December 31, 1930|
La Paz, Bolivia
March 30, 2010 (aged 79)|
Roseville, California, U.S.
Jaime Alfonso Escalante Gutierrez (December 31, 1930 – March 30, 2010) was a Bolivian educator known for teaching students calculus from 1974 to 1991 at Garfield High School, East Los Angeles, California. Escalante was the subject of the 1988 film Stand and Deliver, in which he is portrayed by Edward James Olmos.
Escalante was born to two teachers of Aymara ancestry in 1930 in La Paz, Bolivia. He was proud of his Aymara heritage and, as an adult, he would proclaim, "The Aymara knew math before the Greeks and Egyptians."
- Unspecified Year: Escuela Normal Simón Bolivar, School Teacher Degree
- 1955: University Mayor de San Andres, Licentiate in Mathematics
- 1969: Associate of Arts, Pasadena City College
- 1973: Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics, California State University, Los Angeles
- 1977: Standard teaching credential, California State University, Los Angeles
- 1982: Standard teaching credential, California State University, Los Angeles
- 1984: Standard teaching credential, Florida State University, Florida
Escalante taught mathematics and physics for 12 years in Bolivia before he immigrated to the United States. Then, "he had to work many odd jobs, teach himself English and earn another college degree before he could return to the classroom."
Shortly after Escalante came to Garfield High School, its accreditation became threatened. Instead of gearing classes to poorly performing students, Escalante offered AP Calculus. He had already earned the criticism of an administrator, who disapproved of his requiring the students to answer a homework question before being allowed into the classroom. "He told me to just get them inside," Escalante reported, "but I said, there is no teaching, no learning going on."
Determined to change the status quo, Escalante persuaded a few students that they could control their futures with the right education. He promised them that they could get jobs in engineering, electronics, and computers if they would learn math: "I'll teach you math and that's your language. With that, you're going to make it. You're going to college and sit in the first row, not the back because you're going to know more than anybody."
The school administration opposed Escalante frequently during his first few years. He was threatened with dismissal by an assistant principal because he was coming in too early, leaving too late, and failing to get administrative permission to raise funds to pay for his students' Advanced Placement tests. The opposition changed with the arrival of a new principal, Henry Gradillas. Aside from allowing Escalante to stay, Gradillas overhauled the academic curriculum at Garfield, reducing the number of basic math classes and requiring those taking basic math to take algebra as well. He denied extracurricular activities to students who failed to maintain a C average and to new students who failed basic skills tests. One of Escalante's students remarked, "If he wants to teach us that bad, we can learn."
Escalante continued to teach at Garfield and instructed his first calculus class in 1978. He hoped that it could provide the leverage to improve lower-level math courses. Escalante recruited fellow teacher Ben Jiménez and taught calculus to five students, two of whom passed the AP calculus test. The following year, the class size increased to nine students, seven of whom passed the AP calculus test. By 1981, the class had increased to 15 students, 14 of whom passed. Escalante placed a high priority on pressuring his students to pass their math classes, particularly calculus. He rejected the common practice of ranking students from first to last but frequently told his students to press themselves as hard as possible in their assignments.
In 1982, Escalante came into the national spotlight when 18 of his students passed the challenging Advanced Placement Calculus exam. The Educational Testing Service found the scores to be suspicious because they all made exactly the same math error on problem #6, and they also used the same unusual variable names. Fourteen of those who passed were asked to take the exam again. Twelve of them agreed to retake the test and all did well enough to have their scores reinstated.
In 1983, the number of students enrolling and passing the calculus test more than doubled. That year, 33 students took the exam, and 30 passed. That year, he also started teaching calculus at East Los Angeles College. By 1987, 73 students passed the AB version of the exam and another 12 passed the BC version. That was the peak for the calculus program. The same year, Gradillas went on sabbatical to finish his doctorate with hopes that he could be reinstated as principal at Garfield or a similar school with a similar program upon his return.
