Rodgers broke out big in his sophomore season at Lamar Consolidated High School with 2,278 rushing yards and 34 touchdowns averaging 9.4 yards per carry. In his junior season, he improved with 2,592 rushing yards and 50 touchdowns. As a senior, Rodgers led the Mustangs to the 2007 4A Division 1 State Football Championship. In the title game, Rodgers rushed for 233 yards and 3 touchdowns on 31 carries, blocked a PAT, recovered a fumble, and had six tackles on defense as the Mustangs won the state title over a Robert Griffin III-led Copperas Cove, 20-14. Rodgers finished his senior season with 2,890 rushing yards and 37 touchdowns, as well as 556 yards receiving and 5 touchdowns. Post season honors following his senior season included being named the 4A Region III Offensive Player of the Year, first team all-conference running back and defensive back, second team all-conference receiver, second team all-state defensive back, and fourth team all-state running back. He was also named the Built Ford Tough Texas High School Football Player of the Year in Class 4A.
In total, Rodgers amassed 8,246 rushing yards in his stellar high school career. He set the Texas state record for total touchdowns with 135 touchdowns in four years as a varsity player.
Rodgers, who received offers from Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Vanderbilt, Oregon, USC, Houston, Baylor, and Tennessee decided to join his older brother James and enroll at Oregon State. Rodgers started out the season second on the depth chart but quickly took over as the starter. Most notably his greatest game in his young college football career came in a stunning upset of the then #1 ranked team in the country, the USC Trojans, when he had 36 carries for 186 yards and two touchdowns.
In 2009, Rodgers scored 23 total touchdowns, including 1 passing and 1 receiving. He finished the season with over 1,400 yards rushing and 500 yards receiving. After a 38-28 victory over Stanford, Rodgers recorded 271 total yards and 4 touchdowns, Rodgers was named Rivals.com Player of the Week and Pac-10 Offensive Player of the Week. In the 2009 Maaco Bowl Las Vegas, Rodgers was thrown a backwards lateral, which resulted in the first fumble of his collegiate career. The Beavers lost that game to the BYU Cougars in disappointing fashion.
On January 10, 2011, Rodgers announced that he would enter the 2011 NFL Draft and forgo his final year of eligibility. Rodgers was originally listed as the number five running back prospect entering the draft by NFL Network's draft specialist, Mike Mayock. He measured in slightly taller at 5 feet 6 and 3/4 inches.