Ja'far al-Sadiq

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Ja`far al-Ṣadiq
جعفر الصادق  (Arabic)

6th imam of Twelver and 5th imam of Ismaili Shia
Jafar sadegh-23526254.png
Ja`far Ṣādiq with Moalla calligraphy
Born c. (702-04-23)23 April 702 CE[1]
(17 Rabi' al-awwal 83 AH)
Medina, Umayyad Empire
Died c. 7 December 765(765-12-07) (aged 63)
(15 Shawwal 148 AH)
Medina, Umayyad Empire
Cause of death Death by poisoning according to most Shi'a Muslims
Resting place Jannatul Baqi, Saudi Arabia
24°28′1″N 39°36′50.21″E / 24.46694°N 39.6139472°E / 24.46694; 39.6139472
Other names Ja'far ibn Muḥammad ibn `Ali
Ethnicity `Arab (Quraysh)
Title
Term 733–765 CE
Predecessor Muhammad al-Baqir
Successor disputed
TwelversMusa al-Kadhim
Isma‘ilisIsma‘il ibn Ja‘far
AftahisAbdullah al-Aftah
Religion Islam
Spouse(s)

Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram

Hamīdah al-Barbariyyah[3]
Children
Parent(s) Muhammad al-Baqir
Farwah bint al-Qasim

Ja'far ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد الصادق‎‎; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Ja'far al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), is the sixth Shia Imam. He was a descendant of Ali from his father Muhammad al-Baqir's side and a descendant of Abu Bakr from his mother Farwa's side. He is the last individual to be recognized by all Shia sects as an Imam (except the Zaydiyyah), and is revered by Sunni Muslims as a transmitter of Hadith and a prominent jurist.[4]

Al-Sadiq was born in either 700 or 702 CE. He inherited the position of imam from his father in his mid-thirties. As imam, al-Sadiq stayed out of the political conflicts that embroiled the region, evading the many requests for support that he received from rebels. He was the victim of some harassment by the Abbasid caliphs, and was eventually, according to most Shi'a Muslims, poisoned at the orders of the Caliph al-Mansur.

He was a significant figure in the formulation of Shia doctrine. The traditions recorded from al-Sadiq are said to be more numerous than all hadiths recorded from all other Shiite imams combined.[5] As the founder of "Ja'fari jurisprudence", al-Sadiq also elaborated the doctrine of Nass (divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam), and Ismah (the infallibility of the imams), as well as that of Taqiyyah.[6][7]

The question of succession after al-Sadiq's death was the cause of division among Shiites who considered his eldest son, Isma'il (who had died before his father) to be the next imam, and those who believed his third son Musa al-Kadhim was the imam. The first group became known as the Ismailis and the second, larger, group was named Ja'fari or the Twelvers.[8][9]

Birth and early life[edit]

Ja'far al-Sadiq was born in Medina either in 80/699–700 or 83/703–704. On his father's side he was a great-great grandson of Ali, the first Shiite imam. His mother, Farwah bint al-Qasim was a great-granddaughter of Abu Bakr. Al-Sadiq was the first of the Shiite imams to be descended from both Abu Bakr the first ruler of the Rashidun Caliphate, and Ali, the first Shiite imam. During the first fourteen years of his life he lived alongside his grandfather Zayn al-Abedin, and witnessed the latter's withdrawal from politics. He also noted the respect that the famous jurists of Medina held toward Zayn al-Abedin in spite of his few followers.[10][11]

In his mother's house al-Sadiq also interacted with his grandfather Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, who was respected by the people of Medina as a famous traditionalist. During this period, Umayyad power was at its climax, and the childhood of al-Sadiq was coincided with the growing interest of the people of Medina in prophetic science and interpretations of the Quran.[11]

Imamate[edit]