In 1988, a book, Escalante: The Best Teacher in America by Jay Mathews, and a film, Stand and Deliver, were released on the events of 1982. Teachers and other interested observers asked to sit in on his classes. He shared with them: "The key to my success with youngsters is a very simple and time-honored tradition: hard work for teacher and student alike." Escalante received visits from political leaders and celebrities, including President Ronald Reagan and actor Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Escalante has described the film as "90% truth, 10% drama." He stated that several points were left out of the film:
- It took him several years to achieve the kind of success shown in the film.
- No student who did not know multiplication tables or fractions was ever taught calculus in a single year.
- Escalante suffered inflammation of the gall bladder, not a heart attack.
Over the next few years, Escalante's calculus program continued to grow but at a price. Tensions that surfaced when his career at Garfield began, now escalated. In his final years at Garfield, Escalante received threats and hate mail from various individuals. By 1990, he had lost the math department chairmanship. Escalante's math enrichment program had grown to more than 400 students. His class sizes had increased to over 50 students in some cases. That was far beyond the 35 student limit set by the teachers' union, which increased its criticism of Escalante's work. In 1991, the number of Garfield students taking advanced placement examinations in math and other subjects jumped to 570. The same year, citing faculty politics and petty jealousies, Escalante and Jiménez left Garfield. Escalante found new employment at Hiram W. Johnson High School in Sacramento, California. At the height of Escalante's influence, Garfield graduates were entering the University of Southern California in such great numbers that they outnumbered all the other high schools in the working-class East Los Angeles region combined. Even students who failed the AP often went on to become star students at California State University, Los Angeles.
Angelo Villavicencio took the reins of the program after their departure and taught the remaining 107 AP students in two classes for the next year. Sixty-seven of Villavicencio's students went on to take the AP exam and forty-seven passed. Villavicencio's request for a third class because of class size was denied, and the following spring, he followed Escalante and quit Garfield. The math program's decline at Garfield became apparent following the departure of Escalante and other teachers associated with its inception and development. In just a few years, the number of AP calculus students at Garfield who passed their exams dropped by more than 80%. In 1996, Villavicencio contacted Garfield's new principal, Tony Garcia, and offered to come back to help revive the dying calculus program. His offer was rejected.
In the mid-1990s, Escalante became a strong supporter of English-only education efforts. In 1997, he joined Ron Unz's English for the Children initiative, which eventually ended most bilingual education in California schools.
In 2001, after many years of preparing teenagers for the AP calculus exam, Escalante returned to his native Bolivia. He lived in his wife's hometown, Cochabamba, and taught at Universidad Privada del Valle. He returned to the United States frequently to visit his children.
In early 2010[update], Escalante faced financial difficulties from the cost of his cancer treatment. Cast members from Stand and Deliver, including Edward James Olmos, and some of Escalante's former pupils, raised funds to help pay for his medical bills.
Death and legacy
On April 1, 2010, a memorial service honoring Escalante was held at the Garfield High School, where he had taught from 1974 to 1991. Students observed a moment of silence on the front steps of the campus. A wake was held on April 17, 2010 in the classroom at Garfield High School.
Escalante is buried at Rose Hills Memorial Park in Whittier Lakeside Gardens, Burial Section 18, Burial lot 3914, Grave 3, Gate 10, in an unmarked grave. In 2016, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp with his likeness.
Awards and honors
- 1988 – Presidential Medal for Excellence in Education, awarded by President Ronald Reagan 
- 1988 – Hispanic Heritage Awards Honoree
- 1989 – Honorary Doctor of Science – University of Massachusetts Boston 
- 1990 – Honorary Doctor of Humanities – California State University, Los Angeles 
- 1990 – Honorary Doctor of Education – Concordia University, Montreal 
- 1990 – Honorary Doctor of Laws – University of Northern Colorado 
- 1990 – Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.
