Jahandar Shah

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Jahandar Shah
Padishah
Jahandar Shah, Mughal Emperor..jpg
9th Mughal Emperor
Reign29 March 1712 – 11 February 1713[1]
Coronation29 March 1712 at Lahore
PredecessorBahadur Shah I
SuccessorFarrukhsiyar
Born(1661-05-10)10 May 1661[2]
Deccan, Mughal Empire
Died11 February 1713(1713-02-11) (aged 51)
Delhi, Mughal Empire
Burial
Spouses
  • Sayyid-un-Nissa Begum
    (m. 1684)
  • Anup Bai
  • Lal Kunwar
Issue
Names
Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Bahadur
Posthumous name
Khuld Aramgah (Peaceful in paradise)[3]
HouseTimurid Dynasty
DynastyMughal Dynasty
FatherBahadur Shah I
MotherNizam Bai
ReligionSunni Islam

Mirza Muhammad Mu'izz-ud-Din (10 May 1661 – 11 February 1713),[4][5] more commonly known as Jahandar Shah (Persian pronunciation: [d͡ʒa'hɑːndɑːr ʃɑːh]), was the eighth Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713. He was the son of Bahadur Shah I, and the grandson of Alamgir I. Jahandar Shah ruled for only eleven months before being deposed. In his reign, the Deccan Subah was made almost independent by nawab Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jang. Jahandar Shah was succeeded by his nephew Farrukhsiyar in 1713 CE.

Early life[edit]

Prince Jahandar Shah was born on 10 May 1661 in Deccan Subah to Prince Muazzam, later Emperor Bahadur Shah I. His mother was Nizam Bai, the daughter of Fatehyawar Jang, a noble from Hyderabad.[6]

Jahandar Shah was appointed as governor of Balkh in 1671 by his grandfather, Aurangzeb. When their father died on 27 February 1712, both Jahandar and his brother, Azim-ush-Shan, declared themselves emperors and battled for succession. Azim-us-Shan was killed on 17 March 1712, after which Jahandar Shah ruled for an additional eleven months. Before ascending the throne, Jahandar Shah sailed around the Indian Ocean and was a very prosperous trader. He was also appointed Subedar of Sindh. He fathered three sons, including Aziz-ud-Din, who reigned as an emperor between 1754 and 1759.

Reign[edit]

Lal Kunwar
Mughal Army commander Abdus Samad Khan Bahadur being received by Jahandar Shah

Jahandar Shah led a frivolous life, and his court was often enlivened by dancing and entertainment. He chose a favourite wife, Lal Kunwar, who was a mere dancing girl before her elevation to the position of Queen Consort. Together they shocked the Mughal Empire and were even opposed by Aurangzeb's surviving daughter, Zeenat-un-Nissa.[7]

His authority was rejected by the third Nawab of the Carnatic, Muhammed Saadatullah Khan I, who killed De Singh of Orchha, primarily due to the Nawab's belief that he was the righteous commander of the Gingee Fort. Khan began a smear campaign referring to Jahandar Shah as an usurper to the Mughal throne. To further strengthen his authority, Jahandar Shah sent gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmad III.[8]

Marriages[edit]

Jahandar Shah's first wife was the daughter of Mirza Mukarram Khan Safavi. The marriage took place on 13 October 1676.[9] After her death he married her niece, Sayyid-un-nissa Begum, the daughter of Mirza Rustam. The marriage took place on 30 August 1684.[10] Qazi Abu Sa'id united them in the presence of Emperor Aurangzeb, and Prince Muhammad Muazzam (future Bahadur Shah I).[11] The marriage was consummated on 18 September. Sayyid-un-nissa Begum was presented with jewels worth 67,000 rupees. The celebrations were supervised by Princess Zinat-un-nissa Begum.[7]

His third wife was a Rajput Princess, Anup Bai.[12] She was the mother of Prince Muhammad Aziz-ud-din Mirza, born on 6 June 1699. She died at Delhi on 17 April 1735,[10] nineteen years before her son's accession to the throne as Emperor Alamgir II. His fourth wife was Lal Kunwar, the daughter of Khasusiyat Khan.[13] Jahandar Shah was very fond of her, and after his accession to the throne, he gave her the title Imtiyaz Mahal.[10]

Death[edit]

Silver coin issued from Shahjahanabad, during the reign of Jahandar Shah.

He was defeated in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713 by Farrukhsiyar, his nephew and the second son of Azim-ush-Shan, with the support of the Sayyid Brothers. He fled to Delhi where he was captured and handed over to the new Emperor, who confined him along with Lal Kunwar. He lived in confinement for a month, until 11 February 1713, when professional stranglers were sent to murder him.[citation needed]

Full Title[edit]

His full title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Qiran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah).

Coins[edit]

Jahandar Shah reintroduced couplets and issued coins in gold, silver, and copper. Two couplets i.e. Abu al-Fateh and Sahab Qiran were used. Copper coins were issued in both weight standard i.e. 20 grams and 14 grams.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Richards, John F, ed. (1993). Jahandar Shah. The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 261.
  2. ^ Irvine 1921, Jahandar Shah page. 240.
  3. ^ Irvine 1921, Jahandar Shah page. 241.
  4. ^ Nigam, S. B. P. (1983). The Jahandarnamah of Nur- ud-rin. Journal of Indian History. Vol. 61. Department of Modern Indian History. p. 95.
  5. ^ Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (1977), Burke's Royal Families of the World, vol. II, Burke's Peerage, p. 139, ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6
  6. ^ Muni Lal, Mini Mughals (1989) p. 28
  7. ^ a b Sarkar 1947, p. 152.
  8. ^ Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (1 January 1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli.
  9. ^ Sarkar 1947, p. 93.
  10. ^ a b c Irvine, p. 242.
  11. ^ Sarkar 1947, p. 151.
  12. ^ Lal, Muni. Mini Mughals. p. 67.
  13. ^ Irvine, p. 180.

References[edit]

  • Sarkar, Jadunath (1947). Maasir-i-Alamgiri: A History of Emperor Aurangzib-Alamgir (reign 1658-1707 AD) of Saqi Mustad Khan. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta.
  • Irvine, William (1921). The Later Mughals. Low Price Publications. ISBN 8175364068.

External links[edit]

Jahandar Shah
Preceded by Mughal Emperor
1712–1713
Succeeded by