Jain community

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The Jains in India are the last direct representatives of the ancient Śramaṇa tradition. They follow Jainism, the religion taught by the twenty-four propagators of faith called tirthankaras. The total Jain population is estimated to be 7+ million people worldwide.

Sangha[edit]

Jainism has a fourfold order of muni (male monastics), aryika (female monastics), Śrāvaka (layman) and sravika (laywoman). This order is known as a sangha.[citation needed]

Cultural influence[edit]

The Jains have the highest literacy rate in India, 94.1.% compared with the national average of 65.38%. They have the highest female literacy rate, 90.6.% compared with the national average of 54.16%.[1][2]

The Jain community, though very small in numbers, contributes a significant percent of the income tax revenue of India.[3] It is also believed that the Jains have the highest per capita income in India.[4]

The sex ratio in the 0-6 age group is the second lowest for Jains (870 females per 1000 males).

Communities[edit]

There are about 110 different Jain communities in India. They can be divided into six groups based on historical and current residence.

Central India[edit]

Western India[edit]

Northern India[edit]

Southern India[edit]

Eastern India[edit]

Overseas Jains[edit]

Virchand Gandhi made a presentation of Jainism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893, marking one of the earliest appearances of Jainism outside India.[6] The World Jain Congress was held in Leicester in 1988.[7]

Population[edit]

The Jain population in India according to 2011 census is 0.37% i.e. 4,451,753 (Males 2,278,097; Females 2,173,656) out of the total population of India 1,210,854,977 (males 623,270,258; females 587,584,719).[10] The tabular representation of Jain population in the major states of India as per 2011 Census data released by the government is:

S. No. State Persons (total) Persons (rural) Persons (urban) Male (total) Male (rural) Male (urban) Female (total) Female (rural) Female (urban)
1 India 4,451,753 904,809 3,546,944 2,278,097 467,577 1,810,520 2,173,656 437,232 1,736,424
2 Maharashtra 1,400,349 269,959 1,130,390 713,157 140,476 572,681 687,192 129,483 557,709
3 Rajasthan 622,023 166,322 455,701 317,614 84,649 232,965 304,409 81,673 222,736
4 Gujarat 579,654 44,118 535,536 294,911 22,357 272,554 284,743 21,761 262,982
5 Madhya Pradesh 567,028 109,699 457,329 291,937 57,431 234,506 275,091 52,268 222,823
6 Karnataka 440,280 220,362 219,918 225,544 113,598 111,946 214,736 106,764 107,972
7 Uttar Pradesh 213,267 30,144 183,123 110,994 15,852 95,142 102,273 14,292 87,981
8 Delhi 166,231 192 166,039 85,605 94 85,511 80,626 98 80,528
9 Tamil Nadu 89,265 10,084 79,181 45,605 5,044 40,561 43,660 5,040 38,620

It is likely that the actual population of Jains may be significantly higher than the census numbers.[citation needed]

The Jain population in United States is estimated to be about 150000 to 200,000.[11][12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Jains steal the show with 7 Padmas", The Times of India, 9 April 2015 
  2. ^ "Literacy race: Jains take the honours", The Times of India, 7 September 2004 
  3. ^ "Jains' contribution to exchequer "astounding"", The Hindu, 20 August 2007 
  4. ^ "Indian Government", PIB 
  5. ^ Carrithers, Michael; Humphrey, Caroline, eds. (1991). The Assembly of Listeners: Jains in Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-52136-505-5. 
  6. ^ J. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann 2010, p. 1555.
  7. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 246.
  8. ^ a b c d Gregory, Robert G. (1993), Quest for equality: Asian politics in East Africa, 1900-1967, New Delhi: Orient Longman Limited, p. 26, ISBN 0-863-11-208-0 
  9. ^ Mehta, Makrand (2001). "Gujarati Business Communities in East African Diaspora: Major Historical Trends". Economic and Political Weekly. 36 (20): 1738. JSTOR 4410637. 
  10. ^ Office of registrar general and census commissioner (2011), C-1 Population By Religious Community, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India 
  11. ^ Lee, Jonathan H. X. (21 December 2010), Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife, ABC-CLIO, pp. 487–488, ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5 
  12. ^ Wiley, Kristi L. (2004), Historical dictionary of Jainism, Scarecrow Press, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-8108-5051-4 

References[edit]

External links[edit]