James Anderson (17 January 1738, FRSE Long Hermiston, Midlothian - 6 August 1809, Garden House, by Madras, India) was a Scottish physician and botanist. 
He was the son of Andrew Anderson, physician in Long Hermiston.
He studied medicine at the  University of Edinburgh. 
He was company surgeon for the
East India Company from 1786 and physician-general in Madras from 1800. 
He wrote about his experiences of culture in the South of India.
Varnish and Tallow-trees in 1791 and Culture of Bastard Cedar Trees on Coast of Coromandel in 1794. He was a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. William Roxburgh (1751–1815) named the genus Andersonia after him.
References [ edit ]
Ray Desmond (1994).
Dictionary of British and Irish Botanists and Horticulturists including Plant Collectors, Flower Painters and Garden Designers. Taylor & Francis and The Natural History Museum (London). ISBN 0-85066-843-3