Jakarta MRT

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Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)
MRT Jakarta logo.svg
MRT Jakarta train in Lebak Bulus Depot.jpg
Jakarta MRT at Lebak Bulus depot
Overview
OwnerGovernment of Jakarta
LocaleJakarta, Indonesia
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines2 (1 operational, 1 planned)
Number of stations13 (North-South line, first phase)
HeadquartersWisma Nusantara, 21st Floor, Jalan Mohammad Husni Thamrin 59, Jakarta, 10350, Indonesia
WebsiteMRT Jakarta
Operation
Began operation24 March 2019
Operator(s)PT MRT Jakarta
CharacterElevated & underground
Number of vehicles16 six-cars MRTJ 1000 series trainsets
Headway5 minutes (peak)
10 minutes (off-peak)
Technical
System length15.7 km (9.8 mi) (first phase)
Track gauge1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
Electrification1,500V DC overhead catenary
Top speed100 km/h (underground section), 80 km/h (elevated section)
System map

The Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit (Jakarta MRT) is a rapid transit system in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. The trainset is colloquially named Ratangga which means war chariot in the ancient Javanese language.[1] The Jakarta MRT is the first rapid transit system in Indonesia.

Phase 1 of the project (Lebak Bulus to Hotel Indonesia crossing) was officially opened on March 24, 2019.[2]

Jakarta MRT traincar being unloaded in Port of Tanjung Priok in Jakarta, April 2018

The system is operated by municipally owned corporation of Jakarta, PT MRT Jakarta.

Background[edit]

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia, harboring 10 million inhabitants, one third of the population of Greater Jakarta. It is estimated that over four million residents of the surrounding Greater Jakarta area commute to and from the city each working day. Transport issues have increasingly begun to attract political attention and it has been foreseen that without a major transportation breakthrough, the city will have complete traffic gridlock by 2020.[3]

Since 1980, more than 25 general and special subject studies have been conducted related to possible Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) systems in Jakarta. One of the major reasons for the delays in tackling the problem was the economic and political crises of 1997-99. Before the crisis, a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) scheme was considered as part of a new MRT calling for private sector involvement. After the crisis, the plan to rely on a BOT to provide financing proved unfeasible, and the MRT project was again proposed as a government-funded scheme.

Currently, public transportation in Jakarta serves only 56% of commuter trips.[4] This figure urgently needs to be raised, as the city's 9.5% average annual growth rate of motorized vehicles far exceeds the 0.01% increase in road length between 2005 and 2010.[5]

Public transportation now, mainly consists of the TransJakarta bus rapid transit system, Jabodetabek Commuter Railway system, and various types of independent buses, starting from the very small bemo and pickup-truck sized mikrolet, to slightly larger minibuses such as the widely used MetroMini and Kopaja minibuses and full sized city buses. There are also both two and four wheeled taxis.

Funding[edit]

Phase 1 of the project was funded through a soft loan (Rp 16 trillion) from JICA with a 30 years tenure and 0.25% interest per annum.[6][7]The loan number IP is 536 (signed November 2006) for engineering services. The engineering services loan is a pre-construction loan to prepare the construction phase. It consists of:

  • Basic Design package, managed by the DGR (Directorate General of Railways, Ministry of Transport)
  • Management and Operation package, managed by the Bappeda (Jakarta Regional Planning Board)
  • Construction assistance in tender, managed by the PT MRT Jakarta

Phase 2 was funded though a similar loan scheme with a 40 years tenure, allowing a 10 years grace period. The first stage of phase 2 funding (Rp 9.4 trillion) incurred 0.1% interest per annumn.[8] Phase 2 funding (Rp 25 trillion) will cover a portion of phase 1 excess expenditure (Rp 2.5 trillion), which among other as a result of regulatory requirement update for earthquake mitigation. [9]

Network[edit]

The rail-based Jakarta MRT is expected to stretch across over 108 kilometres, including 21.7 km for the North-South Line (from Lebak Bulus to Kota) and 87 km for East-West Line (from Kembangan to Ujung Menteng).[10][11]

The following table lists the Mass Rapid Transit lines that are currently operational, under construction or planned:

Name and color Commencement Terminus Stations Length Depot Operator
Operational
North-South line
(Phase 1)
24 March 2019 Lebak Bulus
Bundaran HI
13 15.7 km (9.8 mi) Lebak Bulus Depot PT MRT Jakarta
Planned
North-South line
(Phase 2)
2024 Bundaran HI
Kota
7 7.8 km (4.8 mi) TBA PT MRT Jakarta
East-West line 2030 Kembangan
Ujung Menteng
22 87 km (54 mi) TBA PT MRT Jakarta

M1 (North–South line)[edit]

Jakarta MRT passengers waiting for the train

The North–South line will be built in two phases. After completion of MRT Phase 1 and 2, the MRT together with TransJakarta are predicted to serve 60 percent total trips made by Jakartans. The northern part of Line 1 (Phase 2 as well as part of Phase 1) follows the route of the currently existing TransJakarta Line 1. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on 10 October 2013, targeting to conduct Integration Test & Commissioning in August 2018, followed by an operational test from December 2018 through February 2019.[12][13]

