Jaime, Duke of Madrid
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|Jaime de Borbón|
|Duke of Madrid; Duke of Anjou|
Jaime de Borbón, 1911
|Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne
as Jaime III
Legitimist pretender to the French throne
as Jacques I
|Pretendence||18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931|
|Successor||Alfonso Carlos I
7 June 1870|
|Died||2 October 1931
|House||House of Bourbon|
|Father||Carlos de Borbón|
|Mother||Margarita de Borbón-Parma|
|Royal styles of
Jaime de Borbón
|Reference style||His Royal Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Royal Highness|
Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma, called Duke of Madrid and known in France as Jacques de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou (27 June 1870 – 2 October 1931) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain under the name Jaime III and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France as Jacques I.
Jaime was the only son of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, and of his wife Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma. He was born at Vevey in Switzerland and received the baptismal names Jaime Pío Juan Carlos Bienvenido Sansón Pelayo Hermenegildo Recaredo Álvaro Fernando Gonzalo Alfonso María de los Dolores Enrique Luis Roberto Francisco Ramiro José Joaquín Isidro Leandro Miguel Gabriel Rafael Pedro Benito Felipe.
During his early childhood Jaime accompanied his father in Spain during the Third Carlist War and was subject to delirious applause on part of the Carlist troops. Following defeat the young Jaime was educated by the Jesuits first at the Collège de Vaugirard in Paris and then at Beaumont College in Old Windsor. In 1890 he entered the Austrian Theresian Military Academy at Wiener Neustadt, graduating in 1893. The same year he was orphaned by his mother; one year later his father remarried with Berthe de Rohan; relations with his stepmother went from bad to worse. Between 1893 and 1896 he kept travelling, visiting India, Philippines and Morocco. He also made few incognito trips to Spain, re-entering the country first time since his childhood and accompanied by trusted Carlists like Tirso de Olazábal y Lardizábal. By the Madrid government he was considered a foreigner, deprived of Spanish citizenship as his father was stripped of it in the aftermath of the Third Carlist War. His trips served as basis for Carlist propaganda of the late 1890s.
In 1896 Jaime received a commission in the Russian army, initially stationed in Odessa. As member of the Imperial Russian Army in 1900 and 1901 he took part in the Boxer Expedition, fighting in the Battle of Beitang. In 1904 and 1905 he took part in the Russo-Japanese War fighting in the Battle of Liaoyang and the Battle of Vafangon. At that time he was formally assigned to Warsaw.
Following his Odessa service, in late 1897 don Jaime was transferred to Warsaw, where he arrived at unspecified time in late March or early April 1898. He spent there almost 6 years on the highly intermittent basis, until he departed for Austria in late 1903. Though in terms of his political career don Jaime's stay in the city was of little relevance, it is not clear to what extent the service mattered as his formative period.
In the late 19th century, Warsaw was the third most populous city of the Russian Empire; with almost 700,000 inhabitants, it was larger than Madrid or Barcelona. According to the official 1897 census, 62% of the population were Poles, 27% Jews, 9% Russians and 2% Germans; not a single Spaniard was listed as living in the city. All officialdom, including top administrative layers, schooling, judiciary, and military, was dominated by the Russians. At that time Warsaw was the centre of Vistula Land, a region that retained some minor legal identity but, in general, was well integrated into the Russian administrative structures. The level of national and social tension was relatively low but occasionally noticeable; in 1898, strikes hit the local metalworking industry and in 1899 the 1st of May demonstration turned into riots.
At the turn of the century, Warsaw was vital for Russian military planning. The city was headquarters of the westernmost of 14 Russian military districts, and home to a large military garrison. As since the Berlin Congress of 1878 relations with Germany were steadily deteriorating, the area was of growing concern for the Russian General Staff. Itself a prominent salient flanked by German and Austro-Hungarian provinces, it posed a challenge for planners. The prevailing military strategy, known as Miliutin-Obruchev system, pursued a defensive counteroffensive vision; it admitted that initially it might be necessary to abandon territories west of the Vistula and mount a defense based on seven fortresses, of which Warsaw and the other three would form a forward shield.
Don Jaime arrived in Warsaw following at least half-a-year spell in the Russian army; he had served in a cavalry regiment in Odessa before. It is not clear why the prince left the Black Sea coast and what political, diplomatic or military mechanism got him landed in Warsaw; the choice was probably determined by family logistics. Though convenient travelwise, given the role of Warsaw garrison the assignment was a challenge from military perspective, especially that don Jaime was assigned to Гродненский гусарский лейб-гвардии полк. His new unit was a cavalry regiment forming part of the very prestigious if not somewhat snobbish, Russian aristocracy dominated Life-Guard category.
