Jakarta metropolitan area

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Coordinates: 6°10′30″S 106°49′43″E / 6.17500°S 106.82861°E / -6.17500; 106.82861

Jakarta metropolitan area

Jabodetabekpunjur
Jakarta
Location of Jakarta metropolitan area
Coordinates: 6°10′30″S 106°49′43″E / 6.17500°S 106.82861°E / -6.17500; 106.82861
Country Indonesia
ProvincesBanten
Jakarta
West Java
Core cityJakarta
Satellite citiesBogor
Depok
Tangerang
South Tangerang
Bekasi
RegenciesBogor Regency
Tangerang Regency
Bekasi Regency
Cianjur Regency
Area
 • Metro
11,037.56 km2 (4,261.63 sq mi)
Population
 (2015)
 • Metro
31,652,751[1]
 • Metro density4,990/km2 (12,900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Postcodes
1xxxx
Area codes(62)21, (62)251
Vehicle signA, B, F
GRP2019 estimate
GDP NominalIncreaseUS$ 297.718 billion [2][3][4]
GDP PPPIncreaseUS$ 978.493 billion
Percapita NominalIncrease$ 8,775
Percapita PPPIncrease$ 28,840
Highest elevation 3,019 m/9,905 ft (Mount Pangrango, in Bogor Regency)

The Jakarta metropolitan area,[5][6][7][8][9] known locally as Jabodetabek, Jabodetabekjur, or Jabodetabekpunjur (an acronym of JakartaBogorDepokTangerangBekasiPuncakCianjur), is the most populous metropolitan area in Indonesia. It includes the national capital Jakarta as the core city as well as five satellite cities and four regencies.[10] The original term "Jabotabek" dated from the late 1970s and was revised to "Jabodetabek" in 1999 when "De" (for "Depok") was inserted into the name following its formation. The term "Jabodetabekjur" or "Jabodetabekpunjur" was legalised on the Presidential Regulation Number 54 of 2008 [11], although the name Jabodetabek is more commonly used.

The area comprises Jakarta and parts of West Java and Banten provinces, specifically the three regencies Bekasi Regency and Bogor Regency in West Java, and Tangerang Regency in Banten. The area also included Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang city. The name of the region is taken from the first two (or three) letters of each city's name: Jabo(de)tabek from Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi.

The population of Jakarta metropolitan area, with an area of 6,343 km2 (2,449 sq mi), was 31.6 million according to the Indonesia 2015 Inter-Census,[12] making it the most populous region in Indonesia, as well as the second-most populous urban area in the world after Tokyo. The population share of Jakarta metropolitan area to the national population increased from 6.1% in 1961 to 11.26% in 2010.[13]

The region is the centre of government, culture, education, and economy of Indonesia. It has pulled many people from throughout Indonesia to come, live and work. Its economic power makes Jakarta metropolitan area the country's premier centre for finance, manufacture and commerce. In 2019 data, The area has a gross domestic product of US$297.7 billion with a per capita GDP of $8,775, and a purchasing power parity of US$978.5 billion with a per capita PPP of $28,840, equal to 26.2% of economy of Indonesia.

The region was established in 1976 through Presidential Instruction No. 13 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population of the capital city. Indonesia's government established the Jabotabek Cooperation Body (Badan Kerjasama Pembangunan) of the joint secretariat of Government of DKI Jakarta and West Java province.[14]

Greater Jakarta[edit]

The generic term Greater Jakarta refers to the urban region surrounding Jakarta, and it is not specific to any official or administrative designations. On the contrary, depending on context, it may refer to the built-up area around Jakarta.

Demographics[edit]

Among the inhabitants, approximately 10.77 million lived in Jakarta in mid 2020; about 10.76 million in the five cities of Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang; and about 13.896 million in the three regencies (Bekasi Regency, Tangerang Regency and Bogor Regency).[15] The proportion of core city (Jakarta) population to the total population of the metropolitan area also declined significantly. In 2020, the population of Jakarta was only 30.4% of the total population of the Jakarta metropolitan area, continuing the trend of decline from 54.6% in 1990 to 43.2% in 2000 and to 35.5% in 2010. Furthermore, there has been a shift of arrival-destination for incoming migrants, from Jakarta city to other cities in the Jakarta metropolitan area. Today, about 20% of Indonesia's urban population is concentrated in the Jakarta metropolitan area.

