Jal Mahal

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Jal Mahal Palace Jaipur
Jal Mahal in Man Sagar Lake.jpg
Location Jaipur
Coordinates 26°57′13″N 75°50′47″E / 26.9537°N 75.8463°E / 26.9537; 75.8463Coordinates: 26°57′13″N 75°50′47″E / 26.9537°N 75.8463°E / 26.9537; 75.8463
Type Freshwater – recreational
Catchment area 23.5 square kilometres (9.1 sq mi)
Basin countries India
Surface area 300 acres (120 ha)
Max. depth 4.5 metres (15 ft)
Settlements Jaipur
Jal Mahal at night.

Jal Mahal (meaning "Water Palace") is a palace located in the middle of the Man Sagar Lake in Jaipur city, the capital of the state of Rajasthan, India. The palace and the lake around it were renovated and enlarged in the 18th century by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Amber.


The lake, situated to the north of Jaipur city lies between Amer, the historic city and Jaipur, the provincial headquarters of Rajasthan state. It has a water spread area of 300 acres (121 ha) and is enclosed by the Aravalli hills on the north, west and eastern sides, while the southern side consists of plains that are intensely inhabited. There is the Nahargarh Fort (Nahargarh meaning home of tigers) in the hills that provides a commanding view of the Man Sagar Lake and the Jal Mahal palace, in addition to a beautiful view of the city of Jaipur. The lake was created by constructing a dam across the Darbhawati River, between Khilagarh hills and the hilly areas of Nahargarh, in the 16th century. The drainage area of the lake is 23.5 square kilometres (9.1 sq mi)contributed by an urban area accounting for 50% and hilly terrain accounting for the balance, being degraded Aravalli hills, which have added to the siltation problem in the lake. A rain fall average of 657.4 millimetres (25.88 in) per year (90% of this rainfall occurs during the months of June to September) in the catchment contributes to the storage in the reservoir. At the outlet end of the dam there is an irrigation system that is supplied with water stored in the reservoir (obligatory water demand for this is reported to be 2,410,000 cubic metres during the five months from November to March). Two large nalas (streams) that also drain the surrounding Nahargarh hills and Jaipur are the Brahmpuri and Nagtalai, which bring in large amounts of untreated sewage, in addition to solid wastes.[1][2][3][4] The hills surrounding the lake area, towards the north east of Jaipur, have quartzite rock formations (with a thin layer of soil cover), which is part of Aravalli hills range. Rock exposures on the surface in some parts of the project area have also been utilised for constructing buildings. From the north east, the Kanak Vrindavan valley, where a temple complex is situated, the hills slope gently towards the lake edge. Within the lake area, the ground area is made up of a thick mantle of soil, blown sand and alluvium. Forest denudation, particularly in the hilly areas, has caused soil erosion, compounded by wind and water action. Due to this, silt built up in the lake resulting in a raising of the bed level of the lake.[4]

Geology and soils[edit]

The hills surrounding the lake area, towards the north east of Jaipur, have quartzite rock formations (with a thin layer of soil cover), which is part of Aravalli hills range. Rock exposures on the surface in some parts of the project area have also been utilised for constructing buildings. From the north east, the Kanak Vrindavan valley, where a temple complex is situated, the hills slope gently towards the lake edge. Within the lake area, the ground area is made up of a thick mantle of soil, blown sand and alluvium. Forest denudation, particularly in the hilly areas, has caused soil erosion, compounded by wind and water action. Due to this, silt built up in the lake resulting in a raising of the bed level of the lake.[4]

During 1596 AD, when there was a severe famine in this region there was consequent acute shortage of water. The then ruler of Amer was, therefore, motivated to build a dam to store water to overcome the severe hardships caused by the famine to the people inhabiting the region. A dam was constructed, initially using earth and quartzite, across the eastern valley between Amer hills and Amagarh hills. The dam was later converted into a stone masonry structure in the 17th century. The dam, as existing now (see picture), is about 300 metres (980 ft) long and 28.5–34.5 metres (94–113 ft) in width. It is provided with three sluice gates for release of water for irrigation of agricultural land in the down streamarea. Since then, the dam, the lake and the palace in its midst have undergone several rounds of restoration under various rulers of Rajasthan but the final restoration in the 18th century is credited to Jai Singh II of Amer. During this period, a number of other historical and religious places, such as the Amer Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Nahargarh Fort, Khilangarh Fort, and Kanak Vrindavan Valley were also built in the vicinity. All of these places are now linked by a tourist corridor of roadworks.[4][5][6]

