Jahandar Shah

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Jahandar Shah
Jahandar Shah, Mughal Emperor..jpg
Flag of the Mughal Empire (triangular).svg 8th Mughal Emperor
Reign 27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713
Coronation 29 March 1712 at Lahore
Predecessor Bahadur Shah I
Successor Farrukhsiyar
Born (1661-05-09)9 May 1661
Deccan, Mughal Empire
Died 12 February 1713(1713-02-12) (aged 51)
Delhi, Mughal Empire
Burial Humayun's Tomb
Spouse Sayyid-un-Nissa Begum
Lal Kunwar Begum
Muazzamabadi Mahal
One another wife
Issue Izz-ud-Din Mirza
A'az-ud-Din Mirza
Alamgir II
Iffat Ara Begum
Rabi Begum
Full name
Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Mohammed Khan Jahandar Shah Bahadur
Dynasty Timurid
Father Bahadur Shah I
Religion Islam

Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Mohammed Khan (10 May 1661 – 12 February 1713),[citation needed] more commonly known as Jahandar Shah, was a Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713. His full title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Quran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah).[citation needed] Sailendra Sen describes him as "a worthless debauch [who] became emperor after liquidating his three brothers."[1]

Early life[edit]

Prince Jahandar Shah was born in Deccan Subah, to emperor Bahadur Shah I and Nizam Bai, the daughter of Mirza Raja Jai Singh. He was appointed as Vizier of Balkh in 1671 by his grandfather, Aurangzeb.

When their father died on 27 February 1712, he and his brother, Azim-ush-Shan, both declared themselves emperor and battled for succession. Azim-us-Shan was killed on 17 March 1712, after which Jahandar Shah ruled for an additional eleven months. Before ascending the throne, Jahandar Shah sailed around the Indian ocean and was a very prosperous trader. He was also appointed Subedar of Sindh. He fathered three sons, including Aziz-ud-Din, who reigned as Mughal emperor between 1754 and 1759.

Reign[edit]

Lal Kunwar
Mughal Army commander Abdus Samad Khan Bahadur being received by Jahandar Shah

Jahandar Shah led a frivolous life, and his court was often enlivened by dancing and entertainment. He chose a favourite wife, Lal Kunwar who was a mere dancing girl before her elevation to the position of Queen Consort. Together they shocked the Mughal Empire and were even opposed by Aurangzeb's surviving daughter, Zinat-un-Nissa.

His authority was rejected by the third Nawab of the Carnatic Muhammed Saadatullah Khan I, who killed De Singh of Orchha, mainly because the Nawab believed that he was the righteous commander of the Gingee Fort, and began a smear campaign referring to Jahandar Shah as an usurper to the Mughal throne. To further strengthen his authority, Jahandar Shah sent gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmad III.[2]

Marriages[edit]

Jahandar Shah's first wife was the daughter of Mirza Mukarram Khan Safavi. The marriage took place on 13 October 1676.[3] After her death he married her niece, Sayyid-un-nissa Begum, the daughter of Mirza Rustam. The marriage took place on 30 August 1684.[4] Qazi Abu Sa'id united them in the presence of Emperor Aurangzeb, and Prince Muhammad Muazzam (future Bahadur Shah I).[5] The marriage was consummated on 18 September. Sayyid-un-nissa Begum was presented with jewels worth 67,000 rupees.The celebrations were supervised by Princess Zinat-un-nissa Begum.[6]

His third wife was Anup Bai who held the title of Muazzamabadi Mahal.[7] She was the mother of Prince Muhammad Aziz-ud-din Mirza, born on 6 June 1699. She died at Delhi on 17 April 1735,[4] nineteen years before her son's accession to the throne as Emperor Alamgir II. His fourth wife was Lal Kunwar Begum, the daughter of Khasusiyat Khan.[8] Jahandar Shah was very fond of her, and after his accession to the throne, he gave her the title Imtiyaz Mahal.[4]

Death[edit]

Silver coin issued from Shahjahanabad, during the reign of Jahandar Shah.

He was defeated in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713 by Farrukhsiyar, his nephew and the second son of Azim-ush-Shan, with the support of the Syed Brothers. He fled to Delhi, where he was captured and handed over to the new Emperor, who confined him along with Lal Kunwar. He lived in confinement for a month, until 11 February 1713, when professional stranglers were sent to murder him.[citation needed]

Coins[edit]

Jahandar Shah reintroduced couplets and issued coins in gold, silver, and copper. Two couplets i.e Abu al-Fateh and Sahab Qiran were used. Copper coins were issued in both weight standard i.e 20 grams and 14 grams.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 193. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  2. ^ Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (1989-01-01). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. 
  3. ^ Sarkar 1947, p. 93.
  4. ^ a b c Irvine, p. 242.
  5. ^ Sarkar 1947, p. 151.
  6. ^ Sarkar 1947, p. 152.
  7. ^ Indian History Congress. Session, Amiya Kumar Bagchi, Indian History Congress, Institute of Development Studies, Kolkata (2005). Webs of history: information, communication, and technology from early to post-colonial India. Indian History Congress. p. 160. ISBN 978-8-173-04613-1. 
  8. ^ Irvine, p. 180.

References[edit]

  • Sarkar, Jadunath (1947). Maasir-i-Alamgiri: A History of Emperor Aurangzib-Alamgir (reign 1658-1707 AD) of Saqi Mustad Khan. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. 
  • Irvine, William. The Later Mughals. Low Price Publications. ISBN 8175364068. 

External links[edit]

Jahandar Shah
Preceded by
Bahadur Shah I
Mughal Emperor
1712–1713
Succeeded by
Farrukhsiyar