Administrative

division

Province Area

(km2)

Population

(2010 Ce.fi)

Population

(2015 Ce.in)

Population

(2020 Estimate)

Density/km2

(2020)

Jakarta DKI Jakarta 664.01 9,607,787 10,154,134 10,770,487 16,220
Tangerang City Banten 153.93 1,798,601 2,043,213 2,273,697 14,771
South Tangerang City Banten 147.19 1,290,322 1,538,970 1,799,605 12,226
Depok City West Java 200.29 1,738,570 2,099,989 2,484,186 12,403
Bekasi City West Java 210.49 2,334,871 2,708,721 3,075,690 14,612
Core districts 1,375.9 16,770,151 18,545,027 20,403,665 14,829
Tangerang Regency Banten 959.61 2,834,376 3,361,740 3,908,880 4,073
Bogor Regency West Java 2,663.83 4,771,932 5,463,849 6,088,233 2,286
Bogor City West Java 118.50 950,334 1,046,579 1,126,927 9,510
Bekasi Regency West Java 1,224.88 2,630,401 3,235,556 3,899,017 3,183
Suburban districts 4,966.8 11,187,043 13,107,724 15,023,057 3,025
Jabodetabek 6,342.7 27,957,194 31,652,751 35,426,722 5,585

Sources:

  • Census final 2010, Intermediate-Census 2015; Badan Pusat Statistik - Indonesia.
  • Indonesia: Table of all administrative divisions, Citypopulation.de[12] 444

Economy[edit]

Nowadays, the role of the Jakarta metropolitan area in the national economy is still dominant although the decentralisation policy has been implemented since the political reforms in 1998. The region accounts for 25.52% of total national gross domestic product and 42.8% to the total GDP of Java in 2010.[13] Central Jakarta, South Jakarta and Bekasi have respectively accounted for 4.14%; 3.78% and 2.11% of total national GDP.[16] There are three dominant sectors which have a high contribution to the total Jakarta metropolitan area's GDP comprising: industrial sector (28.36%), financial sector (20.66%) as well as trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (20.24%).[14] Based on the contribution of each sector to the total national GDP in 2010, Jakarta metropolitan area contributed 41.87% for the finance sector, 33.1% for construction and building, as well as 30.86% for transportation.[13]

Prime business and commercial centres include the "Golden Triangle" in central Jakarta. There are Indonesia's premier financial centre, SCBD, Mega Kuningan, Rasuna Epicentrum as well as along Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jalan M.H. Thamrin, Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto and Jalan HR Rasuna Said.[17] The Golden Triangle is also known to expatriates and locals as a lifestyle centre of the metropolis. There are countless high-end boutiques, fine restaurants, coffee shops and malls. Kelapa Gading is the newest business district, lifestyle centre and residential areas, located in the north-eastern part of Jakarta. It has several bars and entertainment places that open up until late at night.

The development of large scale residential areas and industrial parks in the Jakarta metropolitan area has been induced by infrastructure development, especially toll roads and railways. The Jakarta metropolitan area has been built industrial estate in the outskirts, mainly in Cikarang, home to a dozen industrial estates with more than 2,500 industrial companies. The Cikarang industrial estate occupied a total land area of about 11,000 hectares[18] and became the largest concentration of manufacturing activities in Southeast Asia.[19] Many foreign companies are located in the Cikarang industrial estate, such as from Japan, South Korea, China, Singapore and United States.

Transportation[edit]

The region is partly defined by the areas from which people commute into the city. All municipality and regencies have access to toll road and rail service. At present public transport in Greater Jakarta consists of TransJakarta BRT, KRL Jabodetabek commuter rail, Jakarta LRT, Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link, and Jakarta MRT. The transit system that is currently under construction is LRT Jabodebek. Jakarta LRT began operation by late 2019, and LRT Jabodebek is expected to open by March 2021.[20]

Air[edit]

The Jakarta metropolitan area has two major airports, Soekarno Hatta International Airport, commonly known as Cengkareng Airport (CGK) and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport (chiefly domestic). Pondok Cabe Airport in South Tangerang, owned by the state oil company Pertamina, is used for civilian and military airport.

