Jakob Nielsen (usability consultant)
|Alma mater||Technical University of Denmark|
|Occupation||Web usability consultant|
Jakob Nielsen (born 5 October 1957) is a Danish web usability consultant and human–computer interaction (HCI) researcher. He was named the “the guru of Web page usability” in 1998 by The New York Times and the “king of usability” by Internet Magazine.
Nielsen's earlier affiliations include Bellcore (now known as Telcordia Technologies, formally Bell Communications Research), teaching at the Technical University of Denmark, and the IBM User Interface Institute at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center.[when?]
From 1994 to 1998, he was a Sun Microsystems Distinguished Engineer. He was hired to make heavy-duty enterprise software easier to use, since large-scale applications had been the focus of most of his projects at the phone company and IBM. But luckily the job definition of a Distinguished Engineer is "you're supposed to be the world's leading expert in your field, so you figure out what would be most important for the company for you to work on." Therefore, Dr. Nielsen ended up spending most of his time at Sun defining the emerging field of web usability. He was the usability lead for several design rounds of Sun's website and intranet (SunWeb), including the original SunWeb design in 1994.[non-primary source needed]
Nielsen Norman Group
After his regular articles on his website about usability research attracted media attention, he co-founded usability consulting company Nielsen Norman Group (NN/g) of Fremont, California in 1998 with fellow usability expert Donald Norman. The company's vision is to help designers and other companies move toward more human-centered products and internet interactions, as experts and pioneers in the field of usability.
Nielsen founded the usability engineering movement for efficient and affordable improvements of user interfaces and he has invented several usability methods, including heuristic evaluation. He holds more than a thousand United States patents, mainly on ways of improving usability for technology.
In the early 1990s, Nielsen popularized the principle that five test users per usability test session is enough, allowing numerous tests at various stages of the development process. His argument is that "elaborate usability tests are a waste of resources." Once it is found that a few people are totally confused by a home page, little is gained by watching more people suffer through the same flawed design."
Users will anticipate what an experience will be like, based on their mental models of prior experiences on websites. When making changes to a design of a website, try to minimize changes in order to maintain an ease of use.
Nielsen's law of internet bandwidth
Nielsen gave his name to Nielsen's law, in which he stated that network connection speeds for high-end home users would increase 50% per year, or double every 21 months. As a corollary, he noted that, since this growth rate is slower than that predicted by Moore's Law of processor power, user experience would remain bandwidth-bound.
Nielsen's usability heuristics
Nielsen's list of ten heuristics is probably the most-used usability framework for user interface design. Nielsen developed the heuristics based on work together with Rolf Molich in 1990, with the final set of heuristics that are still used today was published in Nielsen's book Usability Engineering (1993).
- Visibility of system status
- Match between system and the real world
- User control and freedom
- Consistency and standards
- Error prevention
- Recognition rather than recall
- Flexibility and efficiency of use
- Aesthetic and minimalist design
- Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors
- Help and documentation
Additionally in Nielsen's book Usability Engineering (1993) he defined the five quality components of his "Usability Goals", which are:
- Errors (as in low error rate)
On January 25, 2010, Nielsen decided to venture into designing a mobile application. He took to the internet as he was stumped how to test the application because he was faced with a strange scenario, the users will initially be novice and then become experts quickly as they will be using the app so frequently. Nielsen was stumped as he compared expert behavior to automated behavior.
iPad (1st generation; 2010) usability
In 2010 and 2011, Nielsen wrote about iPad usability issues (specifically with the first generation of iPads) and identified problems with touch points that were too small, issues of discoverability, and “swipe ambiguity.” He expected to see more micropayment implementation (similar to the design of Microsoft's Xbox Live). In 2011, after one year of iPad's release of third party apps, Nielsen saw dramatic improvements and an increase of ease of use.
Windows 8 usability
Nielsen has been quoted in the computing and the mainstream press for his criticism of Microsoft's Windows 8 (2012) user interface. Tom Hobbs, creative director of the design firm Teague, criticized what he perceived to be some of Nielsen's points on the matter, and Nielsen responded with some clarifications. The subsequent short and troubled history of Windows 8, released on October 26,2012, seems to have confirmed Nielsen's criticism: the sales of Windows-based systems plummeted after the introduction of Windows 8; Microsoft released a new version, Windows 8.1, on Oct 18,2013, to fix the numerous problems identified in Windows 8, and later released Windows 10, a complete overhaul, in July 2015.
Recognition and awards
As Nielsen's newsletter and website grew, and with his use of "acronomic platitudes" to describe his concepts, it has been thought by some that much of Nielsen's work was more about marketing himself than rooted in research.
Nielsen's usability heuristics
In 1990, when the Nielsen heuristic evaluation guidelines were created (Nielsen and Molich, 1990), user interface was less complicated than it is in present-day. There has never been any research-based validation of Nielsen's heuristics. The University of Calgary published an article in 2008, questioning if the Nielsen heuristics were an oversimplification.
Nielsen has been criticized by some visual designers and graphic designers for failing to balance the importance of other user experience considerations such as typography, readability, visual cues for hierarchy and importance, and eye appeal.
Nielsen's 2012 guidelines, "Repurposing vs Optimized Design" that web sites made for mobile devices be designed separately from their desktop-oriented counterparts has come under fire from Webmonkey's Scott Gilbertson, as well as Josh Clark writing in .net magazine, and Opera's Bruce Lawson, writing in Smashing Magazine, and other technologists and web designers who advocate responsive web design. In an interview with .net magazine, Nielsen explained that he wrote his guidelines from a usability perspective, not from the viewpoint of implementation.
However, Nielsen appeared to have ignored the emerging software technology related to responsive web design, whereby a single body of code, while requiring more painstaking implementation, can be run on devices of various screen sizes, from mobile screens to desktop monitors. Nielsen has been accused of taking a "puritanical" approach to usability, and not being able to keep up his usability evaluations in step of technological changes.
Nielsen's published books include:
- Nielsen, Jakob (1990). Hypertext and Hypermedia. San Diego, California: Academic Press Professional, Inc. ISBN 978-0-12-518410-6.
- Nielsen, Jakob (1993). Usability Engineering. Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science. ISBN 9780125184069.
- Nielsen, Jakob (1999). Designing Web Usability: The Practice of Simplicity. Landmark Series. New Riders. ISBN 978-1562058104.
- Nielsen, Jakob; Snyder, Carolyn; Molich, Rolf; Farrell, Susan (2001). E-Commerce User Experience. Nielsen Norman Group. ISBN 978-0970607201.
- Nielsen, Jakob; Tahir, Marie (2001). Homepage Usability: 50 Websites Deconstructed. New Riders Publishing. ISBN 978-0735711020.
- Nielsen, Jakob; Loranger, Hoa (2006). Prioritizing Web Usability. New Riders Publishing. ISBN 978-0321350312.
- Nielsen, Jakob; Pernice, Kara (2009). Eyetracking Web Usability. New Riders Publishing. ISBN 978-0321498366.
- Nielsen, Jakob; Budiu, Raluca (2012). Mobile Usability. New Riders Publishing. ISBN 978-0321884480.
This is a select list of Nielsen's published research, which includes:
- Nielsen, Jakob; Landauer, Thomas K. (May 1993). "A mathematical model of the finding of usability problems". Proceedings of the INTERACT'93 and CHI'93 conference on Human factors in computing systems: 206–213. doi:10.1145/169059.169166.
- Nielsen, Jakob (April 1994). "Usability inspection methods". CHI '94: Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 413–414. doi:10.1145/259963.260531.
- Nielsen, Jakob (April 1994). "Enhancing the explanatory power of usability heuristics". Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 152–158. doi:10.1145/191666.191729.
- Bilton, Nick (2010-11-02). "Study Shows People Ignore Generic Photos Online". Bits Blog, The New York Times. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
- Sydell, Laura (July 8, 2010). "Reading A Book On An iPad Or Kindle? It Might Take Longer". NPR.org. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
- Richtel, Matt (July 13, 1998). "Making Web Sites More 'Usable' Is Former Sun Engineer's Goal". Technology, Cybertimes, The New York Times. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- "Interview with Web Usability Guru, Jakob Nielsen". Webdesigner Depot. 2009-09-28. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- Wieners, Brad (June 1, 2004). "Time for a Redesign: Dr. Jakob Nielsen". cioinsight.com. TechnologyAdvice. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
- "Jakob Nielsen". www.computerhope.com. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
- Scott, John (2006). "Jakob Nielsen - An Interview". The V7 Network. Archived from the original on 2006-02-09.
- MacDonald, Nico (2009-06-28). "Jakob's Ladder, usability guru Jakob Nielsen is renowned for his dislike of graphics and design gimmicks, but as the Internet continues to evolve will his current critique methods become more a hindrance than a help?". Spy. New Media Creative. p. 38–43. Archived from the original on 2009-06-28. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- Nielsen, Jakob. "Profile of Jakob Nielsen". LinkedIn. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Where Did the Term "User Experience" Come From?". Adobe Blog. 2017-08-28.
In 1998, he formed the Nielsen Norman Group alongside Jakob Nielsen, another pioneer of usability methods that remain widely used today, including the 10 Usability Heuristics.
- Dunne, Danielle (2001-12-01). "How Should Websites Look? Jakob Nielsen and Vincent Flanders Speak Up". CIO. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
- "Jakob Nielsen Inventions, Patents and Patent Applications". Justia Patents Search. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- "inventor:(Jakob Nielsen)". Google Patents. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- "Usability Testing with 5 Users (Jakob Nielsen's Alertbox)". useit.com. 2000-03-13.; Jakob Nielsen; Thomas K. Landauer (April 1993). "A mathematical model of the finding of usability problems". Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 24–29 April 1993).
- "Jakob's Law means we like to be able to anticipate what an experience will be like, based on our past experiences". Leggett and Platt Marketing + Creative. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- Yablonski, Jon. "Jakob's Law". Laws of UX. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- Nielsen, Jakob (1998-04-05). "Nielsen's Law of Internet Bandwidth". Retrieved 2014-07-02.
- Nielsen, J., and Molich, R. (1990). Heuristic evaluation of user interfaces, Proc. ACM CHI'90 Conf. (Seattle, WA, 1–5 April), 249–256
- Molich, R., and Nielsen, J. (1990). Improving a human–computer dialogue, Communications of the ACM 33, 3 (March), 338–348
- Nielsen, Jakob (1994). Usability Engineering. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. ISBN 0-12-518406-9.
- Jakob Nielsen "Testing Expert Users" Nielsen Norman Group, January 25, 2010[non-primary source needed]
- "The State of iPad Usability". ReadWrite. 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- "Jakob Nielsen critiques the iPad's usability failings". the Guardian. 2010-06-02. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- "One Year In, iPad Apps Get Less Wacky and More User-Friendly". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- Gregg Keizer (20 November 2012). "Windows 8 UI 'strategic mistake,' argues design guru". Computerworld.
- Matt Baxter-Reynolds. "Here's how Jakob Nielsen's Windows 8 findings should inform developers". ZDNet.
- Wingfield, Nick (21 October 2012). "Windows, Staple of Most PCs, Gets a Major Makeover" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Why Jakob Nielsen's Windows 8 critique is old-school thinking". CNET. CBS Interactive. 21 November 2012.
- Sebastian Anthony, April 11, 2013. Windows 8 causes most precipitous PC decline in history. https://www.extremetech.com/computing/153111-windows-8-causes-most-precipitous-pc-decline-in-history
- "World's Most Influential Designers". Businessweek.com.
- "2013 SIGCHI Awards". sigchi.org. Archived from the original on 2014-10-23.
- Greenspun, Philip (September 2000). "What can we learn from Jakob Nielsen?". Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- Ballav, Alipta (2017). "Nielsen's Heuristic Evaluation: Limitations in Principles and Practice User Experience Magazine, 17(4)". UX Magazine, User Experience Professionals Association (USPA). Retrieved 2021-03-01.
- Travis, David (2007-04-16). "Usability Expert Reviews: Beyond Heuristic Evaluation". Userfocus. The Usability Training Centre. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
- Maurer, Frank; Ghanam, Yaser (2008-06-18). "Discount Usability Testing". University of Calgary. doi:10.11575/PRISM/30918. Cite journal requires
- Usability News "The Backlash against Jakob Nielsen and What it Teaches Us". Archived from the original on December 9, 2002. Retrieved 2007-06-27.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), July 31, 2002
- Curt Cloninger "Usability experts are from Mars, graphic designers are from Venus" July 28, 2000
- "Why Jakob Nielsen Is Wrong About Mobile Websites". Webmonkey.
- "Nielsen is wrong on mobile". netmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012.
- "Why We Shouldn't Make Separate Mobile Websites – Smashing Magazine". Smashing Magazine.
- "Designers respond to Nielsen on mobile". netmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2012.
- "Repurposing vs Optimized Design: It's Not a Battle - SitePoint". www.sitepoint.com. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
- "Nielsen responds to mobile criticism - Interview - .net magazine". netmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2012.