Al-Sadiq was thirty four or thirty seven when he inherited the position of Imamah or imamate from his father Muhammad al-Baqir. He held the imamate for 28 years, longer than any other Shiite imam.[11] His Imamate was a crucial period in Islamic history for both political and doctrinal areas. Prior to al-Sadiq, the majority of Shiites had preferred the revolutionary politics of Zaid (al-Sadiq's uncle) to the mystical quietism of al-Sadiq's father and grandfather.[4][11] Zaid had claimed that the position of an imam was conditional on his appearing publicly to claim his rights.[12][13] Al-Sadiq, on the other hand, elaborated the doctrine of Imamate, which says "Imamate is not a matter of human choice or self-assertion," but that each imam possess a unique Ilm (knowledge) which qualify him for the position. This knowledge was passed down from the prophet Muhammad through the line of Ali's immediate descendants. The doctrine of Nass or "divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam", therefore, was completed by al-Sadiq.[a] In spite of being designated as the imam, al-Sadiq would hold, he would not lay claim to the Caliphate.[9][13]

Under the Umayyad rulers[edit]

al-Sadiq's Imamate extended over the latter half of the Umayyad Caliphate, which was marked by many revolts (mostly by Shiite movements), and eventually the violent overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate by the Abbasids, decedents of Muhammad's uncle, Abbas. al-Sadiq maintained his predecessors' policy of quietism, and played no part in the numerous rebellions. He stayed out of the uprising of Zaydits who gathered around al-Sadiq's uncle, Zayd, who had the support Mu'tazilites and the traditionalists of Medina and Kufa.[11] Al-Sadiq also did not support the rebellion led by his cousin, Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya who was inspired by Kaysanites.[11] Al-Sadiq played no part in the Abbassid rebellion against the Umayyads.[4] His response to a message requesting help from Abu Muslim, the Khorasani leader of the uprising against Umayyads, became famous. al-Sadiq asked for a lamp and burned Abu Muslim's letter, saying to the envoy who brought it, "Tell your master what you have seen."[12] In burning Abû Muslim's letter he had also said, "This man is not one of my men, this time is not mine."[14] Al-Sadiq also evaded other requests for assistance to other claims to the throne, without advancing his own claims. He had said that even though he, as the designated imam, was the true leader of the Ummah, he would not press his claim to the caliphate.[9]

Under the Abbasid rulers[edit]

The end of the Umayyad dynasty and beginning of the Abbasid was a period during which central authority was weak, allowing al-Sadiq to teach freely in a school which trained about four thousands students. Among these were Abū Ḥanīfa and Malik ibn Anas, founder of two major Sunnit schools of law, the Hanafiyah and the Malikiyah.[15][16][17] Wasil ibn Ata, founder of Mu`tazila school, was also among his pupils. After the Abbasid revolution had overthrown the Umayyad caliphate, it turned against Shiite groups who had previously been its allies against the Umayyads. The new Abbasid rulers, who had risen to power on the basis of their descent from Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, were suspicious of al-Sadiq, because Shiites had always believed that leadership of the Ummah was a position issued by divine order, and which was given to each imam by the previous imam. In addition, al-Sadiq had a large following, both among scholars and among those who believed him to be the imam.[8] During rule of Al-Mansur, al-Sadiq was summoned to Baghdad along with some other prominent men from Medina in order for the Caliph to keep a close watch on them. al-sadiq, however, asked the Caliph to excuse him from going there by reciting a Hadith which said that "the man who goes away to make a living will achieve his purpose, but he who sticks to his family will prolong his life."[12] al-Mansur reportedly accepted his request. After the defeat and death of his cousin Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya in 762, however, al-Sadiq thought it advisable to obey al-Mansur's summons. After a short stay in Baghdad, however, he convinced the Caliph that he was not a threat, and was allowed to return to Medina.[4][6]

Toward the end of his life, he was subject to some harassment by the Abbasid caliphs. The governor of Medina was instructed by the Caliph to burn down his house, an event which reportedly did al-Sadiq no harm.[b][12] To cut his ties with his followers, al-Sadiq was also watched closely and occasionally imprisoned.[8]

Family life[edit]

al-Sadiq married Fatima Al-Hasan, a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, with whom he had two sons, Isma'il ibn Jafar (the Ismaili sixth Imām) and Abdullah al-Aftah. Following his wife's death, al-Sadiq purchased a Berbery or Andalusian slave named Hamidah Khātūn (Arabic: حميدة خاتون‎), freed her, trained her as an Islamic scholar, and then married her. She bore him two more sons; Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Twelver imam), and Muhammad al-Dibaj. She was revered by the Shiites, especially by women, for her wisdom. She was known as Hamidah the Pure. Ja'far al-Sadiq used to send women to learn the tenets of Islam from her, said that "Hamidah is pure from every impurity like the ingot of pure gold."[18]

Death[edit]

The historical tomb of Al-Baqi' was destroyed in 1926. Ja'far al-Sadiq was one of four shia imams buried here.

al-Sadiq was arrested several times by Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs Hisham, Saffah, and Mansur. According to some sources[c] he was poisoned through at the behest of Mansur in 148/765 at the age of 64 or 65, leading to uncertainty about the future of the Imamate.[4][5] He was buried in Medina, in the famous Jannatul Baqee cemetery, and his tomb was a place of pilgrimage until 1926. The Wahhabis conquered Medina for the second time in 1925, and razed many tombs to the ground, with the exception of Muhammad's tomb.[19] According to Tabatabai upon hearing the news of al-Sadiq's death, Mansur wanted to put an end to the Imamate. Mansur reportedly wrote to the governor of Medina, commanding him to read the imam's testament, and to behead the person named in it as the future imam. However, the governor found that al-Sadiq had chosen four people rather than one: Mansur himself, the governor, the imam's oldest son Abdullah al-Aftah, and Musa al-Kazim, his younger son.[5]

Succession[edit]

The Shiite group had begun to split during the lifetime of al-Sadiq, when his eldest son Isma'il predeceased him. His death occurred in the presence of many witnesses.[5] After the death of Ja'far al-Sadiq, his following fractured further, with the larger group, who came to be known as the twelvers, following his younger son Musa al-Kadhim. Another group believed instead that Isma'il had been designated as the next imam, and that since he had predeceased his father, the imamate had passed to Isma'il]'s sonMuhammad and his descendants. This latter group became known as the Isma'ilis. Some Isma'ilis believe that Isma'il had not actually died, but would reappear as Mahdi, the rejuvenator of Islam in the Shiite doctrine. Still other groups accepted either Abdullah al-Aftah or Muhammad, both sons of the Ja'far al-Sadiq, as the imam. A final group believed that al-Sadiq had been the last imam, and that the lineage had not continued. After the death of Musa al-Kazim, the majority of his followers recognized his son Ali al-Ridha as the eighth imam, while others believed that al-Kazim had been the last imam. This latter group became known as the Waqifiyah. No major divisions occurred in Shiitism from the eighth to the twelfth imam, whom the majority of the Shiite considered to be Muhammad al-Mahdi. Among the sects which separated from the majority, only Zaidiyyah and Ismaili continue to exist today.[4][5][6][8][9][13][20]

Religious views[edit]

Al-Sadiq religious views are recorded as authority in the writing of number of contradictory positions. The use of his name as an authority within the Sufi, scientific, Sunni legal, Ismaili and extremist writings shows his importance as a figure within the development of early Muslim thought.[21] According to Ya'qubi it was customary for anyone who wanted to relate a tradition from him to say "the Learned One informed us". Malik ibn Anas, when quoting anything from al-Sadiq, would say "The Thiqa (truthful) Ja'far b. Muhammad himself told me that…" the same is reported from Abu Hanifa.[8][11] The works attributed to him may be of dubious authenticity, but they do establish his name at least as indicating a mastery of learning generally, and the Islamic sciences in particular.[21] Though most groups wished to recruit al-Sadiq's legacy for their own cause, the most extensive source for his teachings is to be found within the imami Shiite tradition. For Twelver Shiites Ja'far al-Ṣadiq is the sixth imam who established the Shiism as serious intellectual force in the late Umayyad and early Abbasid periods.[21] According to Tabatabai the number of traditions left behind by al-Sadiq and his father were more than all the hadith recorded from Muhammad and all the other Shiite imams combined.[5] Shiite thought starting with Sayyid Haydar Amuli, and leading to Safavid philosophers like Mir Damad, Mulla Sadra and Qazi Sa’id Qumi continuing to the present day is based on Shiite imam's tradition specially al-Sadiq.[7]

Ja'fari school of law[edit]

Shiite jurisprudence became known as Ja'fari jurisprudence after Ja'far al-Sadiq, whose legal dicta were the most important source of Shiite law. Like Sunni law, Ja'fari jurisprudence is based on the Quran and the Hadith, and also based on the consensus (Ijma). Unlike the Sunnis, Shiites give more weight to reasoning ('Aql) while while Sunnis only allow for a kind of analogical reasoning (Qiyas).[13][21][22] Al-Sadiq is presented as one who denounces personal opinion (Raʾy) and analogical reasoning (qiās) of his contemporaries arguing that God’s law is occasional and unpredictable, and that the servants' duty is not to embark on reasoning in order to discover the law, but to submit to the inscrutable will of God as revealed by the imam.[21] In his book Maqbula Omar ibn Ḥanẓala (who was a disciple of al-Sadiq) asks the imam how legal disputes within the community should be solved, and whether one should take such cases to the ruler (Sultan) and his judges. Ja'far al-Sadiq replies in the negative saying that those who take their disputes to the rulers and their judges get only soḥt (unlawful decision). Instead al-Sadiq recommends an unofficial system of justice for the community, and that the disputants should turn to "those who relate our [i.e., the imams'] Hadiths". The reason for this is that the imams have "made such a one a judge (ḥākem) over you."[21]

Theology[edit]

Ja'far al-Sadiq's view on theology is transmitted through Mufazzel who recorded his own questions and al-Sadiq's answers in a book known as Ketab al-Tawhid in which al-Sadiq gives proofs as the unity of God. This book is considered identical to the Ketāb al-ehlilaja which is a reply to Mufazzel's request from al-Sadiq for a refutation of those who deny God. Hesham ibn Ḥakam (d. 179/796) is another famous student of the imam who proposed a number of doctrines that later became orthodox shiite theology, including the rational necessity of the divinely guided imam in every age to teach and lead God's community.[21] Al-Sadiq is attributed with the statement: "Whoever claims that God has ordered evil, has lied about God. Whoever claims that both good and evil are attributed to him, has lied about God". This view which is accordance with that of Mu'tazilite doctrine seems to absolve God from the responsibility for evil in the world. Al-Sadiq says that God does not "order created beings to do something without providing for them a means of not doing it, though they do not do it, or not do it without God's permission". Al-Sadiq expressed a moderate view between compulsion (Jabr), and giving the choice to man (Tafviz), stating that God decreed some things absolutely, but left some others to human agency. This assertion was widely adopted afterwards and was called "al-amr bayn al-amrayn" which meant" neither predestination nor delegation but a position between the two."[6][12] Al-Ṣadiq's view therefore is recorded as supporting either position as it is reported in a exchange between him and an unknown interlocutor. The interlocutor asks if God forces his servants to do evil or whether he had delegated power to them. Al-Sadiq's answers negatively to both questions. When asked "What then?" he replies, "The blessings of your Lord are between these two".[21]

Tafsir[edit]

The works attributed to Jafar al-Sadiq in Tafsir (Quranic exegesis) are mostly described as the Sufi-mystical works such as "Tafsir al-Qorʾān", "Manāfeʿ ṣowar al-Qorʾān" and "ḴawāsÂs al-Qorʾān al-aʿẓam". The attribution of these works to al-Sadiq, however, is suspected. In his books Ḥaqāʾeq al-tafsir and Ziādāt Ḥaqāʾeq al-tafsir, ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Solami cites al-Ṣadiq as one of his major (if not the major) source of knowledge concerning the meaning of Quranic verses.[21]

"Ketāb al-jafr", an early mystical commentary on the Quran (Tafsir), is also attributed to al-Sadiq.[8][21] According to Ibn Khaldun, it was originally written on the skin of a young bull, allowing the imam to reveal the hidden meaning of the Quran.[23] al-Sadiq is said to have proposed a fourfold model of Quran interpretation. He said that "The Book of God comprises four things: the statement set down , the implied purport, the hidden meanings, relating to the supra-sensible world, and the exalted spiritual doctrines." He said that the plain meanings were for the commmon people; the hidden meanings for the elite; the implied meanings for the "friends of god;" and the "exalted spiritual doctrines" were the "province of the prophets."[20] He stated that Hadith, or traditional sayings of the Prophet, should be rejected if they contradicted the Quran.[6]