- 1998 – Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters – Wittenberg University 
- 1998 – Free Spirit Award, from the Freedom Forum
- 1998 – Andrés Bello prize, from the Organization of American States
- 1999 – Inductee National Teachers Hall of Fame 
- 2002 – Member, President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans 
- 2005 – The Highest Office Award – Center for Youth Citizenship
- 2005 – Best teacher in North America – Freedom Forum
- 2014 – Foundational Award Winner, posthumously given to Fabiola Escalante (together with Henry Gradillas and Angelo Villavicencio) – Escalante–Gradillas Best in Education Prize 
- 2016 – The United States Postal Service issued a 1st Class Forever "Jaime Escalante" stamp to honor "the East Los Angeles teacher whose inspirational methods led supposedly 'unteachable' high school students to master calculus."
- Woo, Elaine (March 31, 2010). "Jaime Escalante dies at 79; math teacher who challenged East L.A. students to 'Stand and Deliver'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
- Michigan State University Newsroom – MSU spring commencement speakers reflect dedication to education[permanent dead link]
- Anne E. Schraff, Jaime Escalante: Inspirational Math Teacher (ISBN 978-0766029675), p. 12-13
- "Jaime Escalante Bio". The Futures Channel. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Anne E. Schraff, Jaime Escalante: Inspirational Math Teacher (ISBN 978-0766029675), p. 12
- "Jaime Escalante biography". A+E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Woo, Elaine (31 March 2010). "Jaime Escalante dies at 79; math teacher who challenged East L.A. students to 'Stand and Deliver'". Los Angeles Times.
- La Brecque, Ron (6 November 1988). "Something More Than Calculus". The New York Times.
- Rude, John (29 January 2015). "Escalante Program Proves Its Worth". East Los Angeles College.
- Jay Mathews, Escalante: The Best Teacher in America (ISBN 0-8050-1195-1), p. 210
- Jesness, Jerry (July 2002). "Stand and Deliver Revisited". Reason. (Archive)
- Mathews, p. 297
- "Más de 400 alumnos rindieron Homenaje al Profesor Jaime Escalante". Gobierno Autonoma Departmental Santa Cruz. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- Bates, Karen Grigsby (March 9, 2010). "Students 'Stand And Deliver' For Former Teacher". All Things Considered. NPR. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- Raquel Maria Dillon, Associated Press (2010-03-30). "Teacher Who Inspired 'Stand and Deliver' Film Dies". ABC News. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
- Bermudez, Esmeralda (February 2010). "From his sickbed, Garfield High legend is still delivering". Los Angeles Times.
- Simmons, Ann M. (1 April 2010). "Garfield High pays tribute to Jaime Escalante". L.A. NOW.
- Leovy, Jill (17 April 2010). "Honoring a legendary teacher and his legacy". Los Angeles Times.
- "Schwarzenegger Convenes Education Summit". September 10, 2003. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Reid, Alexander (June 2, 1991). "UMass Speaker Stresses Need for Science, Technology Education". The Boston Globe. p. 42. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "History of Cal State L.A." California State University, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
CSU/CSLA honorary doctorate awarded to alumnus Jaime Escalante '73, '77, '82 at 43rd Commencement.
-  Archived August 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- "University of Northern Colorado Honorary Degrees Conferred" (PDF). University of Northern Colorado. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "'Hero' Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9". Wittenberg University. April 13, 2004. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Jaime Escalante: 1999 Inductee". National Teachers Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on April 4, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Presidential Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans". White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Escalante-Gradillas $20,000 Prize for Best in Education". The Best Schools. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Hall of Fame profile
- Jaime Escalante at Find a Grave
- Jamie Escalante and the Lancaster Amish An MP3 of a talk by John Taylor Gatto
- Jaime Escalante documented his techniques in Escalante, Jaime; Dirmann, Jack (Summer 1990). "The Jaime Escalante Math Program" (PDF). The Journal of Negro Education. 59 (3): 407–423. doi:10.2307/2295573. Retrieved 2013-01-19.