It is not entirely clear what was Don Jaime's rank when he arrived in Warsaw; Spanish press referred to him as "teniente", Polish press referred to him as "chorąży". There is no official Russian document available for consultation; the most likely rank was прапорщик. On 17 September 1900 he was formally promoted to поручик (lieutenant) and at that rank he served until the end of his actual Warsaw assignment, though in 1904 he was promoted to капитан (captain) and finally to полковник (colonel). None of the sources consulted provides any information on don Jaime's function in the regiment and it is not known whether he served in regimental staff or with any of the squadrons. In late 1902 the press reported that upon return from a just commencing 6-month leave, the following May don Jaime would intend to seek release from duty, but in late summer 1903 he was still reported serving. In October 1903 he was transferred from the Hussar Regiment to personal staff assigned to the Warsaw district commander.
Duration and sub-periods
Though he was formally appointed to Warsaw in December 1897 and though it is likely he spent a few brief spells in the city between 1904 and 1906, there is no confirmation of don Jaime actually serving in Warsaw before March 1898 and after October 1903. His duty was largely performed on the on and off basis; in-between the above dates he spent in total some 40 months in the city, on average slightly more than half a year per annum. Except 1898 and 1899 he used to leave around November, as allegedly the local autumn weather did not serve him well; don Jaime was usually returning to service around April. The longest uninterrupted stay identified was between November 1899 and June 1900. Punctuated by at least month-long breaks of leave periods, his service in Warsaw broke down to 8 separate strings.
When away, don Jaime was either on leave in Austro-Hungary, Italy and France or on service assignments with the Russian army: as member of demarcation commission at Russian frontier with Turkey, Afghanistan and Persia (from summer to fall 1899), in combat units during the Boxer Uprising (from summer 1900 till spring 1901) and during the Russo-Japanese War (starting the spring of 1904). He also spent brief rest periods in the Polish countryside. He was last reported in Warsaw in late autumn of 1903, leaving the city some time by the end of the year. As at that time he was already released from the hussar regiment, it is likely he intended to terminate his Warsaw service. During outbreak of the war against Japan in early 1904 Don Jaime was with his father in Venice, where he was reached by the call to arms; before having been received by Nicholas II in St. Petersburg in March he was likely to have stayed few days in Warsaw, though this was not recorded by the local press. It is also possible—though not confirmed in sources—that he spent few days in Warsaw in June 1905 (en route from Austria to St. Petersburg and back) and in July/August 1906 (en route from Paris to St. Petersburg and back)
Initially Don Jaime lived in a semi-rural, military-dominated Sielce suburb, hardly within the administrative city limits; his residence was a modest one-room apartment in the regimental officers' barracks building at Агриколя Дольная street, with two batmen - one of them Spanish - living next door. Starting June 1900 he was already reported as living at Шопена street 8, in a plushy, prestigious area and in a newly constructed apartment building. Despite his modest rank don Jaime took part in official feasts seated among most prestigious participants, be it members of the House of Romanov, top Russian generals like military district commander or civil officials like president of Warsaw. Very sporadically he was reported as taking part in gatherings of local elites, either those associated with visits of his distant relatives like Ferdinand Duke of Alençon or feasts of apparently unrelated Polish aristocrats like count Mieczysław Woroniecki.
Though possibly familiar with religious hierarchs, in general Don Jaime was not listed as engaged in local community life; he declared spending his free time in theatres and restaurants. He was, however, a noticeable city figure as a sportsman; apart from joining the local horse racing society he was particularly recognized for automobile activities. He owned one of the first cars in Warsaw, a De Dion Bouton machine allegedly well recognized by the city dwellers. The only local he seemed to have been in closer relations with was Stanisław Grodzki, a Warsaw automobile pioneer and owner of the first car dealership; local motor fans were greeting Don Jaime when he was launching his automobile trips. Rather accidentally don Jaime was also acknowledged and cheered as a sportsman by "forgemen, peasants and inkeepers". Spanish press reported Carlist officials departing from Madrid to see him, but the Polish one has not noted any visits paid.
The Warsaw press of the era was fairly well informed about developments in Spain, with war against the United States systematically reported and even results of the Cortes elections discussed down to minuscule details; e. g. in 1899 there were 4 Carlists noted as elected. Spanish political life was depicted rather accurately if not indeed prophetically, though at times with some patronizing tones. It was acknowledged—even in jokes—that very few Poles knew who the Carlists were. Despite occasional references to Carlism in news columns, cases of linking these reports with don Jaime residing in Warsaw were rather exceptional. Usually press notes referred to don Jaime as "His Royal Highness", they were maintained in polite style which has never turned into anything more than sympathetic desinteressement. Not a single case of either hostile or friendly stance towards the Carlists has been identified. Though interviews with don Jaime adhered to respectful and warm tone, they by no means amounted to political proselytism; some of them sounded slightly ironic about the Carlist cause.
Historically relations between Russia and Carlism have been marked by indifference with occasional demonstrations of mutual sympathy. Don Jaime has not been noted as involved in any political initiatives, though his taking part in official Russian feasts with members of the House of Romanov participating was clearly flavored with political undertones. At one opportunity the prince made some effort to court the Poles, referring to alleged Polish combatants in ranks of the legitimist troops during the last Carlist war; official Spanish diplomatic services tried to keep a close watch on him. National and social unrest which erupted in Warsaw in 1905 occurred after don Jaime had already left the city; he had little opportunity to make his own opinion let alone take sides. It is not clear whether vague personal references to the Russian revolution, made by don Jaime in his 23 April 1931 manifesto, were anyhow related to the 1905 events.
Warsaw spell in perspective
Don Jaime joined the Russian army in his mid-20s, in-between youth and mid-age, straightforward, easy-going, just about to get married and to launch his international career. His last, brief Warsaw spells occurred when he was in his mid-30s, a solitary who by some was already viewed as a bit of a disappointment. For the rest of his life he remained a highly ambiguous if not mysterious figure and is as such acknowledged in historiography. It is not clear to what extent service in the Russian army contributed to his formation. Imperial Guards corps officers made a peculiar company, with own identity, values and rituals, especially in an ethnically alien ambience. According to a Polish cliché a cynical lot, their preferred sports were allegedly womanizing, drinking and tormenting Jews in the jolly westernmost garrison of the Empire, in Russian officer-speak known as весёлая варшавка. Some of his Carlist opponents claimed that in the early 1900s don Jaime was already ideologically derailed.
Don Jaime is not known to have publicly and explicitly referred to the Warsaw service in the decades to come. In Spanish historiography the Warsaw spell is usually treated marginally. Don Jaime's military career in the Far East is at times acknowledged as sort of a curiosity, though his service in the Russian army is mentioned when discussing controversies within Carlism related to Spain's role in the First World War. Historiographic works on Carlism focus either on don Jaime's role in internal strife in the 1910s or on his very last years during dictablanda and the Second Spanish Republic in the early 1930s. In Polish historiography his hussars spell went largely unnoticed. Dedicated works dealing with Spanish-Polish relations acknowledge even brief Polish episodes of celebrities like Pablo Picasso or Carmen Laforet but they ignore don Jaime, even though along Sofía Casanova (1907-1945) and Ignacio Hidalgo de Cisneros (1950-1962) he is one of the best-known Spaniards permanently residing in Warsaw.
Claimant to the Spanish and French thrones
On 18 July 1909 Jaime succeeded his father as Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and Legitimist claimant to the throne of France. As Carlist claimant to Spain he was known as Jaime III, but used the style Duke of Madrid. As Legitimist claimant to France he was known as Jacques I, but used the style Duke of Anjou.
Jaime retired from the Russian army and henceforward lived mostly at Schloss Frohsdorf in Lanzenkirchen in Austria and at his apartment on Avenue Hoche in Paris. He visited Spain incognito on a number of occasions. He also owned the Villa dei Borbone at Tenuta Reale near Viareggio in Italy which he had inherited from his mother.
For part of World War I Jaime lived under house-arrest at Schloss Frohsdorf in Austria.
On 16 April 1923, by a decree to his Delegate-General in Spain, the Marques de Villores, Jaime created the Order of Prohibited Legitimacy (Orden de la Legitimidad Proscrita) to honour those who suffered imprisonment in Spain or were exiled for their loyalty to the Carlist cause.
In April 1931 the constitutional king of Spain Alfonso XIII was forced to leave the country and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. Jaime issued a manifesto calling upon all monarchists to rally to the legitimist[clarification needed] cause. Several months later, on 23 September, Jaime received Alfonso at his apartment in Paris. Two days later Alfonso and his wife Ena received Jaime at the Hotel Savoy d'Avon near Fontainebleau. Jaime conferred the collar of the Order of the Holy Spirit upon Alfonso. These meetings marked a certain rapprochement between the two claimants to the Spanish throne.
A week after his meetings with Alfonso, Jaime died in Paris. He was buried at the Villa dei Borbone at Tenuta Reale. He was succeeded in his Spanish and French claims by his uncle Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime.
- Enumerated after Jaime II, King of Aragon.
- p. 16
- B. de Artagan [Reynaldo Brea], Príncipe heróico y soldados leales , Barcelona 1912, p. 17
- Artagan 1912, p.20
- La Epoca 09.07.94, available here, El Liberal 10.07.94, available here, Jordi Canal i Morell, La revitalización política del carlismo a finales del siglo XIX: los viajes de propaganda del Marqués de Cerralbo, [in:] Studia Zamorensia 3 (1996), pp. 269-270
- In 1900, Madrid had 575,000 and Barcelona 539,000 inhabitants. La población en España: 1900-2009. Cuadernos Fundación BBVA, p. 5, available here. The population of 1899 was 646,000 (excluding the military), Kurjer Warszawski 05. 05.1899, available here
- see demoscope.ru service offered by Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета "Высшая школа экономики", available here. Somewhat different data, with breakup not by nationality but by faith, in Kurjer Warszawski 05.05.99
- In English-language historiography the unit is referred to as "Vistula Land", a direct translation from Russian. For informative snapshot of administrative transformations of Polish territories in the 19th and 20th centuries, see Norman Davies, God's Playground. A History of Poland, vol. 2, Oxford 2005, ISBN 9780199253401, p. 6
- It was one of the most industrialized regions of Russia. In the early 1890s it provided 16% of Russian iron/steel production, 20% of cotton and 38% of coal, Józef Buszko, Historia Polski 1864-1948, Warszawa 1979, ISBN 8301001720, p. 122
- Buszko 1979, p. 100; for overview of Polish nation-building and the Polish cause in late 20th century under the Russian rule see Davies 2005, especially the chapter Rossiya: The Russian Partition, pp. 60-82
- Warsaw hosted a few infantry and cavalry regiments. At the time of Jaime's arrival, the top military official was commander of the Warsaw military district, general Александр Константинович Имеретинский (Kurjer Warszawski 02.05.99); the second in function was commander of the Warsaw garrison, general Пётр Дмитриевич Паренсов (Kurjer Warszawski 24.04.99); titular commander of don Jaime's regiment was Grand Duke Павел Александрович (Kurjer Warszawski 28.02.99), but there were really other generals commanding. Also, the top officials assuming civil posts were military; the president of the city was a general Николай Валерианович Бибиков (Kurjer Warszawski 13.05.99)
- the Russo-German political accord, which ensured stability in Eastern Europe across most of the 19th century, started to crack at the Berlin Congress. The military alliance between the two empires was being renewed though scaled down across the 1880s; eventually, the so-called Reinsurance Treaty was not extended in 1890. In 1892, Russia and France signed a military convention aimed against Germany, the first step towards the system of alliances in place during the First World War, Roderick R. McLean, Royalty and Diplomacy in Europe, 1890-1914, Cambridge 2007, ISBN 9780521038195, pp. 18-20, George Frost Kennan, The Fateful Alliance: France, Russia, and the Coming of the First World War, Manchester 1984, ISBN 9780719017070, pp. 18-36
- overview of the Miliutin-Obruchev system in Richard F. Hamilton, Holger H. Herwig, War Planning 1914, Cambridge 2010, ISBN 9780521110969, pp. 88-104
- Hamilton, Herwig 2010, p. 86
- according to some Spanish sources don Jaime's service in Odessa lasted 6 months, Salvador Bofarull, Un príncipe español en la Guerra Ruso-Japonesa 1904-1905, [in:] Revista de Filatelia 2006, p. 55, accessible here. However, the dates hardly match. Some authors claim he was received by the tsar Nicholas II "early 1896" and immediately followed to his Odessa unit, Artagan 1912, p. 24. In March 1897 he was reported sporting a Russian uniform when visiting France, Kurjer Warszawski 23.02.97, available here. He received transfer order in December 1897 and left Odessa probably in January 1898, Artagan 1912, p. 24, El Correo Militar 30.12.87, available here
- Spanish sources usually refer to "24. Regimiento de Dragones de Loubna" (transliterated into Latin alphabet with different degree of accuracy; Лубна is a river, tributary of the Don, and flows across a traditional cossack area), compare Artagan 1912, p. 24. Other sources claim that the official name was "8th His Imperial Highness Archduke Otto of Austria's Lubny Hussar Regiment"; its headquarters was in Odessa and it formed part of the 8th Cavalry Division, stationed in Kishiniev, compare marksrussianmilitaryhistory service, available here. There is a source which acknowledges the difference and attempts to clarify the confusion as to numbering and as to dragoon v. hussar issue, see Михаил Быков, Офицерской национальности, [in:] Русский мир 08.13, available here. The author claims that 8-м Лубенский гусарский полк was renamed to 24-й Лубенский драгунский полк during the reign of Alexander III, and that the reverse process was commenced in 1907
- Polish press of the era claimed Don Jaime was transferred to Warsaw on his own request, Tygodnik Ilustrowany 21.05.98, available here, Kurjer Warszawski 30.04.98, available here
- in 1886 Don Jaime inherited from late archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este (sister of his paternal grandmother, who died with no issue) the castle of Frohsdorf, located 50 km away from Vienna. As he was only 16 at the time, his father was allowed usufruct of the residence, compare Schloß Frohsdorf und seine Geschichte service, available here, Agustín Fernández Escudero, El marqués de Cerralbo (1845-1922): biografía politica [PhD thesis], Madrid 2012, p. 425. At that time Warsaw and Vienna were connected by regular and fast railway service, for timetable compare Gazeta Handlowa 04.05.86, available here (Warsaw to Austrian border) and here (Russian border to Vienna). Don Jaime's father visited Warsaw before the Third Carlist War and liked the city, at least according to the confession made to a Pole visiting him in Estella, Ignacy Skrochowski, Wycieczka do obozu Don Karlosa, [in:] Piotr Sawicki (ed.), Hiszpania malowniczo-historyczna, Wrocław 1996, ISBN 8322912153, p. 170. He visited the city another time on Feb 9, 1877, Kurjer Warszawski 10.02.77, available here
