—"I declare with truth."[48]

On 27 August 1790 the assignats became legal tender, c.q. banknotes. Necker was attacked by Jean-Paul Marat in his pamphlets, by Jacques-René Hébert in his newspaper and by Count Mirabeau in the Assembly, who accused him of complete financial dictatorship.[49] Jacques Necker, resolutely against the transformation of the assignat into paper currency, handed in his resignation on 3 September. Necker's efforts to keep the financial situation afloat were ineffective and his intention to change the "Caisse d'Escompte" into a national bank project failed. His popularity vanished and he resigned with a damaged reputation.[50] [51] Necker left leaving the two million livres in the public treasury.[52]

Retirement[edit]

Château de Coppet, vue partielle

Not without danger, Necker traveled north to Brussels in the Austrian Netherlands. Through Germany, he reached Switzerland and Coppet Castle. Here he occupied himself with law, history, and literature. At the end of 1792, he published a brochure on the trial against Louis XVI. Being put on the list of Émigrés in 1793 Necker was not paid any interest on the money he had left in the treasury.[53] His house in Rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin, his estate in Saint-Ouen and the two million livres were confiscated by the French government?[54] Late 1793 the Necker's moved to Beaulieu Castle, where his wife died. (Necker seems to have moved from Geneva to Lausanne because of the influence of the revolutionary committees?) He continued to live under the care of his daughter and his niece, Madame Necker de Saussure.[citation needed] But his time was past, and his books had except abroad no political influence.[citation needed] Early 1798 a momentary excitement was caused by French invasion of Switzerland when he burnt most of his political papers. In July 1798 Necker was removed from the list of Émigrés.[55] His house in the 9th arrondissement of Paris was sold to (or occupied by?) the husband of Juliette Récamier. The publication of "Last Views on Politics and Finance" in 1802 upset the first consul Napoleon. Necker's claim on the two million was not recognized by the French Senate.[56] Necker died in Geneva on 9 April 1804.[57] Posterity has not been fair to Necker according to Aurelian Craiutu.[58] Like Mirabeau, the Marquis De Lafayette, Barnave and Pétion Necker was only temporarily supported by the people.[59][60]

Personal life[edit]

Family[edit]

His daughter Germaine de Staël was to become a prominent figure in her own right and a leading opponent of Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1804 she published "Vie privée de Mr. Necker". On 22 March 1814 she was promised 21 years of interest on her father's investment in the public treasury.[61]

His nephew Jacques Necker (1757-1825) married Albertine Necker de Saussure. It seems they took care of their uncle after his wife had died in 1794. Their son was the geologist and botanist Louis Albert Necker de Saussure.[62]

Places named after Jacques Necker[edit]

Works[edit]

  • Réponse au mémoire de M. l’abbé Morellet sur la Compagnie des Indes, 1769
  • Éloge de Jean-Baptiste Colbert, 1773
  • Sur la Législation et le commerce des grains, 1775
  • Mémoire au roi sur l’établissement des administrations provinciales, 1776
  • Lettre au roi, 1777
  • Compte rendu au roi, 1781
  • De l’Administration des finances de la France, 1784, 3 vol. in-8°
  • Correspondance de M. Necker avec M. de Calonne. (29 janvier-28 février 1787), 1787
  • De l’importance des opinions religieuses, 1788
  • De la Morale naturelle, suivie du Bonheur des sots, 1788
  • Supplément nécessaire à l’importance des opinions religieuses, 1788
  • Sur le compte rendu au roi en 1781 : nouveaux éclaircissements, 1788
  • Rapport fait au roi dans son conseil par le ministre des finances, 1789
  • Derniers conseils au roi, 1789
  • Hommage de M. Necker à la nation française, 1789
  • Observations sur l’avant-propos du « Livre rouge », v. 1790
  • Opinion relativement au décret de l’Assemblée nationale, concernant les titres, les noms et les armoiries, v. 1790
  • Sur l’administration de M. Necker, 1791
  • Réflexions présentées à la nation française sur le procès intenté à Louis XVI, 1792
  • Du pouvoir exécutif dans les grands États, 1792.[63]
  • De la Révolution française, 1796
  • Cours de morale religieuse, 1800
  • Dernières vues de politique et de finance, offertes à la Nation française, 1802
  • Manuscrits de M. Necker, publiés par sa fille (1803)
  • Histoire de la Révolution française, depuis l’Assemblée des notables jusques et y compris la journée du 13 vendémiaire an IV (18 octobre 1795), 1821

