|United States Senator
December 21, 1974 – January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Wallace F. Bennett|
|Succeeded by||Bob Bennett|
|Born||Edwin Jacob Garn
October 12, 1932
|Spouse(s)||1) Hazel Thompson (deceased)
2) Kathleen Brewerton
|Alma mater||University of Utah|
|Religion||The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon)|
Edwin Jacob "Jake" Garn (born October 12, 1932) is an American politician, a member of the Republican Party, and served as a U.S. Senator representing Utah from 1974 to 1993. Garn became the first sitting member of the United States Congress to fly in space when he flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery as a Payload Specialist during NASA mission STS-51-D (April 12–19, 1985).
Born in Richfield, Utah, Garn earned a Bachelor of Science degree in business and finance from the University of Utah in 1955, where he became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. He also attended East High School, Clayton Middle School, and Uintah Elementary School.
Senator Garn is a former insurance executive. He served in the United States Navy as a P3 Orion pilot with VP-50. He also served as a pilot of the 151st Air Refueling Group of the Utah Air National Guard. As a pilot, he flew the KC-97L Stratofreighter and a KC-135A Stratotanker. He retired as a Colonel in April 1979. He was promoted to Brigadier General after his space shuttle mission. He has flown more than 10,000 hours in military and private civilian aircraft.
Prior to his election to the Senate, Garn served on the Salt Lake City commission for four years and was elected as the mayor in 1971, entering office in 1972. He was the last Republican to hold that office to date. Garn was active in the Utah League of Cities and Towns and served as its president in 1972. In 1974, Garn was the first vice-president of the National League of Cities, and he served as its honorary president in 1975.
Garn was first elected to the Senate in 1974, succeeding retiring Republican Wallace Bennett. Garn was re-elected to a second term in November 1980, receiving 74 percent of the vote, the largest victory in a statewide race in Utah history.
Garn was chairman of the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee and served on three subcommittees: Housing and Urban Affairs, Financial Institutions, and International Finance and Monetary Policy. He also was a member of the Senate Appropriations Committee and served as Chairman of the HUD-Independent Agencies Subcommittee. He served on four other Appropriations subcommittees: Energy and Water Resources, Defense, Military Construction, and Interior. Garn served as a member of the Republican leadership from 1979 to 1984 as Secretary of the Republican Conference.
His Institute of Finance has been called a "hot tub of influence peddling."
Garn retired from the Senate in 1992.
Savings and loan
As Chairman of the Senate Banking Committee, Garn was co-author of the Garn–St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982, the law that partially deregulated the savings and loan industry and attempted to forestall the looming Savings and Loan crisis.
Garn asked to fly on the Space Shuttle because he was head of the Senate appropriations subcommittee that dealt with NASA, and had extensive aviation experience. He had previously flown a B-2 Spirit prototype and driven a new Army tank. STS-51-D was launched from and returned to land at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Its primary objective was to deploy two communications satellites, and to perform electrophoresis and echocardiograph operations in space in addition to a number of other experiments. As a payload specialist, Garn's role on the mission was as a congressional observer and as a subject for medical experiments on space motion sickness. At the conclusion of the mission, Garn had traveled over 2.5 million miles in 108 Earth orbits, logging over 167 hours in space.
The space sickness he experienced during the journey was so severe that a scale for space sickness was jokingly based on him, where "one Garn" is the highest possible level of sickness. Some NASA astronauts who opposed the payload specialist program, such as Mike Mullane, believed that Garn's space sickness was evidence of the inappropriateness of flying people with little training. Astronaut Charles F. Bolden, however, described Garn as "the ideal candidate to do it, because he was a veteran Navy combat pilot who had more flight hours than anyone in the Astronaut Office". Fellow 51-D payload specialist Charles D. Walker—who also suffered from space sickness on the flight despite having flown before—stated that
he worked out extraordinarily well, and quite frankly, I think the U.S. space program, NASA, has benefited a lot from both his experience and his firsthand relation of NASA and the program back on Capitol Hill. As a firsthand participant in the program, he brought tremendous credibility back to Capitol Hill, and that’s helped a lot. He’s always been a friend of the agency and its programs.
The Jake Garn Mission Simulator and Training Facility, NASA's prime training facility for astronauts in the Shuttle and Space Station programs, is named after him.
Upon his return, he co-authored a novel entitled Night Launch. The book centers around terrorists taking control of the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first NASA–USSR space shuttle flight. It was published in 1989.
Garn married Hazel Rhae Thompson in 1957. Together, they had four children: Jacob, Susan, Ellen, and Jeffrey. Hazel died in 1976. In 1977, Garn married Kathleen Brewerton, who had a son, Brook, from a previous marriage. Jake and Kathleen had two children together, Matthew and Jennifer .
In February 1980, Garn was honored by Freedoms Foundation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, along with U.S. Ambassador Shirley Temple Black, actor James Stewart, singer John Denver, and Tom Abraham, a businessman from Canadian, Texas, who worked with immigrants seeking to become U.S. citizens.
- "Payload Specialist Astronaut Bio: Jake Garn". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. May 1985. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
- "Newsmakers". Kentucky New Era. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
- Jacobsen-Wells, JoAnn (24 November 1989). "DEMO CHIEF CHIDES OWENS FOR DEFENDING GARN". Desert News. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Turner, Laurie Snow (1994), "Garn, Jake", in Powell, Allan Kent, Utah History Encyclopedia, Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, ISBN 0874804256, OCLC 30473917
- Walker, Charles D. (2005-04-14). Oral History Transcript. Interview with Johnson, Sandra. NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project.
- Dubbs, Chris; Paat-Dahlstrom, Emeline; Walker, Charles D. (2011). Realizing Tomorrow: The Path to Private Spaceflight. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0-8032-1610-6.
- Evans, Ben (2006). Space shuttle challenger: ten journeys into the unknown. Springer. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-0-387-46355-1. OCLC 131057274.
- Lamar, Jacob V., Jr.; Hannifan, Jerry (April 22, 1985). "Jake Skywalker: A Senator boards the shuttle". Time. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "ORAL HISTORY 2 TRANSCRIPT" (PDF). Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. NASA. May 13, 1999. pp. 13–35. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
[Dr. Robert Stevenson:] Jake Garn was sick, was pretty sick. I don't know whether we should tell stories like that. But anyway, Jake Garn, he has made a mark in the Astronaut Corps because he represents the maximum level of space sickness that anyone can ever attain, and so the mark of being totally sick and totally incompetent is one Garn. Most guys will get maybe to a tenth Garn, if that high. And within the Astronaut Corps, he forever will be remembered by that
- Bolden, Charles F. (2004-01-06). Charles F. Bolden. Interview with Johnson, Sandra; Wright, Rebecca; Ross-Nazzal, Jennifer. NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Houston, Texas. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Jake Garn Simulator and Training Facility". NASA Cultural Resources (CRGIS). NASA. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
- "Edwin Jacob Garn." Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Biography In Context. Accessed 11 July 2011.
- "Tom Abraham to be honored by Freedoms Foundation Feb. 22", Canadian Record, February 14, 1980, p. 19
- Jake Garn at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- NASA biography of Garn
- IMNO Interviews Jake Garn
- Spacefacts biography of Jake Garn
- Page with true origin of "Garn scale"
J. Bracken Lee
|Mayor of Salt Lake City
Conrad B. Harrison
|Chairman of the Senate Banking Committee
|United States Senate|
Wallace F. Bennett
|U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Utah
Served alongside: Frank Moss, Orrin Hatch
|Party political offices|
|Vice-Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference