Jalud

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Jalud
Other transcription(s)
 • Arabic ﺎﻟﻭﺩ
Jalud is located in the Palestinian territories
Jalud
Jalud
Location of Jalud within the Palestinian territories
Coordinates: 32°4′16″N 35°18′47″E / 32.07111°N 35.31306°E / 32.07111; 35.31306Coordinates: 32°4′16″N 35°18′47″E / 32.07111°N 35.31306°E / 32.07111; 35.31306
Palestine grid 179/164
Governorate Nablus
Government
 • Type Village council
 • Head of Municipality Abdullah Tawfiq
Area
 • Jurisdiction 16,517 dunams (16.5 km2 or 6.4 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 • Jurisdiction 464
Name meaning from personal name[1]

Jalud (Arabic: ﺎﻟﻭﺩ‎‎) is a Palestinian village in the Nablus Governorate in the northern West Bank. It is approximately 30 kilometers (19 mi) south of Nablus and is situated just east of Qaryut, south of Qusra and northeast of Shilo, an Israeli settlement. Its land area consists of 16,517 dunams (square kilometers), 98 of which constitutes its built-up area.[2] Jalud is encircled by four illegal outposts: Esh Kodesh, Adi Ad, Ahiya and Shvut Rachel.[3] Jalud residents were blocked by both IDF forces and settlers from tending most of their farms from 2001 to 2007. In 2007 permission was given to farm their groves, twice a year for a few days, on condition that prior coordinating arrangements are made with the IDF.[3]

History[edit]

Potsherds from Iron Age II, Hellenistic, Byzantine, Umayyad, Crusader/Ayyubid and Mamluk eras have been found here.[4]

Graves, excavated by Clermont-Ganneau in the early 1870s

Clermont-Ganneau noted several rock-hewn tombs SSW of the village. One he excavated had three arcosolia, and a fully working stone door.[5]

Ottoman era[edit]

Potsherds from the early Ottoman era has been found here.[4] In 1596, Jalud appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being a village in the nahiya of Jabal Qubal in the liwa of Nablus. It had a population of 20 households, all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax rate of 33,3 % on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, summer crops, olive trees, goats and beehives; a total of 22,070 akçe. All of the revenues went to a waqf.[6]

In 1870 French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village, which he found to have about 300 inhabitants.[7] In the 1882, Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine, (SWP), described Jalud as "a small village on low ground, with olives to the south".[8]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Jalud had a population of 145, all Muslims,[9] increasing in the 1931 census to 225, still all Muslim, in 52 houses.[10]

In 1945 the population had increased to 300 Muslims,[11] while the total land area was 15,815 dunams, according to an official land and population survey.[12] Of this, 457 dunams were allocated for plantations and irrigable land, 6,838 for cereals,[13] while 24 dunams were classified as built-up areas.[14]

1948-1967[edit]

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Jalud came under Jordanian rule.

Post-1967[edit]

After the Six-Day War in 1967, Jalud has been under Israeli occupation.

In 2007, Jalud's population was 464 according to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). There were 91 non-residential buildings, 94 houses and five business establishments in the village. The average household size was 5.5 persons.[15] According to Jalud's mayor, the village experiences high unemployment and migration due to land confiscation by Israel and sporadic violence from nearby Israeli settlements,[16] which for 10 years has impeded villagers' access to their groves.[17]

  • On 9 February 2011, Israeli settlers from Ahiya, a nearby settlement outpost, attacked Jalud, demanding residents evacuate their houses. Israeli police arrived following clashes between the settlers and Palestinian residents, dispersing the former using tear gas and stun grenades.[16]
  • On October 21, 2011, while international activists and Combatants for Peace assisted the Jalud villagers in reclaiming their harvests, a group of 4 armed and masked men from Esh Kodesh a satellite outpost confronted them yelling that they must get off what the group asserted was outpost land. They then threw a stun grenade and fired in the direction of the harvesters, some of whom were then clubbed. According to the testimony of Israeli eyewitnesses, the IDF and Border Police present did not intervene, other than to fire more tear gas grenades at the harvesters and wounded. A formal complaint was laid. Follow-up checks by the Israeli NGO Yesh Din over several months indicate that a police investigation is "ongoing".[17]
  • On 9 October 2013, Israeli arsonists, apparently from the nearby outposts, intruded into the Jalud elementary school, hurled rocks and damaged 5 cars belonging to the teaching body. They then set fire to the village's olive groves, damaging some 400 trees. A settler website vindicated the attack as a reprisal for the dismantlement of another illegal outpost, Givat Geulat Zion, carried out by the IDF that morning. Three youths from Adi Ad were subsequently arrested on suspicion of involvement, but local Palestinian eyewitnesses have stated that the assailants, some 20, did not appear to be minors.[3]
  • In 2017, Fawzi Ibrahim reported waited two months for getting access to his lands, and then having only 2 days to plow and plant. Muhammad Muqbil reported that he had olive trees stolen by settlers, and needed help from Rabbis for Human Rights to get access to his lands.[18][19]

Olive groves[edit]

In her 2009 publication entitled Tree Flags, legal scholar and ethnographer, Irus Braverman, describes how Palestinians identify olive groves as "their symbol of their longtime agricultural connection to the land."[20]:1[21][22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 253
  2. ^ Land confiscated for settlement protection Qarut and Jalud Villages. Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem. 2006-08-26. Retrieved on 2012-02-21.
  3. ^ a b c Amira Hass, 'Israelis attack school in Palestinian village, torch olive groves,' at Haaretz 10 October 2013
  4. ^ a b Finkelstein et. al., 1997, pp. 665-666
  5. ^ Clermont-Ganneau, 1896, p. 304
  6. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 137.
  7. ^ Guérin, 1875, p. 19
  8. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 386
  9. ^ Barron, 1923, Table IX, p. 25
  10. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 62
  11. ^ Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 18
  12. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 60
  13. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 106
  14. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 156
  15. ^ 2007 PCBS census Archived 2010-12-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). 2008. Retrieved on 2012-02-21.
  16. ^ a b Armed settlers attack West Bank village. Ma'an News Agency. 2011-02-09. Retrieved on 2012-02-21.
  17. ^ a b Amira Hass, 'Eight months after bloody olive harvest battle, still no justice in sight,' at Haaretz, 22 August 2012.
  18. ^ Small farmers struggle worldwide, but Palestinian farmers really have it rough, Anne-Marie O'Connor, 21 March 2017, The Washington Post
  19. ^ A shadowy edict of Israeli occupation, Amira Hass, Feb. 15, 2017, Haaretz
  20. ^ Planted Flags: Trees, Land, and Law in Israel/Palestine (PDF). Yale Agrarian Studies Colloquium. Buffalo, New York. 28 September 2010. p. 54. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  21. ^ Staton, Bethan (21 January 2015). "The deep roots of the Palestine-Israel conflict: Palestinians have tended olive groves for decades, but Israelis are staking a claim by planting their own trees". Israel/Palestine. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  22. ^ Braverman, Irus (2009). Planted Flags: Trees, Land, and Law in Israel/Palestine. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052176002X. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]