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A Voice of Moderation in the Age of Revolutions: Jacques Necker’s Reflections on Executive Power in Modern Society by Aurelian Craiutu
  2. ^ Stael and the French Revolution Introduction by Aurelian Craiutu
  3. ^ Macroeconomic Features of the French Revolution, by T.J. Sargent & F.R. Velde, p. 481
  4. ^ A Voice of Moderation in the Age of Revolutions: Jacques Necker’s Reflections on Executive Power in Modern Society, p. 6 by Aurelian Craiutu
  5. ^ Zeitgenossen. Biographieen und Charakteristiken, p. 72
  6. ^ A Voice of Moderation in the Age of Revolutions: Jacques Necker’s Reflections on Executive Power in Modern Society by Aurelian Craiutu
  7. ^ Necker et la Compagnie des Indes by Herbert Lüthy
  8. ^ Kenneth Margerison, "The Shareholders' Revolt at the Compagnie des Indes: Commerce and Political Culture in Old Regime France" in French History 20. 1, pp. 25–51. Abstract.
  9. ^ Réponse au Mémoire de M. l'Abbé Morellet, sur la Compagnie des Indes,
  10. ^ Neckers Charakter und Privatleben: nebst seinen nachgelassenen ..., Band 1, p. 32
  11. ^ Simon Schama, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution (New York: Random House, 1989), p. 94.
  12. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville (2004) “La liquidation du ‘dépôt’ de Necker: entre concept et idée-force,”, p. 154-155 Cahiers staëliens, 55
  13. ^ Donald F. Swanson and Andrew P. Trout, "Alexander Hamilton, 'the Celebrated Mr. Neckar,' and Public Credit," The William and Mary Quarterly 47, no. 3 (1990): 424.
  14. ^ Jean-Denis Bredin (2004) “Necker, La France et la Gloire,”, p. 15 Cahiers staëliens, 55
  15. ^ George Taylor, review of Jacques Necker: Reform Statesman of the Ancien Regime, by Robert D. Harris, Journal of Economic History 40, no. 4 (1980): 878.
  16. ^ Annie Duprat, " Leonard Burnand, The pamphlet against Necker. Media and political imaginary to the xviiie century ", historical Record of the French Revolution [online], 361 | July-September 2010, published online march 22, 2011, accessed November 14, 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ahrf/11742
  17. ^ Annie Duprat, " Leonard Burnand, The pamphlet against Necker. Media and political imaginary to the xviiie century ", historical Record of the French Revolution [online], 361 | July-September 2010, published online march 22, 2011, accessed November 14, 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ahrf/11742
  18. ^ France 's Financial Crisis: Analyzing the Role of the Finance Minister by Jadon B. Smith, p. ?
  19. ^ Taylor, Jacques Necker: Reform, p. 877f.
  20. ^ France 's Financial Crisis: Analyzing the Role of the Finance Minister by Jadon B. Smith, p. 6
  21. ^ Schama, Citizens, 95.
  22. ^ The Problem with Necker’s Compte Rendu au roi (1781) by Joël Félix
  23. ^ From Virtue to Surplus: Jacques Necker's Compte Rendu (1781) and the Origins of Modern Political Discourse by Jacob Soll
  24. ^ France 's Financial Crisis: Analyzing the Role of the Finance Minister by Jadon B. Smith
  25. ^ Tweede briev van Jan van Utrecht, p. 54
  26. ^ Annie Duprat, " Leonard Burnand, The pamphlet against Necker. Media and political imaginary to the xviiie century ", historical Record of the French Revolution [online], 361 | July-September 2010, published online march 22, 2011, accessed November 14, 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ahrf/11742
  27. ^ The End of the Old Regime in Europe, 1776-1789, Part I: The Great States of ... by Franco Venturi, p. 348
  28. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville (2004) “La liquidation du ‘dépôt’ de Necker: entre concept et idée-force,”, p. 204 Cahiers staëliens, 55
  29. ^ Kurlansky, Mark (2002). Salt. Penguin Group. p. 231. ISBN 0-8027-1373-4.
  30. ^ Madame de Stael by Maria Fairweather
  31. ^ P. McPhee (2016) Liberty or Death: The French Revolution, p. 46
  32. ^ Madame de Stael by Maria Fairweather
  33. ^ Jacques Necker
  34. ^ At Spes non Fracta: Hope & Co. 1770–1815, p. 46 by M.G. Buist
  35. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville (2004) “La liquidation du ‘dépôt’ de Necker: entre concept et idée-force,”, p. 156 Cahiers staëliens, 55
  36. ^ Neckers Charakter und Privatleben: nebst seinen nachgelassenen ..., Band 1, p. 83
  37. ^ Aurelian Craiutu (2012) A Virtue for Courageous Minds: Moderation in French Political Thought, 1748-1830, p. 119-121
  38. ^ R.D. Harris (1986) Necker and the Revolution of 1789, p. 433-434
  39. ^ Schama, Citizens, 345–46.
  40. ^ Aurelian Craiutu (2012) A Virtue for Courageous Minds: Moderation in French Political Thought, 1748-1830, p. 123
  41. ^ History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814 by M. Mignet
  42. ^ Aurelian Craiutu (2012) A Virtue for Courageous Minds: Moderation in French Political Thought, 1748-1830, p. 124
  43. ^ Godechot, Jacques. The Taking of the Bastille July 14, 1789.
  44. ^ Aurelian Craiutu (2012) A Virtue for Courageous Minds: Moderation in French Political Thought, 1748-1830, p. 130
  45. ^ Stuff and Money in the Time of the French Revolution by Rebecca L. Spang
  46. ^ THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, THE ASSIGNATS, AND THE COUNTERFEITERS
  47. ^ Assignats: currency from the French Revolution
  48. ^ History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814 by M. Mignet
  49. ^ Simon Schama (1989) Citizens, p. 499, 536
  50. ^ Furet and Ozuof, A Critical Dictionary,288.
  51. ^ Doyle, William. The French Revolution. A Very Short Introduction.
  52. ^ Neckers Charakter und Privatleben: nebst seinen nachgelassenen ..., Band 1, p. 120
  53. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville (2004) “La liquidation du ‘dépôt’ de Necker: entre concept et idée-force,”, p. 156-158 Cahiers staëliens, 55
  54. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville, p. 162-163
  55. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville, p. 169
  56. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville, p. 177
  57. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville, p. 4
  58. ^ A Voice of Moderation in the Age of Revolutions: Jacques Necker’s Reflections on Executive Power in Modern Society by Aurelian Craiutu
  59. ^ Jonathan Israel (2015) Revolutionary Ideas, p. ?
  60. ^ Positive principles of Mr. Neker, extracted from all his works
  61. ^ Othénin d’Haussonville, p. 195, 205
  62. ^ Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.
  63. ^ A Voice of Moderation in the Age of Revolutions: Jacques Necker’s Reflections on Executive Power in Modern Society by Aurelian Craiutu

Further reading[edit]

  • Furet, François, and Mona Ozuof. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution. (Belknap Press, 1989) pp 287–97
  • Harris, Robert D. Necker and the Revolution of 1789 (Lanham, MD, 1986)
  • Lefebvre, Georges. The French Revolution: From its Origins to 1793. London: Routledge Classics, 2001.
  • Schama, Simon. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Random House, 1989.
  • Swanson, Donald F, and Andrew P. Trout. “Alexander Hamilton, the Celebrated Mr. Neckar,’ and Public Credit.” The William and Mary Quarterly (1990) 47#3 pp 422–430. in JSTOR
  • Taylor, George. Review of Jacques Necker: Reform Statesman of the Ancien Regime, by Robert D. Harris. Journal of Economic History 40, no. 4 (1980): 877–879. doi:10.1017/s0022050700100518
In French
  • (in French) Bredin, Jean-Denis. Une singulière famille: Jacques Necker, Suzanne Necker et Germaine de Staël. Paris: Fayard, 1999 (ISBN 2-213-60280-8).

External links[edit]