Jaime del Burgo Torres

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Jaime del Burgo Torres
ULL.98.12.3.jpg
Born Jaime Percal Torres
1912
Pamplona, Spain
Died 2005
Pamplona, Spain
Nationality Spanish
Occupation public servant
Known for Politician
Political party Comunión Tradicionalista, FET

Jaime del Burgo Torres (1912 – 2005) was a Spanish official, writer and a Carlist activist. He is noted mostly as a historian; his works focus on Navarre and the Carlist wars. As a public servant he is known as longtime head of Navarrese library network, regional Ministry of Information delegate and a governmental and self-governmental tourist official. As a Carlist he is acknowledged as moving spirit behind the Navarrese Requeté in the 1930s and as representative of the Carloctavista faction during early Francoism. He also wrote novels, poems and dramas.

Family and youth[edit]

Pamplona, early 20th century

There is next to nothing known about del Burgo’s paternal ancestors. Though some authors claim that already his grandfather contributed to the Carlist cause,[1] no other account confirms this or clarifies his identity; the official del Burgo’s birth certificate refers to his paternal grandparents as "abuelos incognitos".[2] None of the sources consulted offers much information on his father Eusebio (1887-1970).[3] Even his exact surname remains unclear; some sources claim he was named Eusebio del Burgo Pascual[4] while an official document certifies he was born Eusebio Percal and it only changed to Eusebio del Burgo Pascual in 1926.[5] According to one author he originated from the Navarrese town of Villava,[6] according to another he was born in Pamplona.[7] Nothing is known about his profession; politically he sympathised with the Carlists and at the age of 45 took part in street brawls.[8] He married a pamplonesa, Paula Torres Jacoiste (1887-1973).[9] Living in Pamplona, the couple had three sons and four daughters,[10] all brought up in Traditionalist ambience[11] and fervently Catholic atmosphere, at times bordering exaltation.[12]

Villava, Escuela de Peritos Agrícolas

Jaime Victoriano Martin was born as Percal y Torres[13] and it is not clear in what circumstances the family changed their surname to del Burgo. Nothing is known about his early childhood; as a teenager he trained to become "perito mercantil"[14] at unidentified school, possibly in Villava.[15] He has never pursued a professional commercial career; during his adolescence years he was increasingly engaged in public activities, consuming more and more of his time. Del Burgo married Maria de las Mercedes Tajadura Goñi (1911-1999);[16] her father, Federico Tajadura Arnaíz, was a military official.[17] The couple had three children, Mercedes, Jaime Ignacio and Maria Antonia.[18] Upon his death he left three children, thirteen grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.[19] His son Jaime Ignacio del Burgo Tajadura[20] was a conservative politician and the Prime Minister of Navarre (president of Diputacion Foral de Navarra) in 1979-1984.[21] His grandson Ignacio del Burgo Azpíroz, otherwise a Pamplona lawyer, gained wider recognition as author of a historical novel.[22] Another of his grandchildren, an entrepreneur Jaime del Burgo Azpíroz,[23] married an older sister of Letizia Ortiz, becoming brother-in-law of Felipe de Borbón y Grecia[24] and sort of gossip media celebrity.[25]

Rebel[edit]

virility Pamplona-style

Already as a youngster del Burgo engaged in the Carlist juvenile organization, Juventud Jaimista, in 1930 becoming secretary of the Navarrese branch of the organization;[26] a year later he set up a local Carlist weekly La Esperanza, trying his hand as an editor, manager and contributor.[27] In 1931 he was among those founding provincial branch[28] of the newly born national Carlist student association, Agrupación Escolar Tradicionalista.[29] Remaining at its helm until the outbreak of the Civil War,[30] del Burgo exercised enormous influence on the group and beyond, especially as in 1934 it launched its press tribune, the a.e.t. weekly.[31]

Initially Navarrese AET focused on juvenile activities like sport, leisure and outdoor, though they were increasingly flavored by cult of brotherhood, Carlist heroes, activism and virility,[32] combined with anti-materialist spiritualism and a drive for change.[33] A present scholar relates them to Sorel, Marinetti, T.S. Eliot and W. B. Yeats,[34] also drawing parallels between aetistas and a millenarist Romanian ultra-Right Legion of Archangel Michael;[35] another one points to fascist influence[36] Indeed, the Sorelian thread manifested itself by social radicalism of Del Burgo and a.e.t. The group departed from orthodox Traditionalist line, commiserating with masses of miserable beings pitted against the politically dominant potentates; they advocated limitation of wealth and regularization of profits. Contemptuous towards Carlist landowners like José Lamamié and Jaime Chicharro, the students supported Agrarian Reform, obstructed by feudal egoism of the odious grandees of grain.[37] The group called for a Carlist Revolution[38] aiming at a good clean-up of society,[39] and was greeted with amazement by the older Carlist generation.

a.e.t.

The rupturista stance of the aetistas had nothing in common with social radicalism of the republican Left.[40] It remained extremely hostile towards the mass workers’ parties, their militancy to be confronted with vengeance and repaid with "bomb, dagger and fire",[41] the cult of activism bordering the cult of violence. Strategy of Carlist leaders was denounced as ineffective; in 1934 del Burgo and the young, having declared themselves rebels fed up with legality, accused the old junteros of 3 years of inactivity,[42] their only achievement having been the alliance with caciques and debris of the fallen liberal monarchy. AET despised parliamentary activities of the party elders[43] and especially accommodation with the Alfonsists.[44] The intemperate tone of the aetistas shocked the Navarrese Carlist authorities and made them call for moderation.[45] As a result, Del Burgo did not regret Tomás Domínguez Arévalo resignation and welcomed the appointment of Manuel Fal Conde.[46]

Requeté[edit]

In 1931 del Burgo engaged in the Carlist militia Requeté, at that time undergoing rapid expansion and partial restructuring.[47] He demonstrated enormous dedication and great organizational capacity,[48] along Generoso Huarte[49] becoming one of key field commanders and focusing on the province of Pamplona.[50] Participating in street brawls against socialist groups,[51] he was arrested following the clashes of April 1932.[52] Charged with trafficking arms – which he did indeed – del Burgo was acquitted due to lack of evidence, though in total he remained behind bars for 6 months.[53] Released, he again became one of the most active Requeté operatives in Navarre,[54] especially under the new, strictly military organization engineered by Varela.[55]