Region Station Name Interchange/Notes
Phase 2 (planned, to be ready by 2024)
North Jakarta Kampung Bandan Cancelled
West Jakarta Kota Planned interchange with  K1   K3   K6 
Glodok
Mangga Besar
Sawah Besar
Central Jakarta Harmoni
Monas
Sarinah
Phase 1
Central Jakarta Bundaran HI Terminus until the completion of Phase 2.
Dukuh Atas BNI Interchange with  K2   ARS 

Planned interchange with  LA   L1 

Setiabudi Astra
Bendungan Hilir
Istora Mandiri
Senayan
South Jakarta ASEAN[14] Initially named 'Sisingamangaraja'
Blok M
Blok A
Haji Nawi
Cipete Raya
Fatmawati
Lebak Bulus Grab Terminus

Phase 1[edit]

This connects Lebak Bulus to Bundaran HI along 15.7 km and consists 13 stations (7 elevated stations and 6 underground stations). The Indonesian Ministry of Transport approved this plan in September 2010 and invited tenders. The first phase is 15.7 kilometres (9.8 mi) long from Lebak Bulus to Bundaran HI. Construction began in October 2013.[13]

Phase 1 was officially opened for limited free service on 24 March 2019. Commercial service is expected to begin on 1 April 2019.[15]Phase 1 is expected to serve 212,000 passengers per day. This expected capacity may be maxed out to 960,000 per day. The 15.7 km distance is covered in under 30 minutes.[16] The line has six underground and seven elevated stations:[17]

Phase 2[edit]

Phase 2 will extend the North–South line northwards, from Bundaran HI to Kota and consists of 7 stations over 7.8 km. It is planned to be operational by 2024.[18][19]

Initially, the plan was to connect the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle to Kampung Bandan in North Jakarta. However, land acquisition issues hindered the process, prompting the administration to find an alternative location, which will also be designed as the train’s depot.

On 1 January 2019, president director of MRT Jakarta, William Sabandar said the city administration had decided to make Kota the final station for Phase 2. The administration also announced that the possible station to replace Kampung Bandan will be near the BMW multipurpose stadium, which is under construction.

On 20 February 2019, it was announced that Phase 2 will be divided into two smaller phases; Phase 2a and Phase 2b. Phase 2b will extend the line towards Ancol. It is currently under feasibility studies.

M2 (East–West line)[edit]

A second line is planned to run east-west, to connect Ujung Menteng (near Bekasi) and Kembangan (near Tangerang) with Jakarta city center. Covering a distance of 87 kilometers, this line will cross Ujung Menteng and Rawa Bebek areas on the border between Bekasi and East Jakarta. This project is currently under feasibility studies. East-West Line is planned to interchange With North-South Line at Sarinah Station.

Construction progress[edit]

Jakarta MRT underground section between Dukuh Atas station and Hotel Indonesia station, in March 2018

On 1 June 2013, the first three civil contracts for the 9.2 km underground section were signed. The three contracts were won by two separate consortium of Japanese and Indonesian companies.[20] Three civil engineering contracts for the elevated section were signed in the third quarter of 2013. Construction work began in October 2013.[21]

Tunnel boring was finished on 23 February 2017, and about 83 percent of tunnel construction had been completed. On 14 March 2017, the first phase which include the construction of tunnel and upper deck, has met the target completion date.[22]

By October 2017, the construction of both elevated and underground line sections have been completed.[23] Construction of the elevated section from Lebak Bulus to Senayan reached 78.37%, while the underground section from Senayan to Bundaran HI reached 93.95 percent.[12] By December 2018, construction progress has reached 98.01% and is on track to be operational by March 2019. On 31 January 2019, the administration updated that the construction progress for the elevated section has reached 98.59% (98.43% for the elevated section and 98.74% for the underground section).

On 28 February 2019, construction progress reached 99.06%, and the remaining works left were the finishing touches for station entrances and signages. Ahead of it's official opening, a limited public trial run was conducted from 12 March 2019 to 23 March 2019. The official opening ceremony was held on 24 March 2019 by the Indonesian president.

Construction of Phase 2 was initially planned to begin on 19 December 2018. However, due to land acquisition issues, it was pushed back a month, to January 2019. On 30 January 2019, President Director of PT MRT Jakarta, William Sabandar announced that the groundbreaking ceremony is delayed again as the State Secreteriat has yet to issue a land-use permit for the area near Medan Merdeka. The groundbreaking was finally held on 24 March 2019. Construction is expected to be completed by 2024.