- for detailed history of the unit see Юлий Лукьянович Елец, История Лейб-Гвардии Гродненского Гусарского полка, New York 2015, ISBN 9785519406048. Though named after the city of Grodno, the regiment has never been stationed there
- none of the sources consulted provides information whether the cavalry career was in line with military training Don Jaime had received earlier in Wiener Neustadt
- in the Russian army of the era there were only 2 Hussar Life-Guard regiments, apart from the Grodno one also the personal Tsar Regiment, see regiment.ru service, available here
- El Correo Militar 30.12.97, available here
- Kurjer Warszawski 24.11.98, available here
- literally translatable as Polish "chorąży", English "standard-bearer" or Spanish "abanderado"; in some armies the rank corresponded to the first officer rank and in some to a rank in-between NCOs and commissioned officers. Other options possible are that Don Jaime's rank was подпоручик or корнет
- Kurjer Warszawski 26.9.00, available here
- during the Russo-Japanese War, on May 7, 1904, Bofarull 2006, p. 56. Don Jaime was still captain when in 1906 the tsar asked him to stay in service, La Epoca 13.07.06, available here
- though given his limited (if any) knowledge of Russian it is hard to imagine how he could have served in line and communicated with NCOs and soldiers
- Kurjer Warszawski 24.10.02, available here
- Kurjer Warszawski 17.09.03, available here
- Kurjer Warszawski 25.10.03, available here
- Artagan 1912, p. 24, El Correo Militar 30.12.87, available here
- the first confirmed press note is Kurjer Warszawski 30.04.98
- the last confirmed note of Don Jaime serving was provided by Gazeta Kaliska 18.09.03 (October Spanish calendar), available here. There is a single case of a Warsaw paper issued after 1903 and referring to Don Jaime as "lieutenant of the hussar regiment, stationed in our city", see Nowa Gazeta 21.07.09, available here. The note, however, was acknowledging death of Carlos VII and seems based on some outdated editorial materials; it contains many factual errors (e.g. that Carlos VII returned to Spain in 1878 and that don Jaime was wounded in Russo-Japanese war in 1900)
- approximately 6 months in 1898, 8 months in 1899, 7 months in 1900, 7 months in 1901, 6 months in 1902 and 6 months in 1903
- "że mu zupełnie nie służy jesień klimatu polskiego", Kurjer Warszawski 12.11.98, available here
- as was the case in 1900, 1901 and 1902
- in November 1899 he was reported in Skierniewice, see Kurjer Warszawski 03.11.98, available here, and in June 1900 he was reported leaving Warsaw for Paris, Kurjer Warszawski 10.06.00, available here
- 1) late winter 1898 till summer 1898 (followed by summer in unspecified location), 2) August 1898 till November 1898 (followed by around 4 weeks on leave in Austria), 3) December 1898 till summer 1899 (followed by demarcation work at borders with Turkey, Afghanistan and Persia), 4) unspecified time late 1899 or early 1900 till June 1900 (followed by a month in Paris), 5) July till August 1900 (followed by Boxer War campaign), 6) spring 1901 till late 1901 (followed by stay in Paris and Nice), 7) spring 1902 till October 1902 (followed by stay in Paris and Nice), 8) spring 1903 till autumn 1903 (followed by stay in Venice, and then departure to the Russo-Japanese war)
- he underwent tracheotomy in Nice following a car accident there in January 1902, Kurjer Warszawski 02.01.02, available here
- Artagan 1912, p. 24; in October 1899 he was already reported back in Warsaw
- Gazeta Lwowska 08.08.00, available here
- Kurjer Warszawski 17.07.01, available here
- Gazeta Kaliska 18.09.03
- trips were alleged by the Spanish press though none of the local Warsaw papaers confirmed don Jaime's stay, compare e.g. Gazeta Kaliska 15.03.04, Czas 05.03.04, Kurjer Warszawski 13.04.04
- "all apartment is one room, with 2 windows covered by white cotton curtains embroided in Scottish patterns..." and onwards with the same detailed focus. Grand portrait of Don Carlos was noted on the wall. Kurjer Warszawski 18.04.98, available here
- Kurjer Warszawski 10.06.00; the building was damaged during the Warsaw Uprising but still fairly well preserved in early 1945, compare here; it was probably demolished in the late 1940s, see here
- Kurjer Warszawski 15.11.99, Wiek 16.09.01, Gazeta Kaliska 18.09.03
- Kurjer Warszawski 30.08.01, available here
- in the summer of 1901 don Jaime was in Kanie, a real estate near Lublin, taking part in engagement of Elżbieta Woroniecka, daughter of duke Mieczysław Woroniecki, with Paweł Jurjewicz, Kurjer Warszawski 17.07.01
- in 1910-1911 in Frohsdorf Don Jaime was visited by "el rector de una orden religiosa de Varsovia", who pressed the marriage question, Roman Oyarzun, Pretendientes al trono de Espana, Barcelona 1965, p. 83
- e.g. attending charity balls, Catholic feasts or cultural events. One press note quoted don Jaime declaring himself admirer of handsome Warsaw ladies, see Tygodnik Ilustrowany 21.05.98, available here, though the thread was not followed further on
- Kurjer Warszawski 18.04.98