Early 1934 del Burgo led one of the two already formed Pamplona piquetes.[56] During the spring he and 14 other Carlists travelled to Italy under the false Peruvian identities; at the Furbara air base they underwent specialist military training, focusing on usage of machine guns and grenades, infantry tactics and urban warfare.[57] Back in Spain, del Burgo wrote tactical rulebook with instructions as to group alignment and positioning, fire drills, march and engagement distances etc., all calibrated for small groups and mostly urban combat.[58] Promoted to lieutenant, he broadened his training to the Carlist NCOs.[59] Early 1936 Pamplona could already present one battalion; del Burgo was leading one of its 3 companies.[60]

Shortly before and during the first day of the coup del Burgo was instrumental to organizing the Pamplona Requeté units.[61] The Pamplona tercio was fragmented, del Burgo’s company incorporated into a mixed 7th Batallón del Regimiento de América.[62] He left Pamplona on July 19; following few days in Rioja, the battalion was moved to Navafria area in Sierra de Guadarrama, in August engaged in heavy fighting for the Somosierra pass.[63] In September he was withdrawn to a hospital in the rear.[64] Recovered, del Burgo co-organized the Álavese[65] battalion of Tercio de Nuestra Señora de Begoña[66] and as its officer re-entered combat in Biscay. Reportedly shocked by destruction of Guernica,[67] he engaged in a related brawl against an army officer[68] and deployed a requeté platoon safeguarding the symbolic oak.[69] In mid-June 1937 captain del Burgo was heavily wounded when storming the Bilbao Iron Ring.[70] Evacuated, he has never returned to the frontline, serving as Delegado de Requetés del Seńorío de Vizcaya.[71]

Between falcondismo and carloctavismo[edit]

Ideario by del Burgo

During the unification crisis of early 1937 del Burgo sided with the intransigent falcondistas,[72] considering amalgamation into FET a manipulation on part of the Navarrese.[73] He labeled occasional enthusiasm for unification a "collective psychosis".[74] To underline Traditionalist identity, he was commissioned to compile a concise doctrinal handbook, published in April 1937 as Ideario Tradicionalista.[75] Some scholars claim that the collaborationists intended to get rid of del Burgo, still active in national AET,[76] and send him abroad, as a Traditionalist tutor of Don Juan.[77] Late 1937 Fal considered del Burgo a man of trust[78] and included him on the list of potential replacements for the disloyal members of Navarrese junta, sent to the provincial leader Baleztena.[79] As the latter preferred to steer cautiously between rodeznistas and falcondistas and ignored the suggestion, it was only in 1939 that del Burgo entered the executive of Hermandad de los Caballeros Voluntarios de la Cruz, intended as semi-official Fal’s outpost in Navarre.[80] In 1940 Fal appointed him to represent Navarre in a vasco-navarrese junta,[81] though de Burgo’s opposition to unification was already burning out and giving way to sense of defeat, resignation and frustration.[82] Del Burgo’s departure from the falcondista camp stemmed not from differences on policy towards Francoism, but was the result of dynastical disputes. Though in the mid-1930s he was fanatically loyal to the dynasty,[83] following the death of Don Alfonso Carlos del Burgo only hesitantly accepted the regency of Don Javier;[84] instead, he advanced the cause of Don Carlo Pio as early as on the frontline in 1937.[85] When the latter officially raised his claim as Carlos VIII in 1943, del Burgo joined his followers - dubbed carloctavistas - and constructed a supporting dynastical interpretation.[86] Unlike many Carlos VIII supporters he did not sympathize with the Axis[87] and did not enter the first carloctavista executive of 1943.[88] It was only in 1945 that del Burgo became one of the Comunión Católico-Monárquica leaders[89] and vice-president of the claimant’s Navarrese Royal Council.[90] Don Carlos Pio was only 3 years del Burgo’s senior and equally radical; the two have forged a close relationship and exchanged a lengthy correspondence over the years.[91] In the late 1940s Del Burgo’s worked to capture new supporters[92] and in 1950 he managed to reconstruct Navarrese AET as a carloctavista organization.[93] However, at that time he was replaced as a key claimant's man in the province by Antonio Lizarza.[94]

The unexpected 1953 death of Don Carlos Pio left the carloctavistas puzzled. While most of the group focused on Carlos VIII's older brother Don Antonio and minor factions backed either his sons or another brother Francisco Jose, del Burgo advocated allegiance to the oldest daughter of Carlos VIII, Alejandra. According to del Burgo, having been a minor she would appear as "abanderada provisional", until the claim is passed to her anticipated male descendant.[95] This option received scarce support and no faction was built around it.[96] Del Burgo was left without clear dynastical allegiances; over time he developed a critical view of Carlos VIII, considering him "sold out" to Falange.[97] He is not listed among the carloctavistas forming the camp of subsequent carloctavista claimants,[98] those reconciling with Don Javier,[99] or those joining Don Juan.[100] though in the 1960s it was noted that he "había mostrado inclinación hacia los javieristas"[101]

Between franquismo and carlismo[edit]

Del Burgo’s access to the carloctavista camp made him reconsider his stand versus Francoism, as Don Carlos Pio pursued a decisively collaborationist strategy.[102] In 1942, during the proceeding fragmentation and bewilderment of Navarrese Carlism,[103] he stood on the carloctavista ticket in local elections to the Pamplona council and was successful, serving as teniende de alcalde until 1944.[104] By this token, in 1943 and 1944 he performed the prestigious sanfermines task of setting off el chupinazo.[105] The council role did necessarily imply collaboration, but promotion to colonel, 1943 appointment as a provincial Falangist delegate for communication and transport and vice secretary of FET Educación Popular section[106] clearly did, especially that in the mid-1940s he openly started to advocate a possibilist policy.[107] As in 1949 the Falangist zealot Luis Valero Bermejo was appointed a new provincial civil governor[108] del Burgo was his man of trust,[109] though when himself offered the jobs of civil governor of Lerida and Lugo he declined, claiming that he would never accept a post beyond Navarre.[110] In 1950 he assumed the role of a provincial ministerial delegate for tourism and information. When the carloctavista collaborationism crashed with the death of Don Carlos Pio,[111] del Burgo was left disoriented.