Rail[edit]

The Jakarta metropolitan area is served by commuter train known as KRL Commuter Jabodetabek with five lines:

Visit KRL Commuter Jabodetabek website for lines and schedule information (in Indonesian)

Jakarta MRT is a rapid transit system in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. Before Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit was opened, the Jakarta metropolitan area was the world's largest metropolitan areas without a grade-separated rapid transit system.

Bus[edit]

The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service (known as Busway) was developed throughout Jakarta and currently has 13 active corridors and a further three in planning. The system connects Bekasi, Depok, and Tangerang with three routes connecting Jakarta with Bekasi vice versa, namely Harapan Indah - Pasar Baru, West Bekasi - Bunderan HI, and East Bekasi - Tanjung Priok. While for Depok, only three routes are currently active: UI - Manggarai, UI - Lebak bulus, Terminal Depok - BKN via the Cijago toll road.[21] In addition to the main corridors, the feeder buses of Transjakarta serves commuters from satellite cities, such as Bumi Serpong Damai and Bintaro Jaya (South Tangerang) as well as Kemang Pratama, Grand Galaxy City and Cibubur (Bekasi).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ see sum from tables
  2. ^ https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2020/04/29/e9011b3155d45d70823c141f/statistik-indonesia-2020.html
  3. ^ https://banten.bps.go.id/dynamictable/2020/03/03/247/produk-domestik-regional-bruto-atas-dasar-harga-berlaku-menurut-kabupaten-kota-di-provinsi-banten-2010-2019.html
  4. ^ https://jabar.bps.go.id/dynamictable/2020/05/20/485/pdrb-atas-dasar-harga-berlaku-menurut-kabupaten-kota-2019.html
  5. ^ "Kementerian PPN/Bappenas :: Berita". www.bappenas.go.id.
  6. ^ "Kementerian PUPR dan KOICA Kerjasama Susun Rencana Induk Sistem Transportasi Cerdas Jakarta". www.pu.go.id.
  7. ^ Jo, Santoso. "Transformasi Urban Metropolitan Jakarta Adaptasi dan Pengembangan". Perpustakaan Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat.
  8. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Mega-urbanization of Jakarta-Bandung region". The Jakarta Post.
  9. ^ Sorensen, Andre; Okata, Junichiro (18 November 2010). "Megacities: Urban Form, Governance, and Sustainability". Springer Science & Business Media – via Google Books.
  10. ^ "Indonesia government:Jabotabek". Indonesia.go.id. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  11. ^ http://sitarunas.atrbpn.go.id/index.asp?m=RTR-KSN&n=Substansi-RTR-KSN&id=9
  12. ^ a b "Indonesia: Administrative Division". Citypopulation.de.
  13. ^ a b c Rustiadi et al., Pembangunan Kawasan Transmigrasi Dalam Perspektif Pengembangan Wilayah & Perdesaan, 2012
  14. ^ a b R.B. Singh, Urban Development Challenges, Risks and Resilience in Asian Mega Cities, 2014
  15. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2020.
  16. ^ Jefriando, Maikel. "Ekonomi Jakarta Digabung Bekasi, Bogor, dan Tangerang Capai Rp 2.490 T". Archived from the original on 7 November 2017.
  17. ^ Joe Studwell, How Asia Works: Success and Failure in the World's Most Dynamic Region, 2013
  18. ^ N. Phelps, F. Wu; International Perspectives on Suburbanization: A Post-Suburban World?, 2011
  19. ^ "Indomovieland - 'Press Release Ground Breaking Indonesia Movieland' October 2008". Archived from the original on 20 May 2009.
  20. ^ "LRT Jabodebek to Have First Trial Run in June". Tempo. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Transjakarta buses to serve Bekasi, Depok starting Monday

Further reading[edit]

  • Forbes, Dean. "Jakarta: Globalization, economic crisis, and social change," pp. 268–298, in Josef Gugler (ed.) World Cities beyond the West: Globalization, Development and Inequality.