Doctrine of Taqiyyah[edit]

See also: Taqiyyah

Al-Sadiq adopted Taqiyyah as a defensive tool against the violence and threats that were directed against him and the Shiites.[4][13] Taqiyya was a form of religious dissimulation,[24] or a legal dispensation whereby a believing individual can deny their faith, or commit otherwise illegal or blasphemous acts, while they are in fear or at risk of significant persecution.[25] In other words, Taqiyya says that it is acceptable to hide one's true opinions if by revealing them, one put oneself or others in danger.[8] The doctrine was developed by al-Sadiq, and served to protect the Shiites when Al-Mansur, the Abbasid caliph, conducted a brutal and oppressive campaign against Alids and their supporters.[24] According to Moezzi, in the early sources Taqiyya means "the keeping or safeguarding of the secrets of the Imams' teaching." "Divergence of traditions" is, therefore, sometimes justified by Shiite imams as a result of the need for using Taqiyya. "He who is certain that we [the imams] proclaim only the truth (Al-Haqq), may he be satisfied with our teaching," asserts al-Sadiq; "and if he hears us say something contradictory to what he heard earlier, he should know that we are acting only in his own interest."[14] Practicing Taqiyya also had an esoteric significance for those who believed that their teachings should not be comprehensible to ordinary Ulama, and so hid their more profound teachings.[9]

Works[edit]

According to Haywood half a dozen religious works bear al-Sadiq's name as author, though none of them can be firmly described as being written by al-Ṣadiq. It is probable that al-Sadiq was an author who left the writing to his students. The alchemist, Geber, for example, suggested that some of his works are "little more than records of Jaʿfar's teaching or summaries of hundreds of monographs written by him."[6][13][23] Ja'far Al-Sadiq is also cited in a wide range of historical sources, including al-Tabari, al-Yaqubi and Al-Masudi. Al-Dhahabi recognizes his contribution to Sunni tradition and Isma'ili scholars such as Qadi al-Nu'man[26] recorded his traditions in their work.[27]

Ketāb al-jafr is a commentary on the Quran which, according to Ibn Khaldun, was first written on the skin of a young bull, which allowed al-Sadiq to reveal the hidden meaning of the Quran.[23] Various versions of his will, and a number of collections of legal dicta, are attributed to him as well. There are many reports attributed to him in the early Shiite Hadith collections such as Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni's Kitab al-Kafi, where they are featured as central sources of Imami doctrine.[4] "Al-haft wa'l-aẓella" and "Ketāb al-ṣerāṭ" which are containing "secret revelations" to Mofażżal are also attributed to al-Sadiq, and had an important role in the elaboration of the esoteric doctrine of the Nosayris, for whom al-Ṣadiq is an influential figure.[4]

Selected quotations[edit]