In the mid-1950s it was the mainstream Carlism which in turn commenced a possibilist strategy, with intransigence abandoned and Fal replaced by Valiente. None of the sources consulted offers any information on a would-be rapprochement (or hostility) between del Burgo and the Javieristas, though his Ideario still served as their doctrinal point of reference.[112] In 1958 he was appointed as representative of Navarre in the Falangist Consejo Nacional, a largely fictitious executive body which nevertheless automatically guaranteed membership in the Francoist quasi-parliament, Cortes Españolas;[113] it is not clear what if any background mechanism elevated him to the position. Del Burgo served in Comisión de Leyes Fundamentales,[114] though there is no information available on his stand versus the constitutional laws discussed. Though re-appointed in 1961,[115] he did not have his ticket prolonged in 1964; according to some sources, he resigned due to differences with Francoism.[116]

As a former radical aetista and an active collaborationist, he would have seemed a potential ally for the new generation of Carlist progressists, also revolutionary, socially-minded, AET members and apparently keen to exploit possibilist opportunities within Francoism. However, they preferred to jump on the older version of de Mella’s sociedalismo and there is no trace of any link between del Burgo and the hugocarlistas.[117] One source suggests that as Delegado del Ministerio de Información y Turismo he sabotaged their plans, preventing the presence of Carlos Hugo at the annual Montejurra gathering in 1964.[118] Del Burgo is not mentioned as taking part in power struggle between Traditionalists and Progressists, which erupted within Carlism in the late 1960s,[119] though he maintained at least private contacts with Traditionalists like Manuel Fal Conde in 1969.[120]

Public servant[edit]

Biblioteca General site 1972-2010

Already in May 1936 del Burgo won the contest for the job of an auxiliar at Archivo de la Diputación Foral de Navarra.[121] Following the Civil War pause, in 1939 he resumed the civil servant career; at that time the provincial Navarrese government decided to detach the existing Biblioteca de Navarra from Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza and establish it as a stand-alone Biblioteca General de Navarra; del Burgo became the first head and organizer of the new unit.[122] He remained at its helm for the next 43 years,[123] presiding over its opening in 1941, removal from Consejo Foral building to "La Agrícola" on Plaza de San Fernando in 1972[124] and re-formatting it from a scholarly institute to the Navarrese public library.[125] On top of this job, in 1941 del Burgo became head of Red de Bibliotecas de Navarra,[126] the provincial network of local libraries, in course of his service having opened 65 public libraries across the province.[127] Until the late 20th century he remained active in professional archivist and librarian organizations.[128]

In 1950 del Burgo became the provincial delegate of Ministry of Information and Tourism.[129] At this position he acted as head of the Navarrese Francoist censorship office, banning a number of films, theatric performances, books and songs;[130] he is particularly remembered for censoring the marketing campaign of The Mark of Zorro movie;[131] the original advertising slogan, "El Zorro, friend of the poor, feared by tyrants" apparently sounded too hazardous for the regime.[132] In 1964 del Burgo left the ministry and assumed the job of Director de Turismo, Bibliotecas y Cultura Popular de la Diputación Foral de Navarra.[133] Having been responsible for mass culture, he edited and published around 400 popular brochures[134] - writing some of them himself - and organized hundreds of cultural events, mostly highlighting traditionalist values at the expense of democratic ones.[135] By some sources he is described as periodista.[136] As head of tourism del Burgo promoted the province across Spain, developed the Navarrese section of El Camino de Santiago, drafted Ordenación Turística (1964) for the entire trail[137] and wrote tourist guides related to Navarre.[138] Since the late 1960s he was also director of Escuela Municipal de Artes aplicadas y Oficios artísticos.[139] Resigned from all public posts in 1982, a month before his 70th birthday.[140]

Historian[edit]

Carlist standard

As a historian del Burgo focused on – if not limited himself to – Carlism and Navarre, with a clear preference for the 19th and 20th centuries and for the history of foralism. His works range from syntheses to monographs, biographies and case studies. As an amateur with no systematic training, he did not adhere to any specific methodology,[141] though he remained chiefly within the limits of political history and based his studies on thorough research in primary sources, mostly the printed ones.

Del Burgo’s key historical work is the monumental Bibliografía de las guerras carlistas (1953-1966), the opus which spanned across 5 volumes, cost 25 years of work[142] and indexed more that 10,000 works; until today it remains a point of reference for all students of the subject.[143] Second to be listed is Historia General de Navarra (1978), a massive synthesis of the region’s past, heavily based on his earlier works and the result of 10-year-research.[144] Then come detailed studies related to the history of Carlism and Navarre, most prominent of them Carlos VII y su tiempo (1994) and La sucesión de Carlos II (1967). Del Burgo is also the author of Conspiración y guerra civil (1970), the work intended as a synthesis, though today it is – somewhat unintentionally – broadly used rather as a historical source.[145] Finally, he authored a number of minor publications ranging from petty contributions to popular booklets,[146] like Vida y hechos militares del mariscal de campo Don Juan Manuel Sarasa narrados por él mismo.[147] Many of his works form part of auxiliary sciences, bibliography or metabibliography, source criticism, or prosopography.[148]

As a historian del Burgo is praised for sound referential basis;[149] the critics usually point to his Carlist bias.[150] He is particularly criticized for an attempt to recalculate the number of victims of the Rightist terror in Navarre; other historians support 4 times higher figures.[151] This controversy coincides with the fact that del Burgo was personally accused of a war crime,[152] the charge that left him very embittered[153] and which he always denied;[154] it is also disqualified by some historians.[155] As an amateur he has never assumed academic duties,[156] though he became member-correspondent of Real Academia de la Historia;[157] for his bibliographical work del Burgo received the National Literary Prize in 1967.[158]

Writer[edit]

a valley in Navarrese Pyrenees

Del Burgo commenced his literary career in the early 1930s, publishing short dramas revolving around episodes from the Carlist history and sometimes played at the local party circulos: Lealtad (1932), Cruzados (1934) and Al borde de la traición (1936).[159] Calibrated as praises of old Carlist virtues and with clear moralizing objectives,[160] they are classified as costumbrismo nostalgico.[161] In 1937 he tried his hand as a poet with En Pos. Ensayo poético.[162] Following the Civil War break del Burgo switched to novels: El valle perdido (1942), Huracán (1943) and Lo que buscamos (1951).[163] Set in the history of the Civil War, the first two were designed to acclaim patriotic merits and presented a traditional narrative style, though with plots accommodating magical threads;[164] the third one assumed a different tone, infected with bitterness and naturalism.[165] After the break of the 1960s and 1970s, dedicated mostly to historical research, del Burgo returned to drama with Llamada sin respuesta (1978), to poetry with Soliloquios: en busca de un rayo de luz perdido (1998)[166] and to prose with La Cruz del fuego (2000), a well-documented adventurous intrigue from the times of Henry I of Navarre.[167]

