Jamaican cuisine includes a mixture of cooking techniques, flavours and spices influenced by Amerindian, African, Irish, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Indian, Chinese and Middle Eastern people who have inhabited the island. It is also influenced by the crops introduced into the island from tropical Southeast Asia, many of which are now grown locally. A wide variety of seafood, tropical fruits and meats are available.
Some Jamaican dishes are variations on cuisines brought to the island from elsewhere. These are often modified to incorporate local produce and spices. Others are novel or fusion and have developed locally. Popular Jamaican dishes include curry goat, fried dumplings, ackee and saltfish. Jamaican patties along with various pastries, breads and beverages are also popular.
Jamaican cuisine has spread with emigrants, especially during the 20th century, from the island to other nations as Jamaicans have sought economic opportunities in other countries.
Development of the cuisine
African cuisine developed on the island as a result of waves of slavery, such as callaloo from the Angolan dish calulu. The fruit of the most popular Jamaican dish, ackee, was also brought to the Island by West African peoples. The Spanish, the first European arrivals to the island, contributed dishes such as the vinegary escovitch fish (Spanish escabeche) contributed by Spanish Jews. Later, the Cornish may have influenced the development of the Jamaican patty, a pasty-styled turnover filled with spiced meat. More Chinese and East Indian influences can also be found in Jamaican cuisine like roti and curry goat as a result of indentured labourers who replaced slaves after emancipation brought their own culinary talents (especially curry, which Jamaican chefs sometimes use to season goat meat for special occasions). Salted codfish was brought by Portuguese Jews who had escaped the inquisition in the 1500s and now used in the national dish ackee and saltfish, but was also a staple for enslaved Africans as a long-lasting, affordable protein.
Jamaican cuisine and the Rastafarians
Jamaican cuisine includes Rastafarian influences but not entirely. Rastafarians have a vegetarian approach to preparing food, cooking, and eating, and have introduced a host of unique vegetarian dishes to the Jamaican cuisine. Rastafarians do not eat pork. However, pork is a very popular dish in Jamaica. Stew pork and jerk pork are some of the most popular ways to prepare it. There are even some who believe in cooking with little or no salt, which is referred to as the 'Ital' way.
A Jamaican breakfast includes ackee and saltfish, seasoned callaloo, boiled green bananas, and fried dumplings.
- Beef soup
- Chicken soup
- Corn soup
- Cow heel soup
- Fish tea
- Gungo peas soup
- Janga soup
- Mannish water
- Pumpkin soup
- Red peas soup
- Split pea soup
- Bok choy
- Breadfruit (boiled, fried or roasted)
- Cooked rice
- Dumplings (boiled or fried)
- Fried plantain
- Fried rice
- Green banana
- Ground provisions
- Macaroni pie
- Potato salad
- Rice and peas
- Seasoned rice - pumpkin or callaloo plus spices
- Stir-fry or steamed vegetables
- Stew peas
- Turned cornmeal
Breads and pastries
- Black cake
- Bulla cake
- Coco bread
- Hard dough bread
- Peg bread
- Rock cake
- Rum cake
- Spiced bun
- Sugar bun
- Bigga and D&G sodas
- Bush tea
- Carrot juice with spices such as nutmeg and vanilla
- Chocolate milk
- D&G Malta
- Fruit juices (cucumber, guava, mango, otaheite apple, pawpaw, pineapple, soursop, etc)
- Ginger beer
- Guinness punch with spices such as nutmeg and vanilla
- Irish moss
- Liqueurs (Sangster's, Tia Maria, etc)
- Pimento dram
- Red Stripe
- Tamarind Fizz
Desserts and sweets
Mango and soursop ice cream are two popular desserts. Jamaican ice cream comes in many flavours like grapenut, rum and raisin and Dragon Stout.
Other popular desserts include batata pudding, cornmeal pudding, cassava pone, gizzada, grater cake, toto, banana fritters, coconut drops, plantain tarts and guava cheese.
Tie A Leaf, or blue drawers is a dish made by combining a starch (usually cornmeal or cassava) with coconut milk, then wrapped and tied in banana leaf before boiling.
Asham is parched corn that is ground and combined with brown sugar.
Tamarind balls are candy made with the sticky flesh of the fruit rolled with brown sugar into round sweet and sour balls. You can also make a spicy version that contains hot pepper in the mix.
Bustamante Backbone, named after the first Prime Minister Alexander Bustamante, is a candy.
Jamaican food abroad
Jamaican cuisine is available throughout North America, the United Kingdom, and other places with a sizeable Jamaican population. In the United States, a large number of restaurants are located throughout New York's boroughs, Atlanta, Fort Lauderdale, Washington DC, Philadelphia, and other metropolitan areas. In Canada, Jamaican restaurants can be found in the Toronto metropolitan area, as well as Vancouver, Montreal, and Ottawa. Jamaican dishes are also featured on the menus of Bahama Breeze, a US-based restaurant chain owned by Darden Restaurants.
Golden Krust Caribbean Bakery & Grill is a chain of about 120 franchised restaurants found throughout the U.S. These restaurants sell Jamaican patties, buns, breads, and other popular Jamaican dishes. They also supply food to several institutions in New York.
- ^ Deborah S. Hartz Authentic Jamaican breakfast Aug 1, 1991 Ocala Star-Banner page 44
- Media related to Cuisine of Jamaica at Wikimedia Commons
- clixlr8.com[permanent dead link] - A Recipe Guide On How To Bake Jamaican Sweet Potato Pudding By Elaine A. Ayre