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|Nickname(s): City of Steel, City of Seed|
|• Type||Nagar Palika (Municipality)|
|• M.L.A. of Maharashtra||Arjun Khotkar|
|Elevation||489 m (1,604 ft)|
|• Official||Hindi, English, Marathi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||MH 21|
Jalna pronunciation (help·info) is a city and a municipal council in Jalna district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Jalna city was formerly a part of Hyderabad State as a tehsil of Aurangabad district, before Jalna district was formed on 1 May 1981. Jalna city is the premier commercial centre of the Marathwada region and is also the headquarters of the tehsil & district to which it gives its name.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Transport
- 6 Industry
- 7 Education
- 8 Nearby Hindu temples and shrines
- 9 Holy places of Jainism
- 10 Islamic sites
- 11 Sufi saints of Jalna
- 12 Jalna Fort
- 13 Reservoirs
- 14 Shopping and eating out
- 15 Other attractions in or near Jalna
- 16 Localities in Jalna city
- 17 Jalna, the novel
- 18 See also
- 19 References
|This section does not cite any sources. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Legend dates the foundation of the town as far back as the time of Rama of the Ramayana, whose consort Sita is supposed to have resided here. The locals still point out the place where Rama's palace stood. Acting on the desire of a wealthy Muslim merchant, who is said to have been a great benefactor of the place, it was named Jalna, from his occupation of Julaha or weaver.
Jalna has had frequent changes of masters. During Akbar's time Jalna was held as a jagir by one of his generals, and Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak made it his residence for a short period. Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asif Jah I also favoured the town as being healthier than others. For a long time it was held by a dependent of the Shinde clan. Shortly after the battle of Udgir in 1760, a rival claimant from Pune endeavoured to seize it. Colonel James Stevenson's troops took possession of it in 1803, in the Battle of Assaye. Assaye was a village in Jafrabad tehsil on the river Juah located around 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of Bhokardan. Afterwards it finally reverted to the Nizam of Hyderabad.
Jalna is located at  It has an average elevation of 489 metres (1604 feet), it is situated on the banks of the Kundalika River. Jalna district covers an area of 7,612 square kilometres (2,939 sq mi), which is 2.47% of the total area of Maharashtra state. Jalna is situated approximately at the center of the state, in the northern part of Marathwada region..
|Climate data for Jalna|
|Average high °C (°F)||29
|Average low °C (°F)||10
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||1.8
|Source: Jalna Weather|
As of 2001[update] India census, Jalna had a population of 235,529. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Jalna has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 71%, and female literacy is 57%. In Jalna 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Jalna is primarily connected with the rest of India by railway and road.
Jalna (Station Code: J) is a station located on the Secunderabad-Manmad Line of the newly created Nanded Division (NED) of South Central Railway (SCR). Formerly, it had been a part of Hyderabad Division (HYB), before divisional adjustments in 2003, which saw HYB's bifurcation. Jalna is well-connected by rail with the rest of Maharashtra - Mumbai, Nasik, Pune, Manmad, Daund, Aurangabad, Nanded, Parbhani, Parli Vaijnath, Latur, Osmanabad, Gangakhed, Mudkhed, and Nagpur; with Andhra Pradesh - Adilabad, Basar, Nizamabad, Mahbubnagar, Kachiguda, Kurnool, Kadapa, Renigunta, Tirupati; and with Tamil Nadu - Katpadi, Erode, and Madurai. The Marathwada Express, which travels between Manmad, in western Maharashtra, and Dharmabad, in the east, is the most prestigious train passing through this station.
Jalna is connected to major towns of the state by state highways. Road connectivity is excellent, roads connecting to Aurangabad, Pune, Ahmednagar, Nagpur, Beed, Mumbai having been upgraded to four-lane highways. A New Nagpur-Aurangabad-Mumbai highway, passing through Jalna, is being developed.
The first cotton-ginning & oil-pressing factory was established in the year 1863 by Mr. Pestonji Meherwanji, a wealthy Merchant belonging to the Jalnawalla family. The Jalnawallas owned 6,400 acres (2,600 ha) of land and 17 cotton-ginning & oil-pressing factories in Nizam State.
In 1889 a cotton-spinning and weaving mill was erected in Aurangabad city, which employed 700 people. With the opening of the Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railways in the year 1900, several ginning factories were started. In Jalna alone, there were 9 cotton-ginning factories and 5 cotton presses, besides two ginning factories at Aurangabad and Kannad, and one oil press at Aurangabad. The total number of people employed in the cotton presses and ginning factories in the year 1901 was 1,016.
The cotton market of Jalna is well known in the surrounding area.
In accordance with plans of Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC), an industrial area has been set up in Jalna, consisting of large-, medium-, and small-scale industries. This Jalna Industrial Area has a large number of steel rolling mills, including Rajuri Steel; NRB Bearing, a ball-bearing manufacturer; Lakshimi Finance & Industrial, Ltd., of Hyderabad; a unit manufacturing construction bars with the brand name POLAAD; agro-based units, like dal mills; and, most significantly, a large number of seed manufacturing units - Mahyco, Mahindra, and Bejo-Sheetal being some of them. The MIDC has recently announced plans to set up a biotechnology park (BT Park) at Jalna, with the help of the private sector. This park will give a tremendous boost to the biotech sector in the backward areas of Marathwada.
Jalna is one of the renowned educational centres in Maharashtra.
Colleges and universities
- Agricultural College; Badnapur, Jalna
- Badrinarayana Barwala Mahavidyalaya (Junior & Senior College), Jalna
- D. J. P. (Dharati Janseva Pratishthan) College of Engineering & Technology, Jalna
- D. J. P. I.T.I. (Industrial Training Institute), Jalna
- D. J. P. Polytechnic College; Rohanwadi, Jalna
- Government Ayurvedic College & Hospital, Jalna
- Government D. Ed. (Education) College; Old Jalna, Jalna
- Government I. T. I., Jalna
- Government Polytechnic College, Jalna
- Gujrati Mahavidyalaya, Jalna
- Guru Mishri Homeopathic College; Selgaon, Jalna
- Jalna College of B.B.A., Jalna
- J. E. S. (Jalna Education Society): R. G. Bagdia Arts, S. B. Lakhotia Commerce, and R. Bezonji Science colleges, Jalna
- J. E. S. College of Pharmacy, Jalna
- Marathi Kanyapath Shala (University)
- M. S. S. (Matsyodari Shikshan Sanstha's) College of Arts, Commerce & Science, Jalna
- M. S. S. College of Engineering & Technology, Jalna
- M. S. S. D.Ed. (Education) College, Jalna
- M. S. S. Law College, Jalna
- National D.Ed. (Education) College; National Nagar, Jalna
- Rashtramata Indira Gandhi College, Jalna
- R. H. V. Hindi Mahavidyalaya, Jalna
- S. B. (Saraswati Bhuvan) College of Science & Arts, Jalna
Primary and secondary schools
- Allama Iqbal Urdu High School; Dukhi Nagar, Jalna
- C. T. M. K. High School, Jalna
- Chaitaly Multimedia High School, Jalna
- Golden Jubilee High School (C.B.S.E.), Jalna
- Jain High School, Jalna
- Multi-Purpose Urdu High School, Jalna
- Oxford English High School, Kharat Nagar, Jalna
- Podar International School (C.B.S.E.); Shivaji Statue, Jalna
- R. H. V. High School, Jalna
- Ryan International School (C.B.S.E.), Jalna
- S. B. High School; Town Hall, Jalna
- St. John's High School & Junior College, Jalna
- St. Mary's High School, Jalna
- Smt. D.H.K.V. School, Jalna.
- Shaheed Bhagat Singh High School, Daregaon
- Shri M. S. Jain English School, Jalna
- B. P. Ugale English School, Jalna
- Urdu High School & Junior College; Itawara, Jalna
Nearby Hindu temples and shrines
Shri Anandi Swami Mandir, Old Jalna
This temple is 250 years old and was built by the Maratha warrior Mahadaji Shinde, on the place where Shri Sant Anand Swami attained Samadhi in Old Jalna. On each Ashadhi Ekadashi a fair attracting large numbers of people takes place.
Mamma Devi Mandir, Old Jalna
Yogeshwari Devi Temple, Old Jalna
The temple of Yogeshwari Devi is in Yogeshwari Nagar, Old Jalna. This temple was built by Shri Ganpatrao Agnihotri in 1990. Kirtan, Bhajan and other holy rituals are performed daily. Many people come for Darshan, especially in Navratri. A prasad takes place every year.
Holy places of Jainism
Guru Ganesh Bhavan at Jalna
Guru Ganesh Bhavan is an important holy place of the Jain people in Jalna city. Guru Ganesh is also known as Karnatak Kesari. The Jain trust 'Shri Vardhaman Sthankwasi Jain Shravak Sangh' is looking after the development of this holy place. This trust also operates other institutions, viz. schools, a school for the blind, a library and a gaushala (cattle shelter). The guashala is the largest one in the whole Marathwada region.
The Jumma Masjid
The Jumma masjid at Jalna, also known as the Kali Masjid, built by Jamshed Khan in AD 1557, is rectangular in form, closed on three sides and with an arcade in front. The masjid has a verandah, with a sloping terraced roof resting on three pointed arches. The corners of the roof of the main structure carry little fluted domes, and the masjid contains some perforated stone-work. The principal dome is ornamented at the base and top with lotus leaves, and has the elegant form and slender spire of the Mughal style. A cistern is inside a paved courtyard; and the surrounding wall has a platform all round, with pointed arched recesses on the outside.
Dargahs of Shah Nasir-ud-din and Shah Latif Kadari
Dargah of Zacha and Bacha
The dargah of Zacha and Bacha at Jalna bears a strong resemblance to the tombs of the Pathan kings at old Delhi. (According to a legend at Jalna, a female was pursued by a mad elephant; and, finding no shelter all round, prayed to be buried in the earth. Her prayer was answered, and this tomb was built over the spot to commemorate the event.) It consists of a square apartment, surrounded by a narrow verandah. Each face has three pointed arches supported on square columns; and a projecting string course above is succeeded by seven little rectangular recesses surmounted by pointed arches. A neat cornice comes next, and a parapet wall runs all round. A second parapet wall runs at a higher level, round the face walls of the main building; and an octagonal tower, covered with a small horse-shoe dome, is at each angle. The principal dome is ornamented with lotus leaves, etc., at the base; and the summit is crowned with a drum. The face walls of the main building have windows at the sides, filled in with perforated stonework.
Dargah of Nur Shah Wali
Nur Shah Wali's dargah at Jalna has a dome of the usual Indo-Saracenic style. The faces of the walls on the outside are divided into two stories by a plain horizontal band; and each storey is again sub-divided vertically into three compartments, by pilasters which rise above the projecting cornice, and form small minarets. The compartments of the lower storey on three sides contain recesses covered by scalloped arches, while the upper storey has small windows corresponding to them. The door of the dargah is on the fourth side, and has a verandah in front, supported on four wooden pillars, molded at top and bottom. The corners carry minarets which are higher than the intermediate ones; and an ornamental railing is between them. The lower part of the dome is adorned with a circular band of petals, and the upper bears an elegant spire. Nur Shah Wali flourished in the reign of Aurangzeb. His dargah is said to have been erected by one of his Hindu disciples; but probably it was only reconstructed.
Sufi saints of Jalna
The ashaba, which has two large iron cauldrons, contains the grave of Mohammed Ibrahim. There are many other graves in the vicinity, and the place has been used for a long time by the Muslims as a burial ground.
Sher Sawar and Raja Bagh Sawar
A tekri, or mound, with a deep well attached to it, is found not far from the ashaba. The mound is now surmounted by a dome which covers the remains of Shaikh Ahmad, surnamed "Sher Sawar" or the "lion-mounted." The attendant khadim makes him contemporary with Abdul-Qadir Gilani (died 561 AH). The dome is only a chilla, or cenotaph, and the body was buried elsewhere.
The ashaba also contains the grave of Raja Bagh Sawar, a contemporary of Jan Allah. Raja Bagh Sawar is said to have visited Nirgun Shah Wali, seated on a lion. A pilu tree with an enormous trunk is found growing to the south-west, within the precincts of the cemetery.
Tuttu Sodagar and others
Tuttu Sodagar was a wealthy merchant of Surat and a Bohra by caste. He built the Tuttu Darwaza (gate) of Jalna in 1126 AH. He died near the Ambad Gate, on his way back from Rakisbon, and was buried near the mosque which he built. There were six other rich Mussalmans in Jalna; in former days Jalna was noted for its wealth. According to an old Urdu proverb, "the children in Jalna were lulled to sleep in cradles of gold.” Malis and poor people offer fruit to Pir Ghaib Sahib's tomb in front of the Tuttu Darwaza.
Similar presents are made to the dargah of Dervash Shah Awaz on the Aurangabad road, especially by the dhobis, to preserve the clothes in the bhattis from getting burnt. The inhabitants of Jalna pray for worldly success at Shah Shumli's tomb. Mothers offer supplications at Pir Darbari's tomb, so that their children may attend durbars, or become courtiers. Shah Mauik's tomb is in the churi mohulla of Jalna, where glass bangles are manufactured and sold. Shah Shubli had his residence in the manek chowk, and was a follower of Abu Bakr Shibli, a renowned mystic sheikh of Baghdad. Musi Makai possessed a valuable library, and was buried in the ashaba to the north of Jalna.
Jamshed Khan and others
Jamshed Khan was a Sufi and the governor during Malik Ambar's time. He also constructed a large water reservoir system at Jalna, and laid down pipes and reservoirs for the water supply of the city. Jamshad Khan flourished in the 10th century of the Hijri. He was buried in his garden to the north of Jalna. The farmers sacrifice to his tomb, so that their crops may not suffer.
A masjid at Georahi, not far from Jalna, is frequented by Hindus and Muslims alike, as it is believed to possess powers of divination. A saint Rafi-ud-Din is said to have possessed similar powers, and his masjid has a waqf, or pious legacy, of 200 bighas of land, granted by Aurangzeb. Bahar Khan was a religious man that came from Bidar to Ranjani in the 8th century of the Hijri. A mosque beyond Ranjani was built by his wife Ayisha Bi; and near it is the dargah of Latif Shah Aulia. Gudar Shah Wali arrived in Aurangzeb's time; he erected a mosque.
Jan Allah Shahi
A sect founded at Jalna by Jan Mohammed, who was born at Sinnur near Delhi in 1030 AH. He was early left an orphan, and started with his brother for Baghdad. On completing his studies, he was instructed at the tomb of Abdul Kadar Jilani to proceed to the great spiritualist Miranji of Burhanpur. After studying with Miranji for five years, Jan Mohammed's name was changed, in open congregation, to Jan Allah (Life of God), and that of his brother to Bab Allah (Door of God). In 1046 AH he started for Mecca, accompanied by the ancestors of the present khadims; and, on his journey, was assisted by the Jinns.
After an absence of twelve years, Jan Allah was instructed to proceed to Jalna, which he did by way of Baghdad. On arriving at Aurangabad, he occupied a chamber on the left of the Jumma Masjid of Malik Ambar. He stayed quite a recluse, performing the Sunnat (optional prayers) in his own room, and only the Fard (required prayers) in the mosque. His sanctity became known, and he was invited to Jalna by Haji Bur Khurdar, the faujdar. Aurangzeb also wished to see him and went for that purpose to the Jumma Masjid, and even to the hujra, or reception room, but did not succeed in his object. A copy of a letter is still shown, which is said to have been written to Jan Allah by order of Aurangzeb. The emperor next sent his vizier; but, before the latter could come, Jan Allah and his brother had quietly gone away to Mungi Paithan, and thence proceeded, with Abdur Rahman, the deputy faujdar, to Jalna. Aurangzeb then sent Prince Muazzam to Jalna; and the saint received the prince kindly in a small dwelling in a mango grove where Jan Allah's tomb has since been erected. It was on this occasion that Jan Allah received a sanad for five hundred bighas of land near Jalnapur, where Kadrabad and the cantonment now stand.
Nirgun Shah Wali
Nirgun Shah Wali came from Bengal, and lived as a recluse at Nidhara, two miles north of Jalna. His principle was, "retirement from the eyes of the world, and cessation from seeking the honor and respect of any one." When Aurangzeb was at Jalna, he is said to have visited Nirgun Shah Wali. Many others called to see him, including Jan Allah, Bab Allah, and Raja Bagh Sawar; and Nirgun received them, seated on a stone which is still pointed out. He also paid return visits, and took with him a starling (myna), which was always his companion and was able to talk.
Nizam ul Mulk Asaf Jah favoured the town as being healthier than Aurangabad, and it was he who ordered Kabil Khan in 1725 to build the fort, together with citadel, situated east of the town. The fort is quadrangular in shape, with semi-circular bastions at the corners. It is reported that the inner and the outer gates were constructed by Asaf Jah himself in 1711 and 1723, respectively. The citadel bears a Persian inscription recording the date when it was constructed. Within the citadel is a large well containing a series of galleries and chambers.
The citadel now houses the municipal offices. The neighbourhood is today known as Mastgad.
Jalna was also surrounded by a mud and brick wall but it is all in ruins except two gates, known as the Murti Darwaza and the Hyderabad Gate.
Jamshed Khan - who built the Kali Masjid, inside the Mecca gate, together with the hamam, or bathhouse, and the sarai - also constructed the Moti Talab, a reservoir lake west of the town. A system of underground pipes conveyed water to reservoirs in the town, the largest of which is in the quadrangle of the Kali Masjid sarai. This system is no longer in working order. When the city was at the height of its prosperity, there were five reservoirs. A garden was also constructed on the banks of the talab known as Moti Bagh.
The Gahnewadi Talab was built and constructed by Mr. Bezonji Faridoonji Jalnawalla in the years 1924 to 1931. Mr. Benzonji, in whose honour the Jalna municipality named a road, was a great patron of Jalna. He contracted for the building of the Ghanewadi lake; and he spent rupees two lakhs from his own pocket, so that the people of Jalna would have enough water for the city. He was a great philanthropist; and, from the accounts available with the firm Pestonji Meherwanji & Co., it is known that, up until the year 1949, Jalnawalla had spent about nine lakh rupees on various charity projects in Jalna. The talab is the only lake that has provided drinking water to the whole of Jalna city until now, but it's in very bad condition. That people around the lake repurpose the catch basin for agriculture, and that the local municipal council does not look after the lake, are the main reasons behind the lakes current condition.
An adjoining hamam, or bathhouse, is interesting on account of the arched roof that covers it. A masjid and accompanying works are of limestone. A Mahommedan kachari, close by, is said to have been built by Jamshed Khan. A large sarai to the west of the masjid had an imposing entrance, but the upper portion has fallen down. The sarai stands on molded stone pillars, and the roof has a pavilion at each corner. A large cistern is in front, in the courtyard. The courtyard measures 62 yards (57 m) by 48 yards (44 m), and is enclosed by a wall which has arched recesses all round for travellers.
Shopping and eating out
Subhash Road in the middle of the city is the place for local clothing stores. The old food market known as Mahatma Phule Market is also located on this road. Subhash Road is the busiest in the city.
Other attractions in or near Jalna
- Ajanta Caves (120 kilometres (75 mi))
- Aurangabad (50 kilometres (31 mi))
- Bilal Masjid
- Dawa Bazar
- Ellora Caves (150 kilometres (93 mi))
- Iron Bridge
- Jindal Supermarket
- Lal Bagh
- Lonar Crater Lake (100 kilometres (62 mi))
- Mondha Mall
- Sailani Baba Dargah
- Saraswati Temple, Kharpudi
- Shri Swami Samarth Mandir, Bhale Nagri
Localities in Jalna city
- Afghan Mohalla
- Ahmad Colony
- Ambad Bes
- Ambad Chaofully
- Ambedkar Nagar, Barwar Galli, Kadrabad
- Anand Nagar
- Anand Swami Galli
- Azad Maidan
- Azad Nagar
- Badi Sadak
- Baid Pura
- Bajaj Nagar
- Barwar Galli, Kadrabad
- Bhagya Nagar
- Bhale Nagar
- Bilal Nagar
- Canought Palace
- Chandan Jhera North
- Chandan Jhera South
- Choudhary Nagar, Manth Road
- Dehedkar Wadi
- Dukhi Nagar
- Dwarka Nagar
- Gandhi Chaman
- Ganpati Galli
- Ghayal Nagar; Behind S. B. High School, Old Jalna
- Gujrat Tea Traders Pvt. Ltd
- Hanuman Chaowk
- Income Tax Colony
- Indira Nagar
- Itwara North
- Itwara South
- JPC Bank Colony, Ram Nagar
- K. G. N. Chowk (Aurangabad Chaufully)
- Kacheri Road
- Kali Kurti
- Kali Masjid
- Kanhayya Nagar Central
- Kanhayya Nagar East
- Kanhayya Nagar West
- Kuchchar Watta
- Lakkad Kot
- M. I. D. C. Daregao
- M. I. D. C. Nagewadi
- M. I. D. C. New
- M. I. D. C. Old
- Mahada Colony, Mantha Road
- Mahavir Chaowk
- Mahyco Colony
- Malacha Ganpati (Maal ka Ganpati)
- Mali Pura
- Mama Chaowk
- Maniyar Galli
- Mantha Chaofully
- Modi Khana
- Moti Bagh
- Mukteshwar Dwar
- Nariman Nagar
- National Nagar
- New Mondha
- Nilam Nagar, Nehru Road
- Nilkand Nagar
- Nutan Wasahat
- Old Mondha
- Pani Bes
- Penshan Pura
- Police Colony
- Prashanti Nagar
- Priyanka Residency (Mantha Chaufully)
- Rahman Ganj
- Railway Colony
- Ram Nagar
- Ram Tirth
- Raut Nagar
- S. T. Workshop
- Sadar Bazar
- Sambhaji Nagar
- Sanjay Nagar
- Shani Mandir
- Shantinath Nagar
- Shiv Nagar
- Shivaji Nagar
- Shivaji Putla
- Subhash Road
- Sundar Nagar
- Tanga Stand
- Tattu Pura
- Telephone Colony
- Tipusultan Chaowk
- Town Hall
- Varandavan Colony
- Vikas Nagar
- Zafar Khan Chali
Jalna, the novel
The city's name was used by Canadian author Mazo de la Roche for the title of her novel Jalna, first in a series of 16 popular books of the 20th century. Named after the city, Jalna is the name of a fictional manor house built in the 1850s in southern Ontario by a retired officer of the British army who had served in India. The book series sold some 12 million copies, and was adapted for stage, radio, film, and television.
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