Though hevaily contributing to Carlism in literature, Del Burgo has not made it to the history of Spanish belles-lettres of the 20th century, be it either general synthetic accounts[168] or encyclopedias and dictionaries.[169] He is missing even in detailed studies on the Francoist era novels.[170] His prose is classified as falling into the "novela de la guerra civil española" category. Appreciated for documentary value, del Burgo’s novels are described as production of scarce esthetic and literary value, very repetitive in terms of its structures, primitive in terms of narration and Manichaean in terms of personalities.[171] Present-day scholars point to two interesting features of his novels. One is a strong Basque ethnic sentiment, calibrated in pre-nationalist, sabinan terms of an ancient Basque Eden.[172] Another is equally idyllic rustic thread, advancing a fairly typical Carlist praise of ruralismo and mistrust towards urban life.[173]

Del Burgo’s novelist work was acknowledged by Premio de Literatura y Periodismo de la Secretaria General de FET (1954).[174] Apart from the national prize of 1967, he was also rewarded by the Bayonne-Pamplona International Competition Award (1963),[175] Fundacion de Larramendi Award (1993)[176] and Badge of the Order of Alfonso X the Wise (1997), conceded by the Ministry of Education and received in Pamplona in May 1999 from the then Minister of Education and Culture, Mariano Rajoy.[177] Permanent Councilor of Institución Príncipe de Viana,[178] himself he has never received the Viana Cultural Prize, set up in 1990 and awarded by the Government of Navarre.[179]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Fallece a los 92 años Jaime del Burgo Torres, historiador, periodista y escritor, [in:] Diario de Navarra 25.10.05
  2. ^ see here
  3. ^ see Eusebio del Burgo Pascual entry at Geni genealogical service available here
  4. ^ see Eusebio del Burgo Pascual entry at Geni genealogical service available here
  5. ^ see Jaime del Burgo's certificate of birth, available here
  6. ^ Burgo Tajadura, Jaime Ignacio, [in:] Diccionario Biografíco Español, vol. 9, Madrid 2010, ISBN 9788496849655, p. 668, available here
  7. ^ see here) his father was born in Pamplona
  8. ^ Fernando Mikelarena, Cuando los carlistas cantaban en San Fermín "no estamos todos, faltan los presos", [in:] El blog de Fernando Mikelarena, available here
  9. ^ Jaime del Burgo Torres entry at Geni service available here
  10. ^ Paula Torres Jacoisti entry at Geni service available here
  11. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05, José Fermín Garralda Arizcun, Sin caer en el olvido. Jaime del Burgo Torres (1912-2005). Historiador polifacético en su tercer aniversario, [in:] Arbil 118 (2008), available here
  12. ^ there were seer sessions run by Catholic visionaries in the del Burgo family house in Pamplona, see William A. Christian, Visionaries: The Spanish Republic and the Reign of Christ, Berkeley 1996, ISBN 0520200403, 9780520200401, p. 191
  13. ^ here
  14. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008; ABC 25.10.05 claims he was "profesor mercantil", see here
  15. ^ at that time the only local institution enabling this sort of career was Escuela de Peritos Agrícolas in Villava
  16. ^ see María de las Mercedes Tajadura Goñi at Geni service available here, also Diario de Navarra 25.10.05; Garralda Arizcun 2008
  17. ^ Diario Oficial del Ministerio de la Guerra, 30.06.19, available here, also BOE 24.10.53, abailable here
  18. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05
  19. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  20. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05
  21. ^ Burgo Tajadura, Jaime Ignacio, [in:] Diccionario Biografíco Español, pp. 668-669
  22. ^ Carlos Mata-Indurain, Panorama de la novela histórica en Navarra, [in:] M. Casado Velarde, C. Saralegui Platero (eds.), Pulchre, bene, recte: estudios en homenaje al prof. Fernando González Ollé, Pamplona 2002, ISBN 8431319445, p. 935, see Ignacio del Burgo Azpiroz entry at Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia, available here
  23. ^ see his own site available here
  24. ^ M. Romero, Jaime del Burgo el conquistador, [in:] La Razón 03.05.12, available here
  25. ^ compare here
  26. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05
  27. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  28. ^ Manuel Ferrer Muñoz, Carlismo y violencia en la II República 1931-36: la organización del Requeté vasco-navarro, [in:] Sociedad Benéfica de Historiadores Aficionados y Creadores website available here
  29. ^ founded in 1930 as a belligerent competitor to Confederación de Estudiantes Católicos Españoles, Eduardo González Calleja, Rebelión en las aulas: un siglo de movilizaciones estudiantiles en España (1865-1968), [in:] Ayer 59 (2005), p. 37
  30. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  31. ^ Martin Blinkhorn, Carlism and Crisis in Spain 1931-1939, Cambridge 1975, ISBN 9780521207294, p. 134
  32. ^ embodied e.g. in long, exhaustive night marches around Pamplona, Javier Ugarte Tellería, La nueva Covadonga insurgente: orígenes sociales y culturales de la sublevación de 1936 en Navarra y el País Vasco, Madrid 1998, ISBN 847030531X, 9788470305313, pp. 280-281
  33. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, pp. 276-290
  34. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, pp. 280-1
  35. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 289
  36. ^ Eduardo González Calleja, La violencia y sus discursos. Los límites de la "fascistización" de la derecha española durante el régimen de la II República, [in:] Ayer 71 (2008), pp. 85-116, esp sub-chapter "Cruzados de la causa": la reactualización de la cultura insurreccional carlista, pp. 94-102
  37. ^ Blinkhorn 1975, p. 172
  38. ^ some scholars see 2 trends: carlismo nacional and revolución carlista, Juan Carlos Peñas Bernaldo de Quirós, El Carlismo, la República y la Guerra Civil (1936-1937). De la conspiración a la unificación, Madrid 1996, ISBN 8487863523, 9788487863523, p. 21; some authors reduce del Burgo’s revolution to socia issues, see Julio Aróstegui, Eduardo Calleja, La tradición recuperada: El requeté carlista y la insurrección, [in:] Historia Contemporanea 11 (1994), p. 38. He declared: "Somos revolucionarios. Lo oyen ustedes? Revolucionarios!", quoted after Eduardo Gonzales Calleja, Contrarrevolucionarios, Madrid 2011, ISBN 9788420664552, p. 190
  39. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 287
  40. ^ Blinkhorn 1975, p. 174; a somewhat opposite view in Steven Henry Martin, The Commonality of Enemies: Carlism and anarchism in modern Spain, 1868-1937 [MA thesis], Peterborough 2014, p. 120: "young Carlists in the age of mass politics of the early 20th century, like those in the Agrupación de Estudiantes Tradicionalistas (AET), were incorporating ideas about egalitarianism, autonomy and wealth redistribution that linked the old values of Carlism to the new ones of anarchism"
  41. ^ "seamos hombres y sepamos vengar al caído; aunque sea haciendo poner para todo el año a los socialistas crespones de luto en sus centros: Porque contra esos cualquier procedimiento que se utilice es bueno: la bomba, el puñal y el incendio", quoted after José María Esparza Zabalegi, Agur, Del Burgo, [in:] Diario de Noticias de Navarra, see noticias de navarra forum