- Tygodnik Ilustrowany 21.05.98, available here
- the Warsaw papers provided picturesque and detailed accounts of don Jaime's departure for Paris, see Kurjer Warszawski 23.06.00, available here, also here. After 10 days he was confirmed arriving in Paris, El Correo Militar 02.07.00, available here
- don Jaime repeated the pioneering journey of Grodzki from Warsaw to Paris, compare Początki polskiej motoryzacji [in:] motokiller service, available here
- Kurjer Warszawski 10.06.00, available here
- Kurjer Warszawski 10.06.00
- de Cerralbo was reported departing for Warsaw, see La Correspondencia de España 29.9.01, available here
- Kurjer Warszwski 21.4.99
- "Carlists and Republicans form two extreme wings, both hostile to the existing regime. Conservatives and Liberals form two wings of mainstream politics, competing for offices, perks and privileges; in terms of program the former are closer to the Carlists, while the latter are closer to the Republicans. [...] A phrase making rounds is that only revolution can save the country, but neither a Carlist nor a far more probable Republican one can change anything; power will move to another bunch of politicians, very much like the currently ruling cliques. Worse, a Republican revolution will undoubtedly trigger a civil war, and victory of the Republicans will produce a Carlist rising, and a Carlist rising will bring about the claims of independence from Catalonia and Navarre", Wojciech hr. Dzieduszycki, Wrażenia z Hiszpanii, [in:] Biesiada Literacka 05.07.01, available here
- "telegraph wires seem to be on the poles, but do not be so naive to attempt sending a telegraph message beyond Spain; even the diplomatic ones get lost somewhere on their way. Roads exist only in theory. Only the schools maintained by bishops do function, state-ran secondary schools are rather like primary ones. The army looks nice, but when it came to war they had neither food nor munitions", Biesiada Literacka 05.07.01. However, an average 1900 Polish GDP per capita is estimated (in Geary-Khamis dollars) at 86% of the correspondng Spanish figure, compare here
- "At a patisserie: who are those Carlists, who make fuss in Spain? [apparently a Pole asking a Jew]; I do not know, but I guess they must be sort of Spanish Jews; what makes you think so, Moshe? [in street-talk a name commonly standing for a traditional Jew, friendly though very patronising way of addressing]; well, I am not sure, but they write here in the paper that 10,000 rifles were taken away from the Carlists when having been smuggled from France to Spain". The joke probably requires a lengthy footnote to get all undertones explained; in a veiled way it referred to harassment of the Jews (either official Russian or popular Polish one), their economic focus on trade, often semi-legal nature of Jewish business and Polish perception that according to the Jews the world revolved around them. It also delivers clear sense of total ignorance, desinteressement and lack of emotional engagement as to Carlism if not indeed the entire Spanish politics. Mucha 07.01.00, available here
- reporting that Carlist underground arms depot had been unearthed in Catalonia one paper explained the Carlist cause adding that a descendant of Carlos VII served in Warsaw as a sub-colonel, Zorza 12.11.02, available here
- reporting don Jaime's career during the Boxer Uprising was a tricky exercise; on the one hand, the press followed official course of hailing the Russian army, on the other, venerating articles were incompatible with feelings of those Poles who did not identify themselves with the Russian cause, compare Kurjer Warszawski 12.08.01
- the Polish public opinion of mid-19th century tended to be adverse towards Carlism. The movement was associated with reactionary politics and with Holy Alliance, pitted against the independence of Poland; it was rather revolutionary, liberal forces which were believed to have been sympathetic towards the Polish cause (not necessarily representative and rather extreme example is Wiktor Heltman, Rewolucyjne żywioły w Hiszpanii, ich walka do 1833 roku, [in:] Pismo Towarzystwa Demokratycznego Polskiego 2 (1840), pp. 471-499, presenting Carlism as obscurantism, absolutism and religious fanaticism, compare here, pp. 471 and onwards). Indeed in Spain it generated some compassion mostly among the Liberals, and the term "Poland of the South" was even coined by Emilio Castelar to denote Spain as endangered by oppressive foreign reaction. The Carlists did not demonstrate interest in Polish cause, especially that "polacos" and "polaquería" started to denote anarchy of the First Republic. On the other hand, periodical Carlist onslaught on Bismarck, lambasted for pursuing anti-Catholic Kulturkampf policy, coincided (sometimes explicitly) with Polish feelings. By the end of 19th century Polish references ceased to aid those fearing partitions of Spain and started to help those seeking exactly the opposite. Parallels drawn by nationalistically-minded Basques and Catalans ("Quedo ahora plenamente convencido de que no es Vd. español, sino bizcaino. Los polacos nunca se dirán rusos o alemanes, sino polacos") have certainly not helped the Polish cause among the Carlists. It is not clear to what extent don Jaime, living beyond Spain, was familiar with the above subtleties. Interesting studies on mutual perception in Jan Kieniewicz (ed.), Studia polsko-hiszpańskie. Wiek XIX, Warszawa 2002, ISBN 8391252582, especially the essays of Patrycja Jakóbczyk-Adamczyk and Juan Fernández Mayoralas-Palomegué; enhanced version of the latter's work is available here.
- Don Jaime was presented as "typical son of the South" with detailed description of his physis (Warsaw papers did not print photographs or graphics at that time); introduction was concluded by remark that the prince "makes a nice impression of a mondain", Kurjer Warszawski 30.4.89, available here; also another periodical picked up the same thread (not indifferent in relation to don Jaime's outlook), when quoting that the prince liked Warsaw for its "European character" (and not, e.g., for its Catholic zeal), Tygodnik Ilustrowany 09.05.98, available here
- "so the young prince keeps dreaming about future battles his father will fight to defend his dynastic rights, keeps recollecting heroic Poles who under the standard of Don Carlos stood for the alien cause, and keeps waiting... and waiting...", Tygodnik Ilustrowany 09.05.98
- Russia tended to ambiguity when facing the Carlist question. During the First Carlist War the tsarist administration was somewhat favorable to the cause of Don Carlos but eventually it adopted a wait-and-see policy, even though the Carlist envoy was received in St. Petersburg and the Carlists were aided financially, see José Ramón de Urquijo y Goitia, El carlismo y Rusia, [in:] Hispania. Revista española de historia 48 (1988), pp. 599-623. During the Third Carlist War the Russian policy largely followed the course set by Bismarck, anxious that a Carlist victory might sustain French legitimism and internal opposition of the German Catholics, see Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, La contrarrevolución legitimista, 1688-1876, Madrid 1995, ISBN 9788489365155, pp. 236-237. As to the Carlists, they tended to sympathise with the tsarist regime; the Russian political model was pitted against masonic, liberal and plutocratic French and especially British models, compare the 1905 comments of key Carlist theorist Gil Robles, El Imparcial 07.03.05, available here. Sympathies for the Russian legitimist cause were sustained by a number of White Russians joining Carlist tercios during the Spanish Civil War and this stance is well alive until today, compare 2014 comments of Don Sixto, who called to „reconocer a Rusia sus fronteras históricas”, see Monde & Vie 09.04.14, available here
- allegedly he remembered the Polish Carlist volunteers very well, Kurjer Warszawski 30.04.89. This appears to be pure courtesy; first, during the last Carlist war Don Jaime was just a 5-year-old; second, there are very few Poles known to have joined the Carlist troops in the 1870s. In general, the Poles tended to fight against the Carlists rather than to support them. For the First Carlist War see Michał Kudła, Szlak bojowy polskich ułanów w czasie pierwszej wojny karlistowskiej, [in:] Jan Kieniewicz (ed.), Studia polsko-hiszpańskie. Wiek XIX, Warszawa 2002, ISBN 8391252582, pp. 127–161. No Polish unit fought in the Third Carlist War, though some individuals—most notable of them Józef Korzeniowski, known as Joseph Conrad—could have been involved on the Carlist side, for historiographical account see Franciszek Ziejka, Conrad's Marseilles, [in:] Yearbook of Conrad Studies 7 (2012), pp. 51–67, available here. Few thousand volunteers from Poland—though 45% of them were Polish Jews rather than ethnic Poles—joined International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Magdalena Siek (ed.), Wojna domowa w Hiszpanii 1941–1987, Warszawa 2010, p. 2, available here
- Eduardo González Calleja, La razón de la fuerza: orden público, subversión y violencia política en la España de la Restauración (1875–1917), Madrid 1998, ISBN 9788400077785, p. 198, Fernández Escudero 2012, p. 400
- "Desgraciadamente mi experiencia política y los largos años pasados en Rusia, me han enseñado que una República patriótica, moderada, bien intencionada puede muy fácilmente y en un espacio de tiempo brevísimo, ser arrollada por la avalancha del comunismo internacionalista, destructor de la religión, de la patria, de la familia y de la propiedad", quoted after José Carlos Clemente Muñoz, El carlismo en el novecientos español (1876–1936), Madrid 1999, ISBN 84-8374-153-9, p. 116
- detailed discussion of the picture here
- compare account of his trip to Spain of 1894, published in Tirso de Olazábal, Don Jaime en España, Bilbao 1895. The voyage was also widely reported by the Spanish press, compare La Epoca 09.07.94, available here, El Liberal 10.07.94, available here. The event turned into a media scoop, discussed for months and accompanied by rather friendly anecdotes, compare Actualidades 1894, available here or El Dia 04.10.94, available here
- following press reports of don Jaime making statements incompatible with the Carlist ideario, in 1905 his father and at that time the claimant to the throne Carlos VII declared those news unfounded and incorrect; among some Carlists the doubts persisted. Juan Ramón de Andrés Martín, El cisma mellista. Historia de una ambición política, Madrid 2000, ISBN 9788487863820, p. 42
- there are fundamental questions lingering which pertain to his general outlook and to his vision of Carlism, let alone questions about his political strategy, personal life and character; some authors refer to "la misteriosa, ambigua y compleja personalidad del heredero carlista don Jaime", Andrés Martín 2000, p. 42, also Fernández Escudero 2012, p. 513
- some of his Carlist opponents noted that don Jaime was educated in "una Academia [the Austrian Military Academy] de ateos y escépticos y corrompidos" and somewhat light on his Catholic practices, Andrés Martín 2000
- Frans Coetzee, Marilyn Shevin Coetzee, Authority, Identity and the Social History of the Great War, New York 1995, ISBN 9781571810670, p. 277
- for overview of Polish stereotypes held about Russians, see Виктор Хорев (ed.), Россия - Польша. Образы и стереотипы в литературе и культуре, Москва 2002, ISBN 5857592143, Andrzej de Lazari (ed.), Katalog wzajemnych uprzedzeń Polaków i Rosjan, Warszawa 2006, ISBN 8389607654, pp. 303-327, Joanna Dzwończyk, Robert Jakimowicz, Stereotypy w stosunkach polsko-rosyjskich, [in:] Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej w Krakowie 611 (2002), pp. 103-116
- in 1890 Warsaw was rocked by a scandal ending in tragedy. Cornet of the Grodno Hussar Regiment, Александр Бартенев, shot a starlet of the Warsaw theatre, Maria Wisnowska. The culprit was allegedly intoxicated by opium. The incident was reported by the Polish press abroad, rather than in Warsaw, since Russian censorship imposed media blackout on the incident, compare the Lviv-based Gazeta Narodowa 27.07.90, available here. The same paper (issued in Austro-Hungary) agonized about allegedly lenient treatment of the culprit by Russian military and justice authorities
- see also comments about "life in Warsaw, known with some justification as little Paris", John Ernest Oliver Screen, Mannerheim: the Years of Preparation, London 1970, ISBN 9780900966224, p. 94. Gustaf Mannerheim served as a Russian cavalry officer in Poland since 1889, though in smaller garrison cities like Kalisz and Mińsk Mazowiecki. He was assigned to the Warsaw garrison (another life-guard regiment) few years after don Jaime left it, in 1909, though the two might have met during the Russo-Japanese war. Unlike don Jaime, a foreigner unfamiliar with local political setting, Mannerheim was "acutely conscious of his position in the army that had been used to destroy the liberty of Poland" and went on with the locals very well
- Andrés Martín 2000, pp. 42-44 and onwards
- though it is difficult to imagine what other period he might have had in mind when noting in 1931 "many years I have spent in Russia", Clemente 1999, p. 161
- most detailed historiographical works on don Jaime do not mention Warsaw at all, referring only to service in the Russian army in general, see Andrés Martín 2000, Fernández Escudero 2012
- Bofarull 2006, p. 55
- Andrés Martín 2000, p. 94
- Jordi Canal, El carlismo, Madrid 2000, ISBN 8420639478, pp. 274-8, 282-8, 291-3
- Jan Kieniewicz, Hiszpania w polskim zwierciadle, Gdańsk 2001, ISBN 8385560742, Piotr Sawicki, Polska-Hiszpania, Hiszpania-Polska : poszerzanie horyzontów, Wrocław 2013, ISBN 9788360097212
- in Polish historiography the notable exception is Jacek Bartyzel, see his Umierać ale powoli, Kraków 2002, p. 286. More detailed comments in his Karlizm widziany z Polski, [in:] legitymizm.org service, available here
- "The Death of the Duke of Madrid", The Times (October 5, 1931): 14.
- "Contradicts Reports of Zita's Poverty. The New York Times (June 15, 1922): 6.
- "Legitimist Manifesto", The Times (April 24, 1931), 14.
- "King Alfonso and the Duke of Madrid", The Times (September 25, 1931): 12.
- "The Duke of Madrid at Fontainebleau", The Times (September 26, 1931): 9.
- Don Jaime on 1911 video footage (00:41 to 1:09)
- Grodno Hussar Regiment march
- Encore - lot of a Russian officer, Russian painting, Polish song
- Viva Cristo Rey - contemporary Carlist propaganda (don Jaime 1:28 and 2:49)
|This section lacks ISBNs for the books listed in it. (April 2014)|
- "Don Jaime is Dead: Carlist Pretender". The New York Times (October 3, 1931): 11.
- "The Duke of Madrid, Soldier and Traveller". The Times (October 5, 1931): 19.
- Елец, Юлий Лукьянович, История Лейб-Гвардии Гродненского Гусарского полка, New York 2015, ISBN 9785519406048
- Andrés Martín, Juan Ramón de. El cisma mellista: historia de una ambición política. Madrid: Actas Editorial, 2000.
- Melgar del Rey, Francisco Melgar de. Don Jaime, el príncipe caballero. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1932.
- Melgar del Rey, Francisco Melgar de. El noble final de la escisión dinástica. Madrid: Consejo Privado de S.A.R. el Conde de Barcelona, 1964.
Jaime, Duke of Madrid
Cadet branch of the House of CapetianBorn: 27 June 1870 Died: 2 October 1931
Title last held byLouis Stanislas
|Duke of Anjou
1883 – 2 October 1931
Carlos de Borbón
|Duke of Madrid
18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931
Title next held byAlfonso Carlos
as Duke of San Jaime
|Titles in pretence|
|— TITULAR —
King of Spain
18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931
Alfonso Carlos I
|— TITULAR —
King of France and Navarre
18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931