PT Mass Rapid Transit Jakarta[edit]

PT Mass Rapid Transit Jakarta (PT MRTJ) is a limited company (perseroan terbatas, PT) founded by the Government of Jakarta Province. Its establishment was approved by the provincial parliament (DPRD) on 10 June 2008 and final establishment was by notary act on 17 June 2008. Its purpose is to operate the Jakarta MRT system. 99% of the shares are owned by the Government of Jakarta and 1% PT Pasar Jaya (a municipally owned corporation of Jakarta). PT MRTJ is a municipally owned corporation (badan usaha milik daerah, BUMD).

Rolling stock[edit]

Jakarta MRT train

The Jakarta MRT uses electric multiple units produced by Sumitomo Corporation and Nippon Sharyo, Japan. Contract between PT MRT Jakarta and Sumitomo Corporation was signed on 3 March 2015.[24] The trains that will be operated by Jakarta MRT will use automatic train operation.[25] It will also use the communications-based train control (CBTC) signalling system.[26] Initially 16 trainsets were ordered, at a cost of 13 billion Yen. [27]

On 10 January 2018, the Governor of Jakarta, Anies Baswedan gave first batch of MRT Jakarta trainsets the name "Ratangga". The name was derived from the old Javanese word for chariots, mentioned on Mpu Tantular's Sutasoma and Arjuna Wijaya.[28] It will offer a women-only passenger car during morning rush hours from 5:30 a.m. to 9 a.m. and in the afternoon from 4 p.m. to 8 p.m.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Anies aims to make local language 'great again'". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  2. ^ Bernhart Farras & Chandra Gian Asmara (March 24, 2019). "Resmikan MRT Jakarta, Jokowi: Sebuah Peradaban Baru Dimulai".
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/dsd/susdevtopics/sdt_pdfs/meetings2010/egm0310/presentation_Rini.pdf
  5. ^ "United Nations Forum On Climate Change Mitigation, Fuel Economy And Sustainable Development Of Urban Transport" (PDF). Urban Public Transport System in Jakarta. Retrieved 2015-09-20.
  6. ^ https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/10/25/indonesia-jica-sign-deal-on-loan-for-mrt-phase-ii-project.html
  7. ^ https://industri.kontan.co.id/news/foke-pembangunan-fisik-mrt-harus-kelar-tahun-2016
  8. ^ Simorangkir, Eduardo. "Mengintip Skema Pembayaran Utang Pembangunan MRT Jakarta". detikfinance. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
  9. ^ Simorangkir, Eduardo. "Mengintip Skema Pembayaran Utang Pembangunan MRT Jakarta". detikfinance. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
  10. ^ Agnes Rita Sulistyawati; Mukhamad Kurniawan (26 December 2015). "Persiapan Studi Jalur MRT Timur-Barat Sudah Dimulai". Kompas (in Indonesian).
  11. ^ Extensive details are available at the PT Mass Rapid Transit project website
  12. ^ a b "Inilah Progres Terbaru Konstruksi, Armada dan Rekrutmen MRT Jakarta". December 1, 2017.
  13. ^ a b "MTR Academy Signs Memorandum of Understanding with MRT Jakarta to Support Development of Indonesia's First Mass Transit System" (PDF). MTR. 28 April 2017.
  14. ^ "Menjajal Ratangga, MRT Jakarta yang Diuji Coba Hari Ini". March 12, 2019.
  15. ^ "Tarif Belum Diketok, Warga Masih Bisa Nikmati MRT Cuma-cuma Sampai Akhir Maret". Merdeka.com. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  16. ^ "MRT construction likely to disrupt public utility networks". October 7, 2011.
  17. ^ "Stasiun dan Fasilitas" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  18. ^ MRT Development Accelerated
  19. ^ MRT Takes Small Step Forward as Contractors Approved - The Jakarta Globe
  20. ^ 'Jakarta metro civil works contracts signed', Rail Journal, 13 June 2013.
  21. ^ "Jakarta metro contracts signed". Railway Gazette. 13 June 2013.
  22. ^ "Pengeboran Jalur "Underground" di MRT Fase I Sudah Selesai". March 14, 2017.
  23. ^ "MRT Jakarta focuses on constructing stations, depot". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  24. ^ "Kontrak Rolling Stock Proyek MRT Jakarta Ditandatangani" (PDF) (Press release) (in Indonesian). PT MRT Jakarta. 3 March 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2015.
  25. ^ Rudi, Alsadad (3 March 2015). "Kereta MRT Jakarta Bisa Beroperasi secara Otomatis". Kompas (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  26. ^ Akhir, Dani Jumadil (3 August 2017). "Canggih! Proyek MRT Jakarta Gunakan Sistem Persinyalan CBTC, Termutakhir di Dunia". Okezone.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  27. ^ Hutapea, Erwin (28 August 2018). "16 Rangkaian Kereta MRT Diuji Coba hingga Awal 2019". Kompas.com. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  28. ^ Farozy, Iko Haidar (10 December 2018). "Nama Kereta MRT Jakarta Diresmikan Gubernur DKI". Railway Enthusiast Digest. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  29. ^ "MRT Jakarta to provide women-only car during rush hours". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 28 December 2018.

External links[edit]