  42. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, pp. 284-287
  43. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 281
  44. ^ Blinkhorn 1975, p. 135
  45. ^ Blinkhorn 1975, pp. 134-5; Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 279 claims that Joaquín Baleztena consented to the a.e.t. tone
  46. ^ Blinkhorn 1975, p. 140
  47. ^ Aróstegui, Calleja 1994, p. 36
  48. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 269
  49. ^ Huarte was conservative and somaten-style, while Burgo was radical and callejero-style, Ugarte Tellería 1998, pp. 267, 277
  50. ^ Blinkhorn 1975, p. 63
  51. ^ José María Esparza Zabalegi, Agur, Del Burgo, [in:] Diario de Noticias de Navarra, quoted after noticias de navarra forum
  52. ^ denounced in the press as "matón terrorista e incendiario"; some scholars charge him with provoking riots with cost 2 lives, see Iñaki Egaña, Los crímenes de Franco en Euskal Herria, 1936-1940, Tafalla 2009, ISBN 8481365599, 9788481365597, pp. 23-24
  53. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05, Blinkhorn 1975, p. 78
  54. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 145
  55. ^ Manuel Ferrer Muñoz, Carlismo y violencia en la II República 1931-36: la organización del Requeté vasco-navarro, [in:] Sociedad Benéfica de Historiadores Aficionados y Creadores website
  56. ^ according to the Requeté structure as designed by Varela, a tercio (battalion) consisted of 3 requetés (250 men each); a requeté in turn consisted of 3 piquetes (70 men each), see Antonio Lizarza, Memorias de la conspiración, [in:] Navarra fue la primera, Pamplona 2006, ISBN 8493508187, p. 41
  57. ^ Gonzales Calleja 2011, p. 198
  58. ^ Gonzales Calleja 2011, p. 199
  59. ^ 3 times a week each session 8-10 hrs, Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 270, Gonzales Calleja 2011, p. 263, Aróstegui, Calleja 1994, p. 46
  60. ^ dubbed "batallón sagrado" for its symbolical and prestigious standing, Ugarte Tellería 1998, pp. 262-3
  61. ^ Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 263, Peñas Bernaldo 1996, p. 174, Gonzales Calleja 2011, p. 386
  62. ^ a mixed unit composed of one company of soldiers, one company of falangists and two companies of requetés, Julio Aróstegui, Combatientes Requetés en la Guerra Civil española, 1936-1939, Madrid 2013, ISBN 9788499709758, p. 351-2
  63. ^ Aróstegui 2013, pp. 354-359; after the war the unit was referred to as Tercio del Rey, Aróstegui 2013, p. 352, Lizarza 2006, pp. 70-71
  64. ^ he suffered appendicitis according to Aróstegui 2013, p. 359; a fellow requeté who carried del Burgo on the stretcher claims he was wounded, see Pablo Larraz Andía, Víctor Sierra-Sesumaga (eds.), Requetés. De las trincheras al olvidio, Madrid 2011, ISBN 9788499700465, p. 829
  65. ^ the Requeté.es site available here claims the tercio was not Alavese but Biscay
  66. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05, Requeté site available here
  67. ^ Alberto Reig Tapia, Violencia y terror, Madrid 1990, ISBN 9788476006931, p. 147
  68. ^ Iñaki Anasagasti, Cuando del Burgo defendía Guernica, [in:] ianasagasti blog available here, Gonzales Calleja 2011, p. 863
  69. ^ according to his own version, shared by some historians, in order to prevent cutting down of the oak, allegedly planned by the Falangists; according to another version, it was a mere propaganda exercise intended as a damage limitation strategy, countering the efficient communist propaganda exploiting the Guernica bombing, compare Parido Carlista site here, Herbert Rutledge Southworth, Guernica Guernica, Berkeley 1977, ISBN 0520028309, 9780520028302, pp. 282-283, 299, 319, 322, 364, 379, 388, 463, 478, 482, Manuel Martorell Pérez, La continuidad ideológica del carlismo tras la Guerra Civil [PhD thesis in Historia Contemporanea, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia], Valencia 2009, pp. 127-8
  70. ^ his own account available here
  71. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  72. ^ paradoxically, del Burgo unintentionally contributed to Fal’s exile. In August 1936, he suggested to Zamanillo that a Real Academia de Estudios Militares de la Comunión Tradicionalista is created, Jaime del Burgo Torres, Un episodio poco conocido de la guerra civil española. La Real Academia Militar de Requetés y el destierro de Fal Conde, [in:] Principe de Viana 196 (1992), pp. 485-487, also Peñas Bernaldo 1996, p. 232
  73. ^ Peñas Bernaldo 1996, p. 276. Sending del Burgo to the front deprved Fal of an ally and facilitated Navarre falling to the rodeznistas, Peñas Bernaldo 1996, p. 218, Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 293 pursues a somewhat competitive interpretation, namely that del Burgo’s departure to the front was intended as disposing of a dangerous radical, comparable to marginalization of the Rohm SA faction within Nazism
  74. ^ Blinkhorn 1975, p. 290; Martorell Pérez 2009, p. 59
  75. ^ commissioned by Junta Carlista de Guerra de Vizcaya according to Garralda Arizcun 2008; the actual text available here
  76. ^ in April of 1937 del Burgo engaged in AET congress, Martorell Pérez 2009, p. 32
  77. ^ Peñas Bernaldo 1996, p. 245, Iker Cantabrana Morras, Lo viejo y lo nuevo: Díputación-FET de las JONS. La convulsa dinámica política de la "leal" Alava (Primera parte: 1936-1938), [in:] Sancho el Sabio 21 (2004), ISSN 1131-5350, p. 167
  78. ^ Aurora Villanueva Martínez, Organizacion, actividad y bases del carlismo navarro durante el primer franquismo [in:] Geronimo de Uztariz 19 (2003), pp. 103, 115
  79. ^ Martorell Pérez 2009, p. 152
  80. ^ Martorell Pérez 2009, pp. 190-1
  81. ^ which has never materialised; Arrúe was supposed to be representative of Guipúzcoa, Gaviria of Vizcaya, Lascuráin of Alava and del Burgo of Navarra, Martorell Pérez 2009, p. 194
  82. ^ Martorell Pérez 2009, pp. 167-8
  83. ^ Gonzales Calleja 2011, p. 191
  84. ^ according to del Burgo, "la Regencia es la muerte de cualquier monarquía", César Alcalá, Valoración historica del carlismo: pasado y futuro, [in:] Arbil 79, available here
  85. ^ which, apparently, was quite popular in Tercio de Begoña, see here; before the Civil War the group named cruzadistas have advanced the cause of Don Carlos Pio; their paper La Fe concluded on 19.7.36 that if Don Javier is to become a regent, the only option is to declare Don Carlos Pio the king, César Alcalá, Cruzadistas y carloctavistas: historia de una conspiración, Barcelona 2012, ISBN 9788493884253, pp. 192-194. Though he did remain technically loyal to the regent, in 1940 del Burgo again publicly called for declaring Carlos Pio the Carlist king, Francisco de las Heras y Borrero, Un pretendiente desconocido. Carlos de Habsburgo. El otro candidato de Franco, Madrid 2004, ISBN 8497725565, p. 52
  86. ^ his theory was that Carlos V established a new dynasty; according to this version Don Javier, as not his descendant, represented another, non-Carlist dynasty, Jeremy MacClancy, The Decline of Carlism, Reno 2000, ISBN 9780874173444, p. 290
  87. ^ Del Burgo blamed the Nazis for falangisation of Spain. His stance was also due to friendship with Jaime Lasuén, a French citizen and ex-combatant of Tercio de Begoña, who engaged in anti-Nazi French resistance. He sought refuge in Spain and was helped by del Burgo when on transit in Pamplona. He was later captured by the Francoist security in Madrid and given over to Gestapo; he died due to the tortures suffered. He handed del Burgo an envelope, to be collected by someone later on. Since no-one came to pick it up, del Burgo opened it years later and found that it contained an organigram of Nazi espionage network in the North of Spain; Martorell Pérez 2009, pp. 273-4; see also here, and for an alternative view, see here