  • "The most perfect of men in intellect is the best of them in ethics."[28]
  • "Whoever attacks a matter without knowledge cuts off his own nose."[28]
  • "To forbid generosity is mistrust in Allah."[28]
  • "Three (things) with which Allah does not increase the Muslim person but glory: To forgive him who wrongs him; to give him who deprives him, to visit him who abandons him."[28]
  • "(Religious) scholars are the trustees of prophets unless they come to the doors of supreme rulers."[28]
  • "The richest riche is he who is not captive for greed."[28]
  • "Nothing is better than silence, no enemy is more harmful than ignorance, and no illness is more dangerous than telling lies."[28]
  • "Verily, envy eats belief as fire eats wood."[28]
  • "Three (things) cause affection: Religion, modesty, and generosity … three (things) cause hatred: hypocrisy, self-admiration, and oppression."[28]
  • "Charity is the Zakat (alms) of blessings, intercession is the Zakat of dignity, illnesses are the Zakat of bodies, forgiveness is the Zakat of victory, and the thing whose Zakat is paid is safe from taking (by Allah)."[28]
  • "If the ill- natured (person) knows that he tortures himself, he will be tolerant in his manners."[28]
  • "He who answers all that he is asked, surely is mad."[28]
  • "Whomsoever God removes from the degradation of sin to the exaltation of piety, he it is whom God makes rich without property and noble without the help of family."[12]
  • "Whoever fears God, God makes all things fear him; and whoever does not fear God, God makes him fear all things."[12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sunni sources, however, claim that doctrines such as the Imamate were formulated many years after al-Sadiq and wrongly ascribed to him.[13]
  2. ^ The Shiites consider this event as a miraculous escape from the fire by their Imam, who is said "boldly stamped on the flames, exclaiming "I am of the sons of Isma'il. I am a son of Ibrahim, the Friend of God," whom the Quran represents as having escaped the fire in safety. Quran, 21:69
  3. ^ al-Fusul al-muhimmah, p.212; Dala’il al-imamah, p.lll: Ithbat al-wasiyah, p.142.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shabbar, S.M.R. (1997). Story of the Holy Ka’aba. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 123. ISBN 964-438-127-0. 
  3. ^ A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 131. ISBN 964-438-127-0. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gleaves, Robert. "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life". Incyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn (1997). Shi'ite Islam. Translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. SUNY press. pp. 68–69,179–181. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Haywood, John A. "Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Tabåatabåa'åi, Muhammad Husayn (1981). A Shi'ite Anthology. Selected and with a Foreword by Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i; Translated with Explanatory Notes by William Chittick; Under the Direction of and with an Introduction by Hossein Nasr. State University of New York Press. pp. 9–11, 42–43. ISBN 9780585078182. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Campo, Juan E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam (Encyclopedia of World Religions). USA: Facts on File. pp. 386, 652, 677. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Armstrong, Karen (2002). Islam, A Short History. Modern Library; Rev Upd Su edition. pp. 56–57,66. ISBN 978-0812966183. 
  10. ^ Lalani, Arzina R. (March 9, 2001). Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir. I. B. Tauris. p. 31,78. ISBN 978-1860644344. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad (2002). The Origins and Early Development of Shi’a Islam; Chapter 10. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195793871. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam in Persia and Irak. BURLEIGH PRESS. pp. 115,130–141. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Martin, Richard C. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, A-Z. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 369, 625. ISBN 978-0028656038. 
  14. ^ a b Moezzi, Mohammad Ali Amir (1994). The Divine Guide in Early Shi'ism : The Sources of Esotericism in Islam. State University of New York Press. pp. 64–65,139. ISBN 9780585069722. 
  15. ^ Phyllis G. Jestice, Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1, p 415. ISBN 1576073556
  16. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical Dictionary of Islam, p 12. ISBN 0810863030
  17. ^ Umar F. Abd-Allah, Mālik and Medina: Islamic Legal Reasoning in the Formative Period, p 44. ISBN 9004247882
  18. ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed Akhtar (1988). Slavery, from Islamic & Christian perspectives (2nd (rev.) ed., 1988. ed.). Richmond, B.C.: Vancouver Islamic Educational Foundation. ISBN 0-920675-07-7. 
  19. ^ Adamec, Ludwig W. (2002). The A to Z of Islam. Scarecrow Press; Revised edition. p. 53. ISBN 978-0810845053. 
  20. ^ a b Corbin, Henry (2001). The History of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Liadain Sherrard with the assistance of Philip Sherrard. London and New York: Kegan Paul International. p. 6,31. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gleaves, Robert. "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ ii. Teachings". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015. 
  22. ^ Sharif, Mian Mohammad (1966). History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol 2. Germany: Allgauer Heimatverlag GmbH. pp. 906–907. 
  23. ^ a b c De Smet, Daniel. "Ja'far al-Ṣadiq iv. And Esoteric sciences". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015. 
  24. ^ a b Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam. Yale University Press. pp. 39, 183. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5. 
  25. ^ Stewart, Devin, "Islam in Spain after the Reconquista", Teaching Materials, The Hagop Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies at New York University, retrieved 6 August 2012 
  26. ^ Madelung, W., The Sources of Ismāīlī Law, The University of Chicago Press, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1976), pp. 29-40
  27. ^ Meri, Josef W. "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia". Routledge, NY. 2005, p 409 ISBN 978-0-415-96690-0
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l al-Husayn al-Muzaffar, Mohammed (1998). Imam Al-Sadiq. Translated by Jasim al-Rasheed. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. pp. 165–166,230–247. ISBN 964-438-011-8. 

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