Man Sagar Lake[edit]

Panoramic view of "Jal Mahal in Jaipur"

In recent years, with the urbanisation of Jaipur city and areas surrounding the lake, the ecological system of the lake and its vicinity deteriorated drastically. It became heavily silted thereby reducing the surface area of the lake. The silt deposited (estimated to be about 2,500,000 cubic metres) was contaminated with effluents (untreated sewage) from the city's drainage system causing intense eutrophication. The ground water surrounding the lake was also found to be highly contaminated and created serious health hazards. The rainwater combined with sewage water flow from the city resulted in the lake water giving off a foul smell. Water samples collected from the lake were tested and found to clearly show that the water quality was not uniform. It was extremely poor in southeast, south and southwest due to the influent nalas. The water quality parameters of BOD and total nitrogen recorded were 20 mg/L each. BOD values indicated high levels of organic matter. COD showed a very high level of oxidisable chemicals. Nitrate and phosphate content were excessive. Coliform counts was more than 500 times the norm. The Chloride content was found to be fatal to plants and fish.[2][3]

A view of the Nesting Islands along the banks of Mansagar Lake, Jaipur


The fresh water draining into the lake is seasonal during the rainy months of July to September. This flow originates from 325 small and large streams that drain from the hilly catchment of the lake. The two municipal nalas from Jaipur city contribute a perennial flow to the lake. The volume of water in the lake has been assessed as 3,130,000 cubic metres at the maximum water level. During the dry season, from October to June, it is said to be about 360,000 cubic metres. The depth of water at the deepest location in the lake is recorded at a maximum of 4.5 metres (15 ft) and a minimum of 1.5 metres (4.9 ft). In addition, the stored water is also used for irrigation at the downstream end of the lake during the summer months resulting in a drying up of the lake during these months.[3][4]

Flora and fauna[edit]

The hills surrounding the lake area, towards the north east of Jaipur, have quartzite rock formations (with a thin layer of soil cover), which is part of Aravalli hills range. Rock exposures on the surface in some parts of the project area have also been utilised for constructing buildings. From the north east, the Kanak Vrindavan valley, where a temple complex is situated, the hills slope gently towards the lake edge. Within the lake area, the ground area is made up of a thick mantle of soil, blown sand and alluvium. Forest denudation, particularly in the hilly areas, has caused soil erosion, compounded by wind and water action. Due to this, silt built up in the lake resulting in a raising of the bed level of the lake.[4] The flora is dictated by the subsidiary Edaphic type of dry tropical forests in the catchment; the total forest area of 9.01 square kilometres (3.48 sq mi) comprises dense forest cover of 6.45 square kilometres (2.49 sq mi) area, degraded forest of 0.95 square kilometres (0.37 sq mi) and encroachment of 1.61 square kilometres (0.62 sq mi). The dominant floral species found in the area is Dhauk (Anogeissus pendula), which has lean foliage. The low vegetation cover and steep gradient of the hills causes substantial erosion and the eroded material flows into the lake. On the western side, beyond the urbanised area, the Nahargarh hills on the western side are also denuded, which has reduced its moisture retaining capacity.[4]

The reserve forest area of the lake catchment has several wild life species such as deer, jungle cat, striped hyena, Indian fox, Indian wild boar and leopards.[4]

The lake used to be a bird watcher's paradise in the past and was a favourite ground for the Rajput kings of Jaipur for royal duck shooting parties during picnics. The lake was natural habitat for more than 150 species of local and migratory birds that included large flamingo, great crested grebe, pintail, pochards[disambiguation needed], kestrel, coot, redshank, marsh sandpiper, ruff, herring gull, red-breasted flycatcher, grey wagtail, but their numbers declined with the deterioration of the lake. Now, with restoration works undertaken, the birds have started visiting the lake again, though not to the same degree as in the past.[2][7] In order to attract attention to the lake's condition, a private initiative of holding an annual birding fair was started in 1997. It is reported that the common moorhen, a resident species has started breeding in large numbers at the lake.[5] The other birds seen now are the grey heron, white-browed wagtail and blue-tailed bee-eaters.[3][6] The lake was also home for a large species of the aquatic ecosystem such as fish, insects, microorganisms and aquatic vegetation.[2]

The Palace[edit]

Jal Mahal Palace after renovation

The Jal Mahal palace is considered an architectural beauty built in the Rajput style of architecture (common in Rajasthan) providing a picturesque view of the lake (from the Man Sagar Dam on the eastern side of the lake that acts as a vantage point for viewing the lake and the valley), and the surrounding Nahargarh (abode of the tigers) hills. The palace, built in red sandstone, is a five storied building out of which four floors remain under water when the lake is full and the top floor is exposed.[6] The rectangular Chhatri on the roof is of the Bengal type. The chhatris on the four corners are octagonal. The palace had suffered subsidence in the past and also seepage due to water logging, which have been repaired under the restoration project undertaken by the Government of Rajasthan.[8] The hills surrounding the lake area, towards the north east of Jaipur, have quartzite rock formations (with a thin layer of soil cover), which is part of Aravalli hills range. Rock exposures on the surface in some parts of the project area have also been utilised for constructing buildings. From the north east, the Kanak Vrindavan valley, where a temple complex is situated, the hills slope gently towards the lake edge. Within the lake area, the ground area is made up of a thick mantle of soil, blown sand and alluvium. Forest denudation, particularly in the hilly areas, has caused soil erosion, compounded by wind and water action. Due to this, silt built up in the lake resulting in a raising of the bed level of the lake.[4] On the terrace of the palace, a garden was built with arched passages. At each corner of this palace semi-octagonal towers were built with an elegant cupola.[9] The restoration works done in the palace in the past (10–15 years back) were not satisfactory and an expert in the field of similar architectural restoration works of Rajasthan palaces carefully examined the designs that could decipher the originally existing designs on the walls, after removing the recent plaster work. Based on this finding, restoration works were redone with traditional materials for plastering. The plaster now used consisted of an organic material of a special mortar mix of lime, sand and surkhi mixed with jaggery, guggal and methi (cummins) powder. It was also noticed that there was hardly any water seepage, except for a little dampness, in the floors below the water level. But the original garden, which existed on the terrace had been lost. Now, a new terrace is being created based on a similar roof garden existing on the Amer palace.[6]

The Royal family chhatris and cenotaphs[edit]

At Gaitore, opposite to the lake, there are chhatris and cenotaphs erected over cremation platforms of some of the Kachwaha rulers of Jaipur. They were built by Jai Singh II within landscaped gardens.[10] The cenotaph monuments are in honor of Pratap Singh, Madho Singh II and Jai Singh II, among others. Jai Singh II's cenotaph is made of marble and has impressive intricate carvings. It has a dome with 20 carved pillars.[8]

Restoration works[edit]

In the year 2000, Government of Rajasthan entrused to IL&FS the task of finding a permanent solution to the development requirements of the Man Sagar Lake and the palace. In 2001, Government of Rajasthan initiated a project for the 'Ecological Restoration of Man Sagar Lake' and the palace in its midst to its past glory and to enhance the tourism potential of the precincts, through the Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) as the nodal agency. It was also recommended that private developers should also be involved in this effort. In the year 2002, the Ministry of Environment and Forests sanctioned through its National Lake Conservation Programme (NLCP), Rs247.2 million (about US$5 million) and released Rs173 million (about US $3.46 million) as grant-in-aid with the proviso that the balance amount shall be raised by JDA. JDA initiated steps for restoration and completed 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) tourist trail and a 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) long promenade, apart from other works.[5][11]

In 2004, the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation took matters in its hands and decided to try and restore the monument to its original glory. They signed an agreement with Jal Mahal Resorts, granting it a 99-year lease to develop 100 acres along the Man Sagar Lake (in the middle of which Jal Mahal stands) and the palace.[12] The 99-year lease was given out to a business tycoon, Navratan Kothari. For the past 9 years, he has worked on the cleaning of the lake and restoration of the Palace. Now there are many inhabitants of the area and it has created a great job opportunity for the people of Jaipur and Rajasthan. For the future, Navratan plans to build a few hotels around Jal Mahal and make it a very popular tourist destination.

Joint sector project[edit]

Jal Mahal palace in its restored beauty in 2011.

The Lake restoration project of the Man Sagar Lake area with an estimated investment of Rs1.5 billion (considered as one of the largest and unique such projects in India) has evolved a plan that has diverse project components.[1] Consequently, there are many project stakeholders and beneficiaries. The project stake holders are: the Government of Rajasthan and their subordinate organizations such as the Public Works Department (PWD), Rajasthan Urban Development Authority (RUIDP), the Jaipur Development Authority (JDA – the nodal agency for implementation of all aspects of the project), the Department of Tourism, Rajasthan Project Development Fund (RPDF) and the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation (RTDC) and an Empowered Committee on Infrastructure Development (ECID); the Central Government organizations associated for planning and financing are the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOE&F) through its National River Conservation Program (NRCP) and ILFS.[1] The Private Sector Developer (PSD) appointed was M/s KGK Consortium. Under the public–private sector partnership model approved by the EICD, PDCOR had prepared the Detailed Project Report (DPR) for the restoration of Man Sagar Lake, Jal Mahal restoration and lake precincts development. The total project area for restoration and development approved by ECID was 432 acres (175 ha) comprising the lake with 300 acres (120 ha) water spread, the lake precincts area of 100 acres (40 ha), which subsumed 15 acres (6.1 ha) of submerged land) for tourism development under joint sector cooperation and 32 acres (13 ha) for lake promenade and tertiary treatment facility and related works.[13]

The studies indicated two approaches to tackle the environmental degradation that had occurred in the lake, namely, dealing with natural catchment area and concurrently addressing the serious problem of municipal sewerage emerging from large scale urbanisation or human settlement. Keeping this broad planning approach in view, under the lake restoration project, the works undertaken involved were: the re-alignment of city drains, de-silting of the lake, construction of artery road from Amber to Man Sagar Dam (about 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi)), construction of check dam in a 100 metres (330 ft) length with silt removed from the lake, creation of three nesting islands for migratory birds, lake front promenade in1 kilometre (0.62 mi)), afforestation and treatment of forest area portion of lake catchment, plantation to stabilise the slopes of bank formation. Afforestation envisaged plantation of local plant species such as Acacia arabica (desi babool) and Tamarix indica (planting close to the water edge where they can grow well), Terminalia arjuna (arjun) poplar, neem and all species of Ficus, which would provide diversity in vegetation and also better habitat diversity for feeding by birds and wild life.[4][11]

In addition, to remove eutriphication of the lake water and improve its water quality, in-situ Bioremediation process with 140 diffusers & 5 air compressors to aerate and create inversion of the lake bed and stored water was also envisaged. The city sewage, which supplied 7.0 MLD of untreated sewage was treated with Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) and then led to the lake to maintain its water level, after due removal of nutrients through tertiary treatment. This process involved diversion of the Brahampuri Nala into the Nagtalai Nala by a lined channel to its south. This was then lead through a treatment plant on site to generate secondary level effluent, which was then discharged into an artificial wetland through a hyacinth channel. For this purpose, a Physico Chemical Treatment Plant was also envisaged and the effluent from this plant was taken through artificially created wetlands in an area of 4 hectares (9.9 acres)) (not only to treat the water but also to serve as natural habitat for birds) and through this process the entire eco-system is being re-generated. Vegetation generated in this process is disposed in a composite pit near the lake.[4]

It is also reported that about 500,000 cubic metres of silt was removed from the lake. This silt was then put to use for strengthening of embankment and building of islands as wintering grounds for migratory birds.[14]

After the above initial restoration works of the lake and its feeder system were mostly completed by the JDA, during 2003, private sector developers were invited to develop identified tourism components on the land adjoining the lake. After following the due process, a joint sector undertaking called the PDCOR was formed between the JDA of the Rajasthan Government and the consortia of private developers with lead provided by M/s. KGK Enterprises. The project for tourism development was entrusted to this joint group. The tourism project entailed development of Convention Centre and Art Gallery, Multiplex and Entertainment Centre, Craft Bazaar, Arts and Craft Village, Resort Hotels, restaurants and food courts, public park and gardens including responsibility for restoration and maintenance of the Jal Mahal.[1]

Visitor information[edit]

The Jal Mahal palace within the Maan Sagar Lake is accessible from the Jaipur-Delhi National Highway No 8, over a road distance of 4 kilometres (2.5 mi)) from Jaipur. Delhi is a further 273 kilometres (170 mi)) away.[4] Jaipur city being centrally located in Rajasthan, the National Highway No.8 not only links to Delhi but also to Mumbai. NH No.11 is a road link of 366 kilometres (227 mi)) from Bikaner to Agra via Jaipur. The lake is 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)) from Amer palace on the Amber – Man Sagar Dam road to the north. The Jal Mahal palace is not open to visitors.[12][15] But it was open to delegates at large on the occasion of Pravasi Bhartiya Divas held from 7–9 January 2012 in Jaipur with the purpose of attracting investment for the restoration of the palace.

Birds of Man Sagar Lake and its environs[edit]

  S.No. English Name  Scientific Name     
lu 1. Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
l 2. Little Grebe Podiceps ruficollis
l 3. Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus
l 4. Lesser Flamingo Phoenicopterus minor
l 5. Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia
l 6. White Necked Stork Ciconia episcopus
l 7. Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala
lu 8. Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus
lu 9. Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus
l 10. Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
l 11. Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
l 12. Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger  
l 13. Oriental Darter Anhinga rufa   
l 14. Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
l 15. Pond Heron Ardeola grayii
l 16. Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
l 17. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
l 18. Great Egret Ardea alba     
l 19. Median Egret Egretta intermedia
l 20. Small Egret Egretta garzetta   
lu 21. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea   
l 22. Lesser Whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica
lu 23. Wigeon Anas penelope
lu 24. Garganey Anas querquedula
lu 25. Pintail Anas acuta    
lu 26. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
lu 27. Gadwall Anas strepera
lu 28. Shoveler Anas clypeata      
l 29. Spotbill Duck Anas poecilorhyncha
lu 30. Common Teal Anas crecca   
l 31. Cotton Teal Nettapus coromandelianus
lu 32. Redcrested Pochard Netta rufina
lu 33. Common Pochard Aythya ferina  
lu 34. White eyed Pochard Aythya nyroca
lu 35. Tufted Pochard Aythya fuligula      
lu 36. Barheaded Geese Anser indicus
 + 37. Black Shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus  
+ 38. Pariah Kite Milvus migrans    
+ 39. Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus    
+ 40. Shikra Accipiter badius   
+ 41. Eurasian Sparrowhawk    Accipiter nisus
+ 42. Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina   
+ 43. Short toed Eagle Circaetus gallicus
+u 44. Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus  
+u 45. Osprey Pandion haliaetus
+ 46. King Vulture Sarcogyps calvus
+n 47. White Backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis
+n 48. Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus
+u 49.  Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo
+ 50. Laggar Falcon Falco jugger  
+u 51. Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
+ 52. Grey Francolin Francolinus pondicerianus
+ 53. Common Quail Coturnix coturnix  
+ 54. Jungle Bush Quail Perdicula asiatica
+ 55. Common Peafowl Pavo cristatus     
l 56. Brown Crake Amaurornis akool
l  57. White breasted Amaurornis Phoenicurus
l 58. Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus  
lu 59. Common Coot Fulica atra     
l 60. Pheasant tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus 
l 61. Bronze winged Jacana Metopidius indicus   
#u 62. Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago   
# 63. Painted Snipe Rostratula benghalensis
ul 64. Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta
# 65. Black winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus
# 66. Red wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus  
#u 67. White tailed Lapwing Vanellus leucurus‘   
# 68. Little ringed Plover Charadrius dubius‘   
#u 69. Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus
#u 70. Common Redshank Tringa totanus‘    
#u 71. Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia‘  
#u 72. Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis
#u 73. Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola‘    
#u 74. Common Sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos‘   
#u 75. Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus‘  
#u 76. Little Stint Calidris minuta‘    
#u 77. Temminck’s Stint Calidris temminckii‘ 
#u  78.  Dunlin Calidris alpina
#u 79. Ruff Philomachus pugnax
#u 80. Black tailed Godwit Limosa limosa‘    
+u 81. Herring Gull Larus argentatus‘ 
+u 82. Brown headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus
+u 83. Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus‘ 
+ 84. Indian River Tern Sterna aurantia‘   
+   85.   Little Tern Sterna albifrons‘  
+u 86.  Gull billed Gelochelidon nilotica
+ 87. Green Pigeon Treron phoenicoptera
  + 88. Blue Rock Pigeon Columbia livia‘     
  + 89. Ring Dove Streptopelia decaocto
  + 90. Red turtle Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica
  + 91. Little Brown Dove Streptopelia senegalensis
  + 92. Rose ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri‘   
  + 93. Plum headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala
  + 94. Koel Eudynamys scolopacea
  + 95. Common Hawk Cuckoo Cuculus varius‘    
+ 96. Pied Crested Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus
  + 97. Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis‘ 
  + 98. Spotted Owlet Athene brama‘     
+ 99. Indian Jungle Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus
  + 100. House Swift Apus affinis‘  
+ 101. Palm Swift Cypsiurus parvus
  + 102. Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis‘  
  + 103. Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
  +  104. White breasted Halcyon smyrnensis
+ 105. Blue tailed Bee-eater Merops philppinus‘   
+ 106. Blue cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus‘ 
  + 107. Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis‘ 
  + 108. Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis
  + 109. Common Hoopoe Upupa epops
+ 110. Common Grey Hornbill Tocus birostris‘   
  + 111. Coppersmith Barbet Megalaima haemacephala
  +.  112   Black rumped Dinopium benghalense
+ 113. Yellow crowned  
  + 114. Plain Martin Riparia paludicola
+  115.   Sand Martin     Riparia riparia
  + 116. Dusky crag Martin Hirundo concolor‘ 
  + 117. Wire tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii‘    
  + 118. Red rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica‘   
  + 119. Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis‘ 
  + 120. Bay backed Shrike Lanius vittatus‘    
  +  121.   Long tailed Shrike    Lanius schach
+ 122. Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus‘    
  + 123. Black Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis‘   
  + 124. White bellied Drongo Dicrurus caerulescens
  + 125.   Large Cuckooshrike Coracina macei
  + 126. Common Woodshrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus
  + 127. Brahminy Starling Sturnus pagodarum‘ 
  + 128. Pied Starling Sturnus contra‘    
  +u 129. Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus‘   
  +u 130. Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris‘  
  + 131. Common Myna Acridotheres tristis‘  
  + 132. Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus
  + 133. Indian Tree-pie Dendrocitta vagabunda
  + 134. House Crow Corvus splendens‘   
+ 135. Indian Pitta Pitta brachyura‘   
+ 136. Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
+ 137. White bellied Minivet Pericrocotus erythropygius
  + 138. Common Iora Aegithina tiphia‘   
  + 139. Redvented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer
+ 140. White cheeked Bulbul Pycnonotus leucotis
  + 141. Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus‘ 
  + 142. Large Grey Babbler Turdoides malcolmi‘ 
  + 143. Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus‘   
+ 144. Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi
  +u 145. Red breasted Flycatcher Muscicapa parva
  +u 146. Grey headed Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis
  + 147. White browed Fantail Rhipidura aureola
+ 148. Grey breasted Prinia Prinia hodgsonii‘  
+  149.   Rufous fronted Prinia Prinia   buchanani
  + 150. Ashy Prinia Prinia socialis‘     
  + 151. Plain Prinia Prinia subflava‘    
  + 152. Oriental White eye Zosterops palpebrosus
  + 153. Common Tailor Bird Orthotomus sutorius
  +u 154. Lesser White throat Sylvia curruca‘     
  +u 155. Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita
  + 156. Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata
  + 157. Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis‘ 
  +u 158. Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros
  + 159. Brown Rock Chat Cercomela fusca‘ 
  +u 160. Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata‘ 
  +u 161. Common Stonechat Saxicola torquata
+u 162. Orange headed Thrush Zoothera citrina‘   
  +u 163. Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava‘     
  +u 164. Yellow headed Wagtail Motacilla citreola‘ 
  +u 165. Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea‘ 
  +u 166. White Wagtail Motacilla alba‘     
  + 167. Large pied Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis
  +u 168. Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris‘  
  +u  169. Indian Tree-Pipit Anthus trivialis‘    
  +u  170.   Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus
+ 171. Rufous tailed Lark Ammomanes phoenicurus
  + 172. Oriental Sky Lark Alauda gulgula‘    
  + 173. Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica‘  
  + 174. Grey Tit Parus major‘  
  + 175. House Sparrow Passer domesticus‘ 
  + 176. Chestnut shouldered Petronia xanthocollis
+ 177. Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus‘ 
+ 178. White rumped Munia Lonchura striata‘  
  + 179. Indian Silverbill Lonchura malabarica
+  180.  Crested Bunting Melophus lathami
 Source: "Birds of Man Sagar Lake". Tourism and Wildlife Society of India. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
l  Observed in water                       #   Observed at water edges
u Observed in winter (migratory)    +  Observed on land/tree/telephone pole/flying
 Observed occasionally          n  Not seen for past five years.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b c d "Innovation Report: Jal Mahal Tourism Project" (pdf). IL&FS. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Mansagar Lake". Rainwater Harvesting.org. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Lake Restoration toward Creating Tourism Infrastructure". Indian Institute of Science: Seminar Proceedings. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
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