  88. ^ the provinvial carloctavista jefe in Navarra was initially Emilio Dean Berro, see Alcalá 2012, pp. 249-50, to be later replaced by Antonio Lizarza, Alcalá 2012, pp. 273-4, 311
  89. ^ theoretically supporting prospective Carlist candidates did not breach the loyalty to Don Javier as a regent; according to some scholars del Burgo was clearly disloyal, see Mercedes Vázquez de Prada Tiffe, La reorganización del carlismo vasco en los sesenta: entre la pasividad y el "separatismo", [in:] Vasconia. Cuadernos de Historia-Geografía, 38 (2012), p. 107
  90. ^ Real Consejo del Reino de Navarra was presided by Emilio Dean Barro, Alcalá 2012, p. 276
  91. ^ from 1944 to 1953, see here, samples re-printed in Heras y Borrero 2004, pp. 209-225
  92. ^ like Antonio Lizarza, Antonio Pagoaga, Antonio Cabañas, Francisco Ciganda, Alcalá 2012, pp. 298-304; in 1946 he was in daily touch with Cora y Lira, Alcalá 2012, p. 303, see also Heras y Borrero 2004, p. 72
  93. ^ Alcalá 2012, p. 319
  94. ^ Alcalá 2012, p. 306
  95. ^ Heras y Borrero 2004, pp. 143-144
  96. ^ Heras y Borrero 2004, pp. 140-166. Alejandra married in 1960, graduated in 1980 with work on Barcelona urban issues, see here and worked in the Barcelona city council. She became a socialist and lost any interest in the Carlist cause, ignored also by her two sons and a daughter, Heras y Borrero 2004, p. 152
  97. ^ quoted after Josep Carles Clemente, Raros, heterodoxos, disidentes y viñetas del Carlismo, Madrid 1995, ISBN 842450707X, 978842450707, p. 117
  98. ^ Alcalá 2012, pp. 354-363
  99. ^ Alcalá 2012, p. 370
  100. ^ Alcalá 2012, p. 386
  101. ^ Mercedes Vázquez de Prada, El final de una ilusión. Auge y declive del tradicionalismo carlista (1957-1967), Madrid 2016, ISBN 9788416558407, p. 135
  102. ^ by some scholars Carlos VIII is indeed considered an invention of Franco, see Clemente 1995, pp. 115-118
  103. ^ Aurora Villanueva Martínez, Organizacion, actividad y bases del carlismo navarro durante el primer franquismo [in:] Geronimo de Uztariz 19 (2003), pp. 108-109
  104. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008; at that time the alcalde was a Carlist, Antonio Archanco Zubiri, "comerciante local con la tendencia colaboracionista", María del Mar Larraza-Micheltorena, Alcaldes de Pamplona durante el franquismo: Un retrato de conjunto, [in:] Memoria y Civilización 15 (2012), pp. 232, 235
  105. ^ see sanfermin.com site available here
  106. ^ Aurora Villanueva Martínez, El Carlismo navarro durante el primer franquismo: 1937-1951, Madrid 1998, ISBN 9788487863714, p. 548
  107. ^ Recommending "beneficio de la impresa comun de salvar a España a las órdenes del Generalísmo Franco", see his letter of 1945 quoted by Alcalá 2012, p. 287
  108. ^ Maria del Mar Larazza Micheltorena, Alvaro Baraibar Etxeberria, La Navarra sotto il Franchismo: la lotta per il controllo provinciale tra i governatori civili e la Diputacion Foral (1945-1955), [in:] Nazioni e Regioni, Bari 2013, pp. 101-120
  109. ^ Alvaro Baraibar Etxeberria, Una visión falangista de la foralidad navarra, [in:] Gerónimo de Uztariz 2006, p. 11
  110. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05, Garralda Arizcun 2009
  111. ^ some scholars claim that carloctavismo was fractured even earlier, with the 1950 appearance of Juntas Ofensivas de Agitación Carloctavista by Cora y Lira, the carloctavistas which opposed collaboration with Franco, Alcalá 2012, p. 330
  112. ^ for 1949 see Martorell Pérez 2009, p. 331, for 1964 see Francisco Javier Caspistegui Gorasurreta, El naufragio de las ortodoxias: el carlismo, 1962-1977, Pamplona 1997, ISBN 8431315644, 9788431315641, p. 45
  113. ^ see Indice Historice de Diputados service, available here. For his appointment to Consejo Nacional see ABC 14.05.58, available here
  114. ^ ABC 03.06.58, available here
  115. ^ see Indice Historice de Diputados service, available here.
  116. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05, Garralda Arizcun 2008
  117. ^ compare Martorell Pérez 2009
  118. ^ Caspistegui Gorasurreta 1997, p. 306; this version is not confirmed in Javier Lavardín [José Antonio Parilla], Historia del ultimo pretendiente a la corona de España, Paris 1976, pp. 231-234
  119. ^ the most competent study on the issue, Caspistegui Gorasurreta 1997, barely mentions del Burgo; another detailed study on Carlist ideological identity of the 1960s, Martorell Pérez 2009, refers to del Burgo only as a source
  120. ^ "Lo único que he hecho en mi vida -y voy en los 56- ha sido trabajar para crear una familia a imagen y semejanza de la de mis mayores, y perpetuar en mis hijos -con éxito- las ideas y actitudes que en nosotros son ya tradicionales", a letter from del Burgo to Fal, quoted after Gemma Pierola Narvarte, Francisco Javier Caspistegui Gorasurreta, Entre la ideología y lo cotidiano: la familia en el carlismo y el tradicionalismo (1940-1975), [in:] Vasconia: cuadernos de historia-geografía 28 (1999), p. 52; Fal also appreciated del Burgo, see Manuel Martorell Pérez, Navarra 1937-1939: el fiasco de la Unificación, [in:] Príncipe de Viana 69 (2008), p. 439. In the early 1970s a "Jaime del Burgo" considered launching a post-Carlist regionalist political grouping, though it is unclear whether the person in question is the father or the son, see José Miguel Orts Timoner, Recuerdo de José Ángel Zubaiur Alegre, [in:] Portal Avant! 20.04.12, available here
  121. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05, Garralda Arizcun 2008
  122. ^ ABC 25.10.05, available here
  123. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  124. ^ see Biblioteca y Filmoteca de Navarra leaflet, available here
  125. ^ removal to the new modern site at Paseo de Antonio Pérez Goyena took place in 2010
  126. ^ see Institucion Principe de Viana entry at Gran Enciclopedia Navarra, available here; the job coincided with 1943 appointment to vicesecretario de Educación Popular de FET, Villanueva Martínez 1998, p. 548
  127. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05
  128. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  129. ^ see Noticias de Navarra site available here
  130. ^ see Noticias de Navarra forum available here
  131. ^ the issue is not entirely clear, as the movie entered Spain in the early 1940s, long before del Burgo assumed the Navarrese censorship duties
  132. ^ "El Zorro, amigo de los pobres, adorado por las mujeres, idolatrado por los hombres, temido por los tiranos!", quoted after Noticias de Navarra site available here
  133. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05; other sources claim he commenced in 1966, Garralda Arizcun 2008; for a sample of his engagement in Pyrenaic tourism see La Vanguardia 21.03.65, available here
  134. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05
  135. ^ he also contributed to and took part in nationwide cultural initiatives, like centenary celebrations of Vazquez de Mella, see La Vanguardia 18.03.61, available here
  136. ^ ABC 25.10.05, available here; other sources claim del Burgo did not try his hand in periodsmo, Garralda Arizcun 2008
