|Born||5 August 1910|
|Died||18 March 1996(aged 85)|
|Occupation||Writer and archaeologist|
Born Jessie Jacquetta Hopkins, she is perhaps best known for her book A Land (1951). She was a prolific writer of works about subjects that were quite removed from her principal field. She was above all interested in discovering the lives of the peoples that were revealed by scientific excavations. With Christopher Hawkes, she co-authored Prehistoric Britain (1943) and with J. B. Priestley she wrote Dragon's Mouth (1952) and Journey Down a Rainbow (1955). Her other works include The World of the Past (1963), Prehistory (History of Mankind: Cultural and Scientific Development, Volume 1 Part 1) (1963) prepared under the auspices of UNESCO, The Atlas of Early Man (1976) and The Shell Guide to British Archaeology (1986). She also scripted a film Figures in a Landscape (1953), a documentary about the work of Barbara Hepworth.
Hawkes was the first woman to study archaeology and anthropology at Newnham College, Cambridge, where she graduated with first class honours. In 1934 she published her first academic article "Aspects of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods in western Europe" in the journal Antiquity. In 1939 she was involved with moving items from the British museum to the Aldwych tube station.
In her general work on the Minoans (Dawn of the Gods, 1968), Hawkes was also one of the first archaeologists to suggest that the ancient Minoans might have been ruled by women; the idea had been discussed long before by historians of culture and religion (for instance, Joseph Campbell), and it had also been discussed outside the academic community, sometimes by feminists. Hawkes noted that very little if any evidence of a Minoan male ruler exists, whereas abundant evidence of such rulers existed among the Egyptians, Hittites, Assyrians and other Minoan contemporaries. Furthermore, images of strong and powerful women abound in Minoan art, where both men and women are shown provocatively and elegantly dressed and in some pictures they seem to move on equal terms; whereas in Egyptian, Assyrian and classical Greek art, human women (as distinct from goddesses) are never shown as the equals of males. Hawkes stated that "the absence of these manifestations of the all-powerful male ruler that are so widespread at this time and in this stage of cultural development as to be almost universal, is one of the reasons for supposing that the occupants of Minoan thrones may have been queens" (Dawn of the Gods, page 76).
She noted the evident love of nature, both wild and cultivated, in Minoan art and architecture. She also noted the lack of a striving for monumentality in Minoan palaces, and the absence of war and motives dramatizing a sense of destiny, guilt and brooding. She contrasts Minoan art and architecture to the heavy, foreboding and warlike architecture of Mycenae and the strong presence of themes of fate, martial heroism and moral guilt in later Greek mythology, some of the stories of which must, in an early form, already have existed at Mycenae (as well as similar motives in Babylonian literature, e.g., in the Gilgamesh epic). Although we do not know anything of the specific content of Minoan myth and folklore, themes of the kind mentioned—war, destiny, guilt, curses—do not even seem to be alluded to in the art of the period, as also noted by Hawkes. This perspective on the differences between Crete and Mycenaean Greece has remained controversial but has also spurred discussion about Minoan Crete, its religion, the nature of its monarchy and the wider set of relations between Minoan, Mycenaean and later Greek cultures.
A wartime affair with the poet Walter Turner was followed by a post-war romance with J. B. Priestley, who she married in 1953 after both had gotten divorced. Hawkes and Priestley remained physically, emotionally and intellectually close until their deaths.
Archaeological excavations and papers
- Macfarlane, Robert (11 May 2012). "Rereading: A Land by Jacquetta Hawkes". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- Cooke, Rachel (2013). Her Brilliant Career – Ten Extraordinary Women of the 1950's. Great Britain: Virago. p. 250. ISBN 9781844087419.
- "39. Figure in the Landscape: Jacquetta Hawkes and Barbara Hepworth". 100 Objects. 2011-11-23. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
- Cooke, Rachel (2013). Her Brilliant Career – Ten Extraordinary Women of the 1950's. Great Britain: Virago. p. 230. ISBN 9781844087419.
- Cooke, Rachel (2013). Her Brilliant Career – Ten Extraordinary Women of the 1950's. Great Britain: Virago. pp. 233–234. ISBN 9781844087419.
- Cooke, Rachel (2013). Her Brilliant Career – Ten Extraordinary Women of the 1950's. Great Britain: Virago. p. 243. ISBN 9781844087419.
- Cox, Ian (1951). The South Bank Exhibition: A guide to the story it tells. London: H M Stationery Office. pp. 62–66.
- Cooke, Rachel (2013). Her Brilliant Career – Ten Extraordinary Women of the 1950's. Great Britain: Virago. p. 224. ISBN 9781844087419.
- Cooke, Rachel (2013). Her Brilliant Career – Ten Extraordinary Women of the 1950's. Great Britain: Virago. pp. 227–233. ISBN 9781844087419.
- Judith Cook, Priestley, London: Bloomsbury, 1997, pp. 213–298.
- Cooke, Rachel (2013). Her Brilliant Career – Ten Extraordinary Women of the 1950's. Great Britain: Virago. pp. 251–252. ISBN 9781844087419.
- Christine Finn (2005). "Jacquetta and the Artists", British Archaeology, 80:24-27.
- Jacquetta Hawkes archive at Bradford University, UK