  137. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  138. ^ e.g. Planificación turística de Navarra (1962), Recursos turísticos de Navarra (1964), El Pirineo navarro (1977), Navarra (1978), Pamplona (1978), Olite (1978), Guía de Navarra (1982) and other
  139. ^ ABC 25.10.05; compare Escuela Municipal de Artes aplicadas y Oficios artísticos website, available here
  140. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05
  141. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  142. ^ it was this work which earned del Burgo the national literary prize in 1967, Garralda Arizcun 2008
  143. ^ see e.g. José María Sanchez Nistal, Problemas y soluciones para la busqueda de información bibliografica en la investigación historica, [in:] Probemas actuales de la historia, Salamanca 1993, ISBN 847481734X, 9788474817348, p. 15
  144. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008; later Jaime Ignacio del Burgo Tajadura re-worked the volume and re-issued as a joint work, see Vanity Fair review available here
  145. ^ compare numerous references in Martorell Pérez 2009
  146. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  147. ^ co-authored with Juan Manuel Sarasa
  148. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008, selected bibliography in Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia, available here
  149. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  150. ^ José Luís Martínez Sanz, Historians and Historiography on carlismo: the difficult boundary between politics and science, [in:] Contributions 49 (2002), p. 115; he is also denounced for pursuing an utopian vision of a Navarrese-Carlist unity, as according to him, the Carlist wars "configuraron de manera permanente el caracter de esta region, asignandole el papel de defensora de las mas puras esencias hispanicas", quoted after Francisco Javier Caspistegui Gorasurreta, Navarra y el carlismo durante el régimen de Franco: la utopía de la identidad unitaria, [in:] Investigaciones históricas 17 (1997), p. 287-8
  151. ^ Del Burgo arrived at a total of ca 680 victims, while the figure advanced by many others is in the range of 2,000-3,000, compare José María Jimeno Jurío, La Gierra Civil en Navarra (1936-1939), Pamplona 2006, ISBN 9788476814826, Ramón Salas Larrazábal, Los Fusilados en Navarra en la Guerra de 1936, Madrid 1983, ISBN 843980024X, Mari Jose Berrio Zaratiegui, Juan Carlos Esparza Zabalegi, José Mari Ruiz Vilas, Navarra 1936 - de la Esperanza al terror, Altafulla 2003, ISBN 9788493095796
  152. ^ see the account of Francisco Inza Goñi in Navarra 1936 - de la Esperanza al terror, p. 483, widely quoted in cyberspace, compare here
  153. ^ according to del Burgo’s own account the case was exactly the opposite: he did his best to prevent war crimes, e.g. saving republican POWs from execution by incorporating them into requeté units, Martorell Pérez 2009, p. 85
  154. ^ "Del Burgo, mientras vivió, dijo una y otra vez a quien le quiso oir que no había matado a nadie fuera del campo de batalla y mucho menos en Pamplona" quoted after kaosenlared.net available here
  155. ^ moreover, some claim he saved lives of Leftist activists like Telesforo Monzon or Juan Arrastia, see EKA site available here, Martorell Pérez 2009, p. 117
  156. ^ Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia refer to him as "profesor mercantil", though no trace of his academic or otherwise teaching activity is found elsewhere
  157. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05, Garralda Arizcun 2008
  158. ^ ABC 25.10.05, available here
  159. ^ Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia
  160. ^ Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia, Ugarte Tellería 1998, p. 278, Blinkhorn 1975, p. 211; according to Francisco Javier Caspistegui Gorasurreta, "Esa ciudad maldita, cuna del centralismo, la burocracia y el liberalismo": la ciudad como enemigo en el tradicionalismo español, [in:] Actas del congreso internacional "Arquitectura, ciudad e ideología antiurbana, Pamplona 2002, ISBN 8489713510, p. 92, del Burgo’s dramas were "ejemplos de teatro carlista tradicionalista"
  161. ^ "todos ellos coinciden en reflejar en sus obras cómo la perniciosa influencia de lo foráneo va pervirtiendo las sanas y católicas costumbres locales de la Navarra ‘auténtica’", Javier Dronda Martínez, Con Cristo o contra Cristo. Religión y movilización antirrepublicana en navarra (1931-1936), Tafalla 2013, ISBN 8415313314, 9788415313311, p. 22
  162. ^ Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia claim it was published 1927, which is probably a typo and should read 1937, see Jaime del Burgo, Catalogo bio-bibliografico, Pamplona 1954, p. 275, available here
  163. ^ Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia
  164. ^ El valle perdido plot features two Navarrese nationalist pilots who crash-landed somewhere in the Pyrenees, finding themselves in a valley cut off from the outer world and inhabited by descendants of those fighting in the 19th-century Carlist wars
  165. ^ Piotr Sawicki, La narrativa española de la Guerra Civil (1936-1975). Propaganda, testimonio y memoria creativa, Alicante 2010, p. 240
  166. ^ Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia; the sub-title is a commentary to del Burgo losing his eyesight in the last years of his life, Garralda Arizcun 2008
  167. ^ Carlos Mata-Indurain 2002, p. 935
  168. ^ Del Burgo is entirely missing in synthesis of Spanish literature like Santos Sanz Villanueva, Historia y crítica de la literatura española, vol. 8/1 (Epoca contemporanea 1939-1975), Barcelona 1999, ISBN 8474237815, Domingo Yndurain, Historia y critica de la literatura española 1939-1980, vol. 8 (Epoca contemporanea 1939-1980), Barcelona 1981, Jordi Gracia, Domingo Ródenas, Derrota y restitución de la modernidad: literatura contemporánea, 1939-2009, Madrid 2009, ISBN 9788498921229, Jean Canavaggio, Historia de la literatura española, vol. 6 (El siglo XX), Barcelona 1995, ISBN 843447459X
  169. ^ compare Jesus Bregante, Diccionario espasa. Literatura española, Madrid 2003, ISBN 8467012722, Ricardo Gullon (ed.), Diccionario de Literatura Española y Hispanoamericana, vol. 1, Madrid 1993, ISBN 8420652482
  170. ^ Santos Sanz Villanueva, La novela española durante el franquismo, Madrid 2010, ISBN 9788424904180, Ignacio Soldevila Durante, Historia de la novela española 1936-2000, Madrid 2001, ISBN 8437619114
  171. ^ Carlos Mata, La aportación de Navarra a la literatura española, [in:] Jaime Ignacio del Burgo (ed.), Vascos y Navarros en la Historia de Espana, Pamplona 2007, ISBN 9788495643025, p. 366
  172. ^ Francisco Javier Caspistegui, Historia oral, inmaterial e intrahistoria en la recuperación de la memoria colectiva de la Navarra rural, [in:] Gerónimo de Uztariz 23-24 (2008), p. 211; Basque threads were present though not key in many of his works; in fact, he insisted on different ethnic origins of alaveses, vizcainos, guipuzcoanos and navarros, see Iñaki Iriarte López, Euskaros, nacionalistas y navarristas. Ideologías del pacto y la agonía en Navarra, [in:] Revista Internacional de los Estudios Vascos 44 (1999), p. 59
  173. ^ Caspistegui Gorasurreta 2002, pp. 80-81
  174. ^ ABC 23.12.54, available here
  175. ^ Garralda Arizcun 2008
  176. ^ see Fundación Ignacio Larramendi site, available here
  177. ^ Diario de Navarra 25.10.05
  178. ^ El Mundo 26.10.05, available here
  179. ^ though was nominated in 2001, Diario de Navarra 25.10.05

Further reading[edit]

  • César Alcalá, Cruzadistas y carloctavistas: historia de una conspiración, Barcelona 2012, ISBN 9788493884253
  • Jaime Ignacio del Burgo Tajadura (ed.), Jaime del Burgo. Una vida al servicio de la cultura, Madrid 2003, ISBN 9788496062207
  • Burgo Torres, Jaime, [in:] Diccionario Biografíco Español, vol. 9, Madrid 2010, ISBN 9788496849655
  • Martin Blinkhorn, Carlism and Crisis in Spain 1931-1939, Cambridge 1975, ISBN 9780521207294
  • José Fermín Garralda Arizcun, Sin caer en el olvido. Jaime del Burgo Torres (1912-2005). Historiador polifacético en su tercer aniversario, [in:] Arbil 118 (2008)
  • Eduardo Gonzales Calleja, Contrarrevolucionarios, Madrid 2011, ISBN 9788420664552
  • Francisco de las Heras y Borrero, Un pretendiente desconocido. Carlos de Habsburgo. El otro candidato de Franco, Madrid 2004, ISBN 8497725565
  • Javier Ugarte Tellería, La nueva Covadonga insurgente: orígenes sociales y culturales de la sublevación de 1936 en Navarra y el País Vasco, Madrid 1998, ISBN 847030531X, 9